TECHNICAL PAPER #34
UNDERSTANDING DAIRY PRODUCTION
Dr. John W. Hibbs
Dr. W. G. Whittlestone
Philip D. Flora
Wallace N. Lindskoog
Dr. Paul D. Thompson
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 276-1800,
Fax: (703) 243-1865
Telex: 440192 VITAUI,
Understanding Dairy Production in
[C]1985, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
This paper is one of a series published by Volunteers in
Assistance to provide an introduction to specific
technologies of interest to people in developing countries.
The papers are intended to be used as guidelines to help
people choose technologies that are suitable to their
They are not intended to provide construction or
details. People are
urged to contact VITA or a similar organization
for further information and technical assistance if they
find that a particular technology seems to meet their needs.
The papers in the series were written, reviewed, and
almost entirely by VITA Volunteer technical experts on a
Some 500 volunteers were involved in the production
of the first 100 titles issued, contributing approximately
5,000 hours of their time.
VITA staff included Maria Giannuzzi
as editor, Suzanne Brooks handling typesetting and layout,
Margaret Crouch as project manager.
The author, VITA Volunteer Dr. John W. Hibbs is professor
of the Department of Dairy Science, Ohio State
a specialist in animal nutrition and physiology, Dr. Hibbs
served as an AID/OSU adviser at the Haryana Agricultural
in Hissar, (Haryana) India and as an FAO consultant under
the UNDP at the National Dairy Research Institute in Karnal,
co-author, Dr. W. G. Whittlestone is a professor at
the University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand.
He has published
over 250 papers in the field of lactational physiology,
dairy hygiene, and behavioral studies related to lactation
mothering in farm animals.
The reviewers are also VITA Volunteers.
Philip D. Flora has worked in Bolivia and is currently a
partner of a dairy farm in Indiana.
Wallace N. Lindskoog is a
specialist in Holstein dairy cattle breeding and is the
Lindskoog Hatcheries and Arlinda Holsteins in Turlock,
Dr. Paul D. Thompson is a biomedical electronics engineer.
He has worked with the USDA Agricultural Research Service
specializing in the relationship between machine milking and
bovine mastitis. He
is currently President of the Dairy Equipment
Company in Madison, Wisconsin.
VITA is a private, nonprofit organization that supports
working on technical problems in developing countries.
information and assistance aimed at helping individuals and
groups to select and implement technologies appropriate to
maintains an international Inquiry Service, a
specialized documentation center, and a computerized roster
volunteer technical consultants; manages long-term field
and publishes a variety of technical manuals and papers.
DAIRY PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
By VITA Volunteers
John W. Hibbs and Walter G. Whittlestone
Dairy production in some form exists in most developing
Cattle, water buffalo, goats, and sheep all provide milk
for human consumption in various regions of the world.
countries, however, cattle have been developed primarily as
animals resulting in low genetic potential for milk
Efforts to improve primitive dairy production practices have
undertaken to provide more and better quality milk as a
highly nutritious food for humans, especially growing
Most of these efforts have been in the following areas:
Breeding and selection of cows with higher
and bulls with greater transmitting
ability for higher
Better feeding practices to help cows
produce to their
Provision of a year-round supply of high
digestible) forage through improved forage
and preservation and improved pasturing
Control of infectious and metabolic
diseases, some of
associated with higher levels of milk
Better management of reproductive problems,
calves for herd replacements.
Sound milking practices, which aid in
Adequate housing for extremes in weather
Improved sanitation and cold storage of the product,
when the milk is not consumed soon after
Stabilized, year-round local markets for
which the dairy farmer cannot long survive,
in view of
the high investment required to initiate
Provision of low-interest bank or
which can encourage beginning dairy farmers to
make the initial investment in cattle and
II. DAIRY PRODUCTION
The dairy industries in many industrialized countries have
elaborate facilities in an effort to:
(1) save labor, which
is plentiful and inexpensive in most developing countries;
provide protection for both the cattle and their caretakers
cold in winter; and (3) provide sufficient sanitation and
to ensure the keeping qualities of the product, for
shipping, long shelf life, and manufacturing
should be kept in mind that very elaborate facilities are
always necessary. In
tropical countries, for example, cattle do
not need shelter from cold winters, and areas where milk is
consumed quickly and locally have different storage
Relatively high levels of milk production can be achieved
elaborate facilities, and the dairy operation can be
gradually as economic conditions permit.
Improving dairy production begins with careful attention to
breeding in order to improve native cattle, to feeding
so as to assure good diet year-round, and to the harvesting
preservation of forage.
BREEDING AND SELECTION
While the most rapid progress in increasing productivity can
result from raising or importing purebred European breeds,
breeds are more susceptible to disease and extreme climatic
conditions, and the initial cost is higher.
However, where high
standards of disease control and management of the
are possible, purebred European breed cows can do well in
climates if properly fed.
This point has been demonstrated in
Israel where milk production of Holstein cows rivals that of
most developed countries.
It is also possible to start with cows
of native dairy breeds (mostly Zebus) and grade up the herd
through cross breeding, but this requires more time.
In some developing countries, rapid progress has been made
increasing the milk-producing ability of cows through the
bulls or semen from
European dairy breeds, notably Holstein,
Brown Swiss, Jersey, and Red Dane.
In India, for example, the
offspring from native cows bred to Holstein or Brown Swiss
produced about double the milk per lactation of the native
approximately 3,600 pounds/lactation.
This amount is about the
same as that produced by the Murrah water buffalo.
of the crossbred cows bred to bulls of European breeds have
potential to produce even more, if fed in such a way that
genetic potential can be reached.
Often they are not adequately
fed. Cows possessing
one-fourth to one-half native breed genes
will retain some of the disease resistance of the native
and will be more resistant to heat than purebred cows of the
In view of the wealth of knowledge, gained through extensive
research in all phases of dairying around the world, most
countries would be well-advised to put emphasis on the
application and extension of existing knowledge rather than
repetitious research, at least in the early stages of
This applies not only to breeding but to all phases of
Herd management is a major key in meeting the highest
of milk production for each cow.
Careful management will make
the cow as comfortable as possible and reduce many elements
stress that would adversely affect the animal's production.
Animal health is an important factor.
For all age groups, one
needs to pay attention to a number of health practices.
particular, there should be a good vaccination program for
diseases common to the region (e.g., hoof and mouth,
rabies, etc.) It is
also important to have a regular parasite
control program against internal and external
adversely affect the animal's production and lower its
resistance to disease and infection.
In case of serious illness
or injury, veterinary advice is strongly recommended.
Providing housing or shelter is another step in making it
possible for the animal to reach its potential.
The housing or
shelter can also be used for milking, making it more
comfortable for the owner and cow alike.
There are various setups
available for efficient dairy production.
stanchions (a device that fits loosely around a cow's neck
limits forward and backward motion) and parlors.
For a small
dairy, a simple stall is adequate.
Dairy set-ups such as these
make the milking operation more efficient and also provide
individual attention the animal needs.
Sanitation is the most
important aspect in the milking process:
The milking area and all
utensils (buckets) should be clean.
FEEDING AND NUTRITION
After procuring cows with the genetic ability to produce
quantities of milk, it is important for dairy managers to
a "Production Philosophy of Feeding" as opposed to
the all too
common "Survival Philosophy of Feeding," which
limits intake to
minimum daily requirements.
In warm climates, where some type of edible forage is
all year-round, the common practice is to feed whatever is
that can be cut daily or scavenged by the cows.
is often referred to as "green fodder" and may
vary from high
quality berseem or alfalfa (70 percent digestible dry
often in limited amounts, to mature sorghum, millet, corn,
mustard, etc., depending on the area involved and the season
the year. This
"green fodder" is often mixed with wheat straw
(wheat bhusa), rice straw, and other poorly-digested
and supplemented to some extent with oil cake.
This type of
feeding offers survival but low milk production.
To ensure that cows will produce to their genetic ability, a
uniformly high digestible source of nutrients must be
year-round. In most
situations this will require harvest and
storage of high-quality forage(s) for use when good
fodder" or good pasture is not available.
Research has shown that, when the dry matter digestibility
diet falls below about 67 percent, voluntary feed intake
with declining digestibility.
This decline is associated
with the indigestible residue in the intestinal tract and
slower rate of digestion.
When the digestibility of the diet is maintained above about
percent, digestibility and the rate of digestion no longer
intake, and other factors, including nutritional needs for
govern voluntary intake.
For cows to attain a maximum
voluntary feed intake and produce to their capabilities,
must be fed a highly digestible diet, balanced for protein,
The poorer the quality of the roughage, that is, the lower
digestibility, the more grain concentrate (high in
is needed for adequate feed intake.
Of all the nutritional
factors that influence milk production, digestibility of the
diet, as related to feed intake, is the most critical.
cows are limited in feed intake, they can not reach their
Table 1 clearly illustrates the effect of the stage of
of the forage on protein content, dry matter digestibility,
voluntary intake, fecal dry matter excretion, milk
and the the amount of concentrate, balanced for protein,
to maintain milk production as the forage matures and its
declines. The forage
in this experiment was cut and
chopped daily and fed individually free choice (eat at will)
the Holstein and Jersey cows.
Stage of Maturity of Grass-Legume Forage
on Dry Matter Intake, Digestibility, and Milk Production
Dry Matter Forage
Milk Amount of
Intake Dry Matter
lb body wt.
lb body wt.
May 24 Bud
May 31 Early
June 7 Mid
June 14 Full
June 21 Late
1 Data taken in part from Ohio Farm and Home Research, 46
(May-June 1961): 3, and Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station
914 (June 1962)
2 Fresh chopped forage fed daily free choice with only 3 to
5 pounds of concentrate/day respectively to Jersey and
Data shown are weekly averages.
3 The amount of grain concentrate, balanced for protein,
needed per 1,000 pound cow to have maintained the level of
production on May
17, 42.5 pounds/day.
In a six week period, protein content decreased more than
from 21.9 percent to less than 10.0 percent; dry matter
declined from 67 percent to 56 percent; and voluntary
forage intake fell from 34.4 to 26.3 pounds/day/1,000 pounds
body weight. It is
interesting to note that fecal dry matter
excretion remained nearly constant at about 11.8
pounds body weight.
Thus, as digestibility of the forage
declined, cows were able to eat less and less forage in a
period. However, as
a result of their limited feed intake, milk
yield from these cows declined by 50 percent, from 42.5 to
The Holstein and Jersey cows in this experiment were fed a
concentrate mixture at the daily rate of 5 and 3 pounds,
The last column in Table 1 gives the estimated amount of
grain concentrate, balanced for protein, that would have
necessary to feed in order to have maintained the initial
of milk production of 42.5 pounds/day.
While only 3-5 pounds was
fed at the beginning, 18.2 pounds/1,000 pounds body weight
have been needed six weeks later when the forage had
Thus, the poorer the forage quality, the more concentrate
fed to maintain production.
In hot climates maturity of forages advances even faster and
digestibilities are reached in a shorter time.
It is clear,
therefore, that forages should be harvested in an immature
Legumes (berseen, alfalfa, etc.) should be harvested
in the pre-bloom stage, and grasses in the boot stage
(pre-emergence stage of the head).
The same principle applies
whether the forage is harvested daily; cut, dried, and
hay; cut, wilted, and ensiled; or harvested as rotated
Grain concentrates, including cereal grains, protein
and by-product feeds can be used to supplement the forage to
provide a balanced diet.
The amount and content of the concentrate
will depend on the level of milk production and the quality
(digestibility) of the forage.
FORAGE HARVESTING AND PRESERVATION
In seasons when there is ample sunshine and warm
hay-making is the best method of preserving legume and grass
weather does not permit hay-making without frequent
loss of the crop, silage can be made, after wilting to 35
percent or 45 percent dry matter for best preservation.
is put up wetter than 35 percent dry matter, it may spoil or
of poor quality due to abnormal fermentation.
If much dryer than
45 percent, it may heat in storage to the point where the
is rendered indigestible.
Chopped forages can be made into silage in a number of
pits; (2) stacks covered with plastic to exclude the air;
trenches; (4) bunkers; (5) upright silos, which are more
The most important factors for producing good silage are:
(1) harvesting the forage in an immature stage (legumes in
pre-bloom stage and grasses in the boot stage); (2) chopping
careful packing to help exclude air; and (3) ensiling at the
proper dry matter content--after wilting to 35-45 percent
In hot climates, forages become harsh and brittle when dry
the leaves, especially legumes, fall off quickly when
This is a loss of nutrients, because the leaves contain most
the protein, minerals, and carotene-pro-vitamin A.
method of hay-making will result in low leaf loss, and can
practiced by small village farmers to help provide a
supply of high quality forage for their cows:
Cut and chop the forage.
Many farmers have access to
either a hand-
or motor-driven chopper (chaffer). 2.
the wet green
chopped forage in the sun on a smooth clean
(threshing area, roof top, courtyard, roadway,
Stir the forage frequently to hasten drying.
When dry, the
leaves and chopped stems can be easily
together without separation, and can be moved to
storage or to
market by head load, bullock cart, or truck.
Any storage place in the village normally used for straw
or grains, such as thatched or mud-covered stacks or rooms
buildings, can be used to store the chopped dried hay,
bagged or loose. Any
excess dried hay can be sold for a good
price as a cash crop in seasons when good forage is in short
should be based on the dry matter content of the
hay (100 pounds of dry forage at 90 percent dry matter would
worth the same as 600 pounds of wet forage at 15 percent dry
MILKING AND MILK HANDLING
Many developing countries are tropical, which makes good
difficult. More than
10 percent of the milk produced in India,
for example, is lost due to spoilage.
Thus, good hygiene means
more milk for human consumption.
The essential problem is to prevent contamination right from
moment the milk leaves the udder.
Likewise, cooling should start
as soon as possible.
The approach to hygiene depends on the
For example, in Israel there is often no
cooling water but plenty of sanitizers, while in parts of
the reverse may be true.
If ice-making facilities are available
at the milk collection center, hygiene can be greatly
In developed countries, the use of machines to milk the cow
cool the milk is widely practiced.
But for a very small dairy
operation in a developing country, it is not recommended nor
economically feasible to start up with a milking
price of equipment, whether new or used, is extremely high
importing milking equipment and parts to a developing
might be difficult.
Operators of larger dairies, where capital
costs may be met more easily, may wish to consider milking
machines because they offer important advantages in
This animal milks best if it has been washed
or sprayed with water before milking.
The custom of pouring
water over the animal before milking is common in India and
the unfortunate effect of washing the dust and dirt on the
animal's body down round the udder and teats from which it
run over the milker's hands and into the milker's pail with
disasterous effects on hygiene!
The ideal solution to this problem is to have a wallow such
part of an irrigation ditch where the buffaloes may actually
on their way to the milking shed.
They should then stand in a
shady place to "drip dry" before milking.
This is a good time
to feed any supplements and adds further to the animal's
before milking. It
is essential to have shade--buffaloes
hate hot sunshine.
If a wallow is not possible a simple shower bath is good but
is needed to ensure that enough water is used to wash away
dirt that runs off.
Such water need not be wasted--it has a
place in irrigation or even in washing down the cattle yards
before going into the irrigation system.
"Drip drying" is
essential after a shower.
When water is not available, good shade
is even more essential in the yards at milking time.
case, it is best to wash just the teats and lower
part of the animal is part of the cooling system due to the
vascular mechanisms in the teats.
Washing thus helps to make the
buffalo comfortable and if only the lower part is wetted it
possible to mop off the excess water.
If possible all washing
water used this way should contain at least 200 parts per
of chlorine. Just
before hand milking, all water should be
squeezed off by hand.
An udder cloth is not recommended.
Full hand milking should be carried out.
The "stripping" method
common in India is damaging to the teats.
The buffalo is a
"tough" milker but despite this, milk should be
squeezed out with
full hand pressure, not by wringing the teat between thumb
milking, the teats should be dipped in a chlorine
Cows. This animal
does not need the "water treatment," but shade
is desirable for holding yards.
As with the buffalo, good
stimulation by rubbing the udders and squeezing the teats
milking is needed.
Unless adequate washing water with chlorine
in it is available, it is best not to try to wash more than
teats and lower parts of the udder.
Full hand milking is
It should be emphasized that the milking of both buffalos
cows should be carried out with the teats as dry as
The custom of dipping the milker's hands in the milk to
"lubriciation" for hand milking is quite
unacceptable: It is a
major cause of bacterial contamination of the milk.
If a lubricant
is thought to be essential, the use of coconut oil in small
quantities is helpful.
Coconut oil is added to soap made from
this oil to make an udder wash.
A small quantity of the creamy
mix is rubbed onto the udder surface and teats and washed
with a final squeezing away of residual water.
This makes an
All of the rules for good hygiene apply to machine milking.
However, mechanical milking makes it possible to reduce
the potential for contamination of the milk.
machine milking buffaloes in India showed that there is an
improvement in milk quality, as measured with the reductase
test, by using a simple direct-to-can milking system.
were washed with chlorine solution with much rubbing and
excess water removed and the machine applied without delay.
Likewise in Israel it has been shown that milking into a
wheels and taking the milk to the cooling and collection
as soon as milking is complete can result in good quality
even though there are no cooling facilities on the
farm. This is
due to the transient anti-bacterial properties of freshly
milk. There is
little bacterial growth for the first half hour
The transport cans or mobile tanks are thoroughly washed at
collecting center and returned with a quantity of chlorine
solution in the bottom.
This keep the vessels sanitary until
needed when the chlorine solution may be used for rinsing
milking equipment and finally for washing the udder and
Any farmer milking more than 10 cows or buffaloes or 20-30
will probably find that a simple machine is worthwhile if
because of the improved milk quality made possible by
milking. The machine
may be kept sanitary by soaking the milk
handling parts in caustic soda between milking snd rinsing
chlorine solution before milking.
The milking of sheep and goats requires the same preparation
methods and general hygiene as for cows.
Care of Utensils
All milk containing vessels must be covered at all
milker's bucket should have a partial cover to minimize dirt
falling in during milking.
The receptacle into which the milk is
poured from the milker's bucket must be covered and
made for cooling when possible.
A simple immersion cooler is
Ideally, the milk should be refrigerated.
All vessels used for milk must be thoroughly scrubbed with a
detergent or soap.
They must be rinsed with chlorine solution.
The latter is easily prepared when not available by passing
accurately known amount of chlorine solution.
The latter is
easily prepared when not available by passing an accurately
amount of chlorine gas into a fixed amount of caustic soda
This can be done cheaply by using a concrete pipe as the
receptacle, hanging the chlorine cylinder from a spring
and bubbling in the right amount of gas.
The solution is about
2.5 percent chlorine and is diluted to 200 parts per million
When ice can be made at the milk collecting center or dairy
factory it is possible to improve the hygiene of milk
The cans are fitted with lids that have a cone-shaped
attachment into which broken ice may be placed.
When the can is
filled to the appropriate level the lid is fitted and the
filled with ice which then cools the milk on the way to the
After delivery of the milk the can is cleaned
and filled with pieces of ice for the return trip.
The ice is
kept under some sort of insulating cover until required at
next milking. This
crude form of refrigeration combined with
machine milking makes possible the production of reasonable
quality milk under difficult conditions.
New Developments in Hygiene
The "Alpom" System.
This is a preservative based on the natural
anti-bacterial properties of fresh milk.
It contains peroxide
and the enzyme lactoperoxidase.
When mixed with the calf's
saliva, which contains thiocyanate, a very anti-bacterial
of short life is produced.
The artificial addition of
peroxide and thiocyanate will inhibit bacterial growth for a
This method works for the milk of cows and
buffaloes but there are problems with goat milk because of
chemistry of goat casein.
the use of heat well below pasteurizing temperature
and thus not affecting the flavor of milk, it is possible
to inhibit bacterial development for a time.
is best done as soon as the milk is drawn and before it is
for transport. The
use of solar energy for heating the milk is
attractive in tropical countries and there is need for
on this aspect of milk quality control.
There are a number of developments in the
advanced dairy countries that hold promise for developing
These have arisen because of the fuel crisis.
One is the
use of the roof of the cow shed, painted black, as a solar
absorber during the day to provide hot water.
At night, water is
trickled over the open roof and radiation of heat into the
sky results in substantial cooling of the water, which is
in a tank.
Another widely used practice is to spray water into the air
run it over coke in a tower, thus causing evaporation.
In a dry
climate this is a good way to produce cool water for milk
A more sophisticated approach is to use solar energy to
The capital cost is high at present but
there is little maintenance and operating costs are low.
(*) Thermization is conventionally carried out at 66[degrees
centigrade] for 15
The equipment needed for dairying can be rather simple:
Enclosed buildings may be needed,
depending on the
Milking facilities should include some way
being milked, e.g., tie stalls, stanchions
that fits loosely around a cow's neck and
forward and backward motion), either outdors or
Cleanable utensils are essential for
receiving the milk
at milking time and storing the product
until used or
Facilities should be available to keep
This includes plenty of clean water and if
sunlight for drying and holding down bacterial
If the milk is to be held for more than a
cooling device will be needed.
Feed mangers (a trough or open box in a
to hold feed
or fodder for livestock) of some kind for
silage, and concentrates, not necessarily
Cattle on pasture will require fencing or
from straying or destroying other crops.
If milk is to be transported, some means of
for holding it will be needed. In some
bicycles are used for transportation to market.
depend on local conditions.
The above facilities can be developed to whatever degree of
sophistication economic conditions warrant.
III. STARTING A
Serious thought should be given to the most simple entry
milk production. A
very good option for the first step is dairytype
goats. If the area
has insects and diseases that are potent
enough to require natural resistance, start with the native
females and breed with the milkiest imported males or frozen
Teach the youngest children to like to drink the goat milk
and then work up the age groups.
Any milk that cannot be used
immediately should be cooled to the temperature of the
well water of the area as soon as it is milked.
developing areas do not have cheap electricity and
in homes, any cooperative milk plants should consider making
dried milk powder or the new sterilized milk containers to
provide long shelf life without refrigeration.
If the area has plenty of moisture, plant the highest
variety foliage and time the rotation of the pastures so
grass is eaten at a young age not to be too high in fiber or
low in protein.
Similarly, if the grass is cut for hay, cut it
often enough so that the fiber content is not too high and
protein is still good.
If fertilizer is reasonably priced, the
right kind and proportion can make the foliage much more
When the goat dairy is running well, and you can produce
of good quality roughage and enough quality dry hay or
to tide you over during periods of dry weather, you are
consider dairy cattle.
Jersey cattle may adjust to extra warm and
humid climates better than other breeds since they are
size and the milk is higher in solids and protein.
If you import
dairy females, consider only the type cattle that produce
least cost, especially on roughage alone.
Obtain advice from
those who are experienced in paying their bills with milk
Space does not permit a full discussion of all of the
areas in dairy development.
However, the farmer can go a long
way toward success if careful attention is paid to the
selection or development of productive breeding stock,
of the basic principles of feeding and nutrition, and the
provision of a year-round supply of high-quality forages,
supplemented with grain concentrate.
In many areas assistance with balancing rations, controlling
diseases, and other aspects of dairy management can be
from veterinarians; dairy specialists located at
universities; the extension service in some countries; and
organizations such as VITA, Winrock International, The
Foundation, the Peace Corps, Ford Foundation, and
Much concern has been expressed about the competition of
cows with human beings for cereal grains.
It should be kept in
mind that cows consume large amounts of feeds humans cannot
Nearly all the supplemental protein fed to cows in the form
cereal grains and oil cakes is returned as high-quality milk
protein. If urea is
fed at recommended levels in the concentrate
mixture, there may be a 40 percent increase in milk protein
above that consumed by the cows in the form of protein
An integral part of a country's dairy and livestock
the development of a reliable feed industry to foster the
economic utilization of cereal and agricultural by-products,
urea and protein, and mineral and vitamin supplements.
companies should be dedicated to the philosophy that
good for the farmer is good for them!"
The potential for dairy production will rise rapidly as
breeding, feeding, management, and disease control practices
years ago in the United States the better
dairyies were producing Holstein herd averages of about
pounds of milk/cow/laction.
Today the best averages are 20,000
Much of this increase is due to better
feeding methods and the widespread use of artificial
using bulls proven to transmit high milk producing ability.
It is important that dairy operators in less developed areas
the world employ the best dairy production practices within
Progress, although often slow, will be certain
for those who are persistent and anxious to learn.
BIBLIOGRAPHY/Suggested Reading List
Bearden, H.J., and Schultz, L.H.
Recommended Milking Practices.
York: New York State College of
University, October 1961.
Bradt, C.G. Dairy
Herd Managemnet for Health Production and Longer
Ithaca, New York:
New York State College of Agriculture,
University, May 1960.
Burgwald, L.H., and Strobel, D.R.
How to Use Recombined Milk Ingredients
Dairy Products. Washington, D.C.:
of Agriculture, 1957.
Colby, B.E. et al.
Dairy Goats: Breeding, Feeding,
439. Amherst, Massachusetts:
College of Agriculture, 1966.
Conrad, H.R.; Pratt, A.D.; and Hibbs, J.W.; "Regulation
Intake in Dairy
Cows," Journal of Dairy Science.
1964, pp. 54-62.
Food and Agriculture Organization.
Animal Husbandry--What Cattle
Rome, Italy: Food and
Furry, R.B. Basic
Arrangements of Milking Parlors with Stall
Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University Agricultural
Station, April 1962.
Gall, C. "Milk
Production from Sheep and Goats, "World Animal Review.
No. 13. Rome,
Italy: Food and Agriculture
1975, p. 108.
Guthrie E.S. Making
Butter on the Farm. Cornell Extension
Ithaca, New York:
New York State College of
Cornell University, 1948.
"Preservation of High Quality Legumes as Hay in Hot,
Regions." World Review of Animal
1979, pp. 23-27.
Huff, H. "A
Goat Milking Stand," Mother Earth News.
Jamaica Livestock Association.
Livestock Manual for the Tropics.
Jamaica: Jamaica Livestock Association,
Kidd, R. "From
Milk Pail to Supper Table." Mother
No. 72, November
1981, pp. 78-80.
Kidd, R. "Ten
Commandments for Raising a Backyard Dairy Cow:
Earth News, No. 70, July 1981, pp. 64-66.
Kidd, R. "Ten
Commandments for Raising a Backyard Dairy Cow:
Earth News, No. 71, September 1981, pp. 88-89.
Kosikowski, F.V. and Holland, R.F.
The Sanitary Care of Milking
Equipment on the
Farm. Cornell Extension Bulletin 941.
York: New York State College of
Wells, M., and Hobbs, W.
Construction and Sanitation Requirements
Clean Milk. Experiment Station Bulletin
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia:
Haile Sellassie University,
Volunteers in Technical Assistance
1815 North Lynn Street, Suite 200
The Peace Corps
806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20526
320 East 43rd Street
New York, New York 10017
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
Winrock International Livestock Research and Training Center
Petit Jean Mountain, Route 3
Morrilton, Arkansas 72110
Heifer Project International
P.O. Box 808
Little Rock, Arkansas 72203