By E. Christopher
A manual for drivers using pioneer
roads and for novice
mechanics who must depend upon
their own resources
in areas without extensive
Volunteers in Technical
1600 Wilson Bloulevard,
Operation and Maintenance
E. Christopher Cone, 1992
reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or
by any means, electronic or mechnical, including photocopy, recording,
information storage and retrieval system without written permission of the
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA)
Bloulevard, Suite 500
Virginia 22209-8438 USA
in the United States of America.
Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Automotive operation and maintenance/ by
E. Christopher Cone. [Revised
Edition] Includes index.
Automobiles--Maintenance and repair. 2. Automobile driving.
printing, May 1973
printing, November 1973
printing, April 1974
fourth printing, April 1975
fifth printing, July 1992
This book is
dedicated to the memory of Fr. Joseph Bessom, OHC, a
Christian saint whose love of Africa and its people sent me to
live in its
jungles and resulted in the writing of this book for VITA.
It would be
fruitless to attempt to list all of the men and women who have
to the preparation of this book. They range from unlettered Africans
inborn feeling for the capacity of a log bridge to engineers with the some
largest corporations in the world. Special thanks should be made to my
instructors, James Tamba Kila, Stephen Boakai, Jaka Masambolahun,
Dah, Moses Sivili Gelego, Andrew Kpehe Woiwor, and others.
is extended to the Order of the Holy Cross, which provided the
track" for most of the material discussed in this book. Acknowledgement
is also made
of the assistance of several people at VITA, notably Terry Ladd and
Forlenza, who worked on the first edition, and Patricia Mantey and
Crouch, who prepared the current, revised version.
thanks go to VITA Volunteer John N. Amon of the Rochester Institute
Technology, who produced all new technical drawings for the fifth printing
Intergraphic MicroStation software, and Celia Jenkins and Jill Smith
assisted with the photographs.
assistance of many vehicle manufacturers and their sales agents
contributed to the production of this book. Their aid has been invaluable in
shop references concerning specific vehicles in the maintenance
This book is
intended to fill a need found by the author at the start of his 30 years
as a mechanic
for a church mission in Liberia, West Africa. At that time the
perhaps charitably be termed a mechanically inclined novice.
lack of experience he found himself in charge of a substantial
vehicles and a fair-sized electric generating station. It was largely
experiment and occasional disaster that much of the material for this
assembled. It is presented here in the hope that it may save the reader
from many of
the same problems.
The intent is
to offer suggestions to drivers or mechanics who operate in an area
facilities and technical assistance are not readily available and
they must be
their own advisers on every problem that may arise. In the event
happen to have some service facilities at hand, they will find that
they can skip
over some sections of the manual.
for the most part deals with four-wheel drive vehicles, since it can
expected that an area where no service facilities exist will be one
roads, which require the added traction of four-wheel drive.
since FWD is the name of a manufacturer of heavy-duty, four-wheel
it is inappropriate to use this abbreviation to indicate "four-wheel
The abbreviation FWD is also used to describe the growing number of
front-wheel drive and no power in the rear wheels. To avoid confusion,
the term 4WD
will be used here. Also, as a matter of convenience, the word "car"
is taken as
it is used in West Africa: to mean any sort of small or moderate size
whether it be a sedan automobile, Jeep-type vehicle, or pickup truck.
matter of nomenclature, it should be noted that petroleum products
identified here by their U.S. names. Readers in other areas will have to
according to local custom. This is a matter of some confusion; what the
paraffin, for example, is known as kerosene in the United States, and
paraffin to a
U.S. reader means a translucent white wax.
The book is
organized into several sections. An understanding of the organization
it possible to find needed material quickly. The first section
operation of a car in an area served by pioneer roads. This section is
assist drivers with temporary repairs to the vehicle so that they can
get home in
the event of mechanical trouble.
section of the book is devoted to maintenance suggestions, which
for use in a frontier shop or repair center, no matter how ill-equipped
it may be.
This book should be used as a supplement to the vehicle's
For example, this book will help indicate when brakes need to be
the shop manual will tell how to do it. Since a book of this type is
material cannot be located when it is needed, a special effort has
been made to
prepare as complete an index as possible. Cross references will
also be found
throughout the text.
regarding metric and English measurements: For convenience both
measurement are used in this book. Where an equivalent is given as
of thumb," however, it is not intended as an exact equivalent. For
miles per hour is shown as being equivalent to 55 kilometers per
hour. A more
exact figure would be 56.35 kilometers per hour, but this is
and not readily remembered.
table of English and metric equivalents is included in Section 20.00.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
sections of this book are divided by section numbers. Section 6.00, for
covers the entire range of "Winching and Towing." Within this large
smaller sections; 6.01 concerns wire rope, and the following
methods of splicing wire rope, storage of wire rope, etc.
to arranging the book in this "outline" fashion, a complete
index can be
found in Section 21.00.
Mechanical Emergencies While Driving
Loss of oil pressure;
broken axle or drive shaft;
broken steering linkage;
steering bent and ineffective;
headlight failure at night;
accelerator pedal stuck down;
Operating on Pioneer Roads
Examining the vehicle;
loading the vehicle;
introduction to the cab;
Avoiding Road Hazards
traveling in convoy;
loss of traction;
piled-up mud or solid obstacles;
fording and wading;
Extricating the Vehicle
Stuck in mud or snow;
hung up in mud or snow;
hung up on a solid obstacle;
stuck while fording.
Procedures when Stranded
Leaving the vehicle;
Winches and Towing
joining wire cable;
storage of wire rope;
types of rope;
synthetic fiber ropes;
knots for fiber rope;
nylon towing straps;
storage of chain;
selecting a winch;
installing a winch;
winch drive systems;
use of the winch;
anchoring the winch cable;
winding in the winch cable;
block and tackle;
recovery with a winch;
winching from a bridge;
removing a log under the car;
lowering with the winch;
using the winch for salvage;
salvaging a capsized vehicle;
salvaging a car from water;
towing a derelict;
attaching the tow cable;
overcoming mechanical drag;
towing a trailer;
extricating a stuck trailer.
Capsizing and submerging accidents;
drive train expedients;
steering system expedients;
brake system expedients;
fuel system expedients;
cooling system expedients;
problems in the primary circuit;
ignition system expedients;
Cranking and starting trouble;
engine will not crank;
engine cranks, will not start;
engine starts, then quits;
low charge, dead battery;
low oil pressure;
engine uses too much oil;
front tires worn;
uneven tire wear;
vibration in drive train;
wheel bearings hot;
brake pedal sinks to floor; brakes do
brake pedal rises and brakes drag;
car pulls to one side when braking;
brake pedal does not return;
clutch and gearshift problems;
rough running or conking out;
engine short of power;
engine conks out and will not restart;
engine overheats, radiator boils;
Tests and Testing Equipment
Cooling system tests;
drive train and steering tests;
fuel system checks;
primary electrical tests;
General shop hints;
adjusting the brakes;
bleeding the brakes;
relining the brakes;
the hand brake;
light system repairs;
tire and wheels;
repairs to springs;
repairs to shock absorbers;
cooling system repairs;
exhaust system repairs;
miscellaneous engine repairs.
A Shop Building
Diesel check list;
diesel engine tests;
Tools and Equipment
Tools for the car;
luxury tools and equipment;
compressed air in the shop;
electric arc welders;
tools to make;
homemade test equipment.
Parts and Supplies
Supplies in the vehicle;
supplies in the shop.
cold weather operation;
Selecting a Vehicle
Vehicle types and sizes;
weight on rear axles;
charts and measurements;
torque values for nuts and bolts;
battery electrolyte specific gravity;
Definitions and Index
MECHANICAL EMERGENCIES WHILE DRIVING
discussion of the disasters that await the novice driver on a pioneer road
may be a
discouraging way to start a manual of this type, it is intended that
examine this section before they must face any of these problems, so
they can be
fully prepared. This section is not concerned with such roadside
flat tires, dead batteries, or running out of fuel. By "mechanical
is meant the sort of trouble with the car that places its riders in
through lack of control of the vehicle or the threat of major damage to
machinery. Many of the mechanical problems related here can be avoided
attention to the items summarized in Section 18.00 on preventive
Repairs to correct the problems listed here are described in
Loss of Oil Pressure
under pressure, is required to lubricate the many moving parts of an
of this pressure is a major mechanical emergency. Stop the engine
or it will in all likelihood be permanently damaged. Once the
safely stopped, look for the cause of the difficulty. Section 8.00 on
may be of assistance in this search.
At the slow
speeds that are common on pioneer roads, tire failure may not be
problem. You will only hear a flopping noise and notice that the
seems unresponsive. At high speeds, however, a blowout can spin the
car out of
control. The correct response to a blowout is to keep the foot off the
or accelerator and try to steer the car to a safe stop. If a front tire
car will swerve toward the same side as the blown tire. Using the
often cause a spin. With the transmission in gear the engine will slow
gradually, making it more likely that you will be able to hold the wheel
and steer to
Broken Axle or Drive Shaft
drive car propelled by only one pair of wheels will stop if an axle
shaft breaks; going up a hill it will roll back. In such a vehicle it is
make repairs before the car can proceed.
A 4WD car can
continue as long as either the front or rear wheels are
If an axle shaft is broken in the rear end, for example, shift to 4WD
to proceed using only front-wheel drive. If a propeller shaft is
should be removed before proceeding, or the stub end will flop around
damage the underframe of the car.
radiator is indicative of an overheated engine, which may be caused
by any of a
number of things as listed in Section 8.70 on check lists.
Do not shut
off the engine if the radiator is boiling, for then all circulation of
though the water is overheated, will be cut off. Put the transmission
and leave the engine idling. Very carefully open the radiator cap; live
likely to be forced out under pressure, so it is advisable to cover the cap
with a thick
rag for protection. With the engine still idling, slowly add enough
water to fill
the radiator. Allow the engine to continue idling until the temperature
returns to normal.
the radiator cap reveals that the radiator is already full and additional
water is not
needed, the engine is probably being overworked and slower speeds
gears should be used. Alternatively, the thermostat may be blocked,
the flow of coolant through the engine.
Broken Steering Linkage
In the event
of breakage of any part of the steering system, it will probably
impossible to steer the car, At low speed this may not be a crisis, but at
high speed it
may not be possible to avoid a crash. Stop the car as quickly as
under such circumstances. The critical nature of the steering system
frequent examination a prime safety consideration.
Steering Bent and Ineffective
If a car
strikes a tree stump, rock, or other obstacle in such a way as to bend part
steering linkage under the front end, the steering may become ineffective.
The two front
wheels may point toward each other, for example. You will
able to maintain enough control to stop safely.
Headlight Failure at Night
move in the event of headlight failure is to stop immediately. The
prepared driver will have a flashlight with which to seek the difficulty.
Accelerator Pedal Stuck Down
failure sometimes results in leaving the accelerator pedal down,
returning it when you release your foot. In this event the car will
move. If you cannot lift the pedal with the toe of the foot, shut off
and brake to a stop.
brakes up for lost, try pumping the pedal vigorously several
may provide enough pressure to stop the car. If it does not, several
action are open:
parking brake works, it can be used to stop the car.
parking brake does not work and if there is no steering lock incorporated
in the ignition
lock, you can shut off the ignition switch, leaving the transmission
Engine friction will then slow the vehicle.
downshift to the car's lowest gear. This will bring the car
a slow speed. When the ignition is then shut off, the car will stop.
also occasions when terrain may aid in stopping the car. A swampy
road, for example, will serve this purpose, as will sand, deep snow,
or an uphill
OPERATING ON PIONEER ROADS
that a number of factors contribute to successful operation
roads. Among these are a knowledge of the individual vehicle, the
load the car properly, and familiarity with the mechanical operation
of the car.
These various factors will be considered before any discussion of
Examining the Vehicle
eventually becomes second nature, it is important to become
your vehicle and to examine it carefully before starting on a trip.
side the differentials are on, since they are usually not centered.
differential is the lowest point of the undercarriage on most cars. The driver
can gain a
few extra inches of clearance over a rock or stump by placing the car
the obstacle, with the differential to the side. This allows the
of the axle to pass over the obstacle.
there is a protective plate under the front end to guard the steering
obstacles. Such a plate is a good investment on a new vehicle. It
extends from the underside of the radiator housing back to the crankcase,
and on some
cars covers the crankcase as well.
Know how wide
the car is so that clearance between trees, rocks, or other
be accurately judged.
Know how far
apart the tires are, especially in an area where log bridges are
first it is advisable to get out of the car when approaching a log
bridge to be
sure that you have estimated correctly before proceeding. (See
Know how high
the top of the truck or the load is. This is important in relation
dimensions of the vehicle, there are other mechanical details that
examined before departing:
In areas with
poor bridges, remove the cab doors if this is at all practical. The
many of his friends have been saved from drowning by this simple
the cab has no roof, of course there is no need to remove the doors.
vehicles it is possible to remove the top half of the door, leaving the
lower half in
place. Seat belts should be used to prevent the occupants from
of the car.
Be sure that
the fuel tank is full before starting, even on a short journey. Even
territory it is quite possible to get stuck and work all day to get free.
If there are
racks for additional fuel or water cans, be sure that they are full before
Check to see
that oil, battery, radiator, power steering, and brake fluid reservoir
See that the
brake pedal does not feel spongy or sink to the floor, and that the
will stop the car if necessary.
Be sure that
there are enough spare tires to get where you are going, or have the
patches to make repairs on the road if necessary.
toolbox to see that it contains appropriate tools and spare parts.(See
Loading the Vehicle
The two most
important factors in loading are the total weight of the load in
the capacity of the vehicle and the distribution of the load over the
manual for the vehicle will indicate the total load allowable. For a
the weight of the driver and any passengers may make up a large part
of the total
load. A full fuel tank may add 75 to 150 pounds (34 to 67 kilograms),
and a spare
five-gallon (19 liter) fuel can adds an additional 40 pounds (18
As a very
rough rule of thumb for overloading, there should be some free
between the axle and the chassis. The chassis should never rest upon
without any reserve in the springs.
the load, spread the weight as evenly as possible between the front
axles. Concentrated weight on the front portion of the load box in a
for example, may break the chassis even though the load does not
maximum allowed in the driver's manual.
halfway between the front and rear wheels will be supported
each axle. If all the weight is over the rear wheels, the rear springs
housing may be overloaded. If all the weight is concentrated behind the
the front end will be lightened; it may even leave the ground,
presented in Section 20.00 for the mathematical calculation of the
load on the
rear wheels, although this is not necessary if common sense is used
If there is a
choice of vehicles for a given load, use the one that will give the
of gravity. That is, the one that will carry the load nearest to the
pickup truck carries its load between the rear wheels, for example,
while a stake
body truck carries the load above the rear wheels. The result is that
truck is more stable and less likely to capsize than a stake body truck
of the same
keep the heavy part of a load as low as possible in the truck. If the load
is too high
it will make the vehicle top-heavy. When a truck must of necessity
be loaded so
that it is top-heavy (for example, with a large machine), be very
roads with excessive crown or tilt to avoid capsizing the vehicle.
should not be allowed to hang out of the sides of the vehicle if this can
avoided, since a hazard will be presented by trees, branches,
and other vehicles.
loading, be sure that the load is secure and cannot shift even if the car
severely. A load that shifts forward may injure the driver; if it shifts back
it may fall
out of the vehicle; if it shifts to the side the vehicle may be turned over.
Tie the load
to the car with ropes or ratchet straps with hooks on the ends, sold
purpose. Tires that do not contain steel strands can be cut into long elastic
great strength for securing loads. Fastening the load tightly is
important in the case of a small vehicle carrying a relatively large
such as a drum of fuel. A great deal of damage can be done by such
a drum if it
"gets loose" in the back of a pickup truck.
Introduction to the Cab
starting the engine, take a moment to familiarize yourself with the cab.
believe that on pioneer roads speeds are so low that seat belts are
necessary. Experience will show, however, that they are a great asset. While
there may be
no danger of a collision in an area with very few cars, the seat belt
can keep you
from hitting your head on the cab roof on a rough road, or from
of the car if the doors have been removed.
One of the
best safety rules for driving on rough roads is to keep the thumbs
rim of the steering wheel. Although unnatural at first, it soon
second nature, and if the steering wheel is wrenched away by striking
the spokes cannot injure or dislocate your thumbs. This practice is
on vehicles with power steering, but few true frontier vehicles are
power steering, which adds to the complexity and cost and offers an
opportunity for mechanical failure.
steering wheel with the hands in a position corresponding to the
clock hands at ten minutes past ten. Two-handed steering is essential
if roads are
rough, and this position gives the best leverage for a turn in either
In a snowy or
rainy climate where the driver's feet will often be wet, remove the
from the pedals. The rubber will become very slippery when wet,
hard to keep the feet on the pedals. (See Section 15.20.)
cars advertise that three people can be accommodated in the
it is much safer to carry only the driver and one passenger. This allows
more room for
the operation of the gear shift and the transfer case, and it is much
two people to get out of an endangered car in a hurry than it is for a
sitting in the center of a bench seat.
Introduction to the Drive Train
starting off, a few words about the mechanics of the car are needed.
In an age
where most sedans have automatic transmissions, many people are not
the gear shift and clutch, or with their function. The gear shift is
allow the engine to operate at optimum speed regardless of the speed
vehicle, since a gasoline engine develops very low power at low speeds.
Thus in first
gear the engine is turning rapidly but the wheels turn slowly; in top
engine and wheels are generally turning at the same speed.
separates the engine from the wheels for a moment so that the gears
shifted. A clutch resembles two flat discs, one of which is connected to
and the other through the gearbox to the wheels. When the discs are
power is transmitted to the wheels. When they are pressed
engine power is sent through the two discs to the wheels.
In order to
shift from one gear to another, it is necessary to first depress the clutch
will disconnect the engine from the wheels so that the car is coasting
shift can then be made, and the clutch released to apply power again.
of clutching, shifting, and unclutching should not be hurried; the
rapid clutch wear or even broken axles.
CLUTCHING is needed to shift from a high gear to a lower one.
synchromesh transmissions have made double clutching less critical and
unnecessary in some circumstances, the technique is still a great wear-saver
gearbox. Double clutching allows the engine and the gearbox to
be matched in
speed before the gears are engaged. If this were not done, the gears
"crash," or grind against each other until they were meshed by force.
clutching is not at all difficult, but it does require some practice. It cannot
from a book, although some suggestions will be presented here for you
to try in
Suppose it is
necessary to shift from second gear down to first gear in order to
slow the car
going down a hill. With the car moving across the top of the hill in
press the clutch down. Put the gearshift in neutral and let the clutch
engine is now connected to the gearbox, although the gearbox is in
not transmitting any power to the wheels. Accelerate the engine until
approximates the speed at which it would be running if the car were in
Then quickly press the clutch down, shift gently into first gear, and let
up. If the estimate of engine speed is accurate, the spinning gears in
will be going at the same speed as the wheels, and will mesh without
clutching should become the natural way to get into a low gear when
bill. Use of the brakes will cause overheating and failure, possibly
at a crucial
time. In addition, braking on a slope can start the car sliding out of
CASE is actually another gearshift added to the main gearbox
even lower gear ratios. At these lower ratios the engine turns at high
developing peak power, while the wheels turn very slowly. In most
4WD cars the
transfer case approximately doubles the overall gear ratio,
the car travels only half as fast in low range as in high range.
gearshift is used in the normal way in low range. If the vehicle can
accelerated to top gear in low range and you want to go faster, it is necessary
to shift both
levers. First shift the transfer case to high range, then put the
into the appropriate gear. It may also be necessary to engage the front-wheel
shifting the transfer case. The whole shift may take so long that
be lost, and the regular gearshift will probably have to be put
first gear even though it is a lower ratio than top gear in low range.
Introduction to the Engine
For those who
are not familiar with the basic principles of automotive engines,
basic introduction may be useful:
move the car is derived from fuel, usually gasoline, which must be
air to make it burn, and then must be burned in a controlled way so
energy can be used.
stored in the fuel tank. From there it goes through tubing to a small
forces it into the carburetor. At the same time, air is sucked through
cleaner where dust and solid particles are removed, and into the
In the carburetor the fuel and air are mixed to a combustible vapor.
This vapor is
then sucked through the intake manifold to the engine itself. At the
fuel vapor passes through a valve at the top of each cylinder, where
it is sucked
into the cylinder when the piston within it moves down, creating a
engines have no carburetor. Air is drawn into the cylinders by the
action of the
piston, and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders by injectors similar
to those in a
diesel engine. This "fuel injection" system is not commonly found
vehicles because of its complexity and intolerance of poor fuel
operates on what is termed a four-stroke cycle. The four strokes are
compression, ignition (or power), and exhaust. On the intake stroke of
a piston, the
cylinder is filled with fuel vapor through the intake valve. As the
reaches the bottom of the cylinder the intake valve closes, and the piston
again. The fuel vapor is thus compressed, cramming more energy into
space. As the piston passes the top of its stroke, the space within the
smallest, and the fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from the spark
fuel explodes violently, but since both valves are closed there is
the energy to go unless the piston is forced downward. This is the
and it is the energy of the explosion forcing the piston downward
the engine and makes the car go. The fourth stroke, exhaust, serves to
used gases out the exhaust valve to clear the cylinder for the next cycle.
In order to
keep this cycle moving, several extra parts are essential. The
which is turned by the engine, provides electric power to keep the
charged for the operation of electric accessories such as headlights,
wipers, and the horn. The battery also provides power to the ignition
system of the
car; 12-volt power from the battery travels through the breaker
points to the
spark coil. There it is built up to a very high voltage, which is sent
distributor to each spark plug at precisely the right time to ignite the
at the top of the compression stoke.
The cooling system
keeps the heat of the explosions inside the cylinders from
engine. It consists of a radiator, fan, water pump, and a supply of
which runs through little channels inside the engine block. The fan
through the radiator to keep it cool, and water flowing through the
therefore also cooled as it circulates around its path through the
pump and radiator.
several other accessories that are not strictly essential to the operation
of the engine,
but are useful or even vital parts of the car. The lights, windshield
dashboard gauges, and speedometer fall into this category. The drive
been discussed in Section 2.04, together with the principles of its
although not closely related to the work of the engine, are such
as the chassis, upon which the car parts are mounted. On the chassis
springs, which support the weight of the vehicle on the axles; the shock
which smooth out some of the road bumps; and the brake system,
the car. The steering system, also mounted on the chassis, is another
entity that is essential to the operation of the car.
Each of these
parts and systems is discussed in some detail in other section of
Refer to the index at the back of the book for a complete list of the
parts, their functions, and how to test and repair them when necessary.
AVOIDING ROAD HAZARDS
devoted some time to checking the vehicle, you can safely start on your
difficult process of pulling a car out of a swamp or broken bridge,
it from a projecting rock or stump, can be eliminated by avoiding
of this type. Knowing what to do in advance can save a great deal
of time and
The most common road hazards involve loss of traction,
being hung up
on the chassis, log bridge failures, capsizing, fording, and to a
extent, submerging. The following sections will illustrate in some detail
how to avoid
each type of problem.
OBSTACLES such as potholes, rocks, and logs is a simple
and yet few drivers who are accustomed only to wide paved roads
to driving over an obstacle. All that is needed is a quick judgment
of how large
the obstacle is and whether the car will pass over it without falling
in or getting
hung up. If the car will pass, go over the obstacle rather than trying
around it. Going around an obstacle on a narrow pioneer road generally
off the road, which is not usually a good practice.
GULLEYS can also be straddled in the same way. Often rain will
wash a deep
gully down the middle of the road or a hill, since that is the lowest
part of the
track. It is frequently safer to straddle this gulley than to go to one side
of it and be
forced off the road. Careful evaluation of a long gulley is necessary
starting over it, since it may widen farther along its course, trapping the
pose their own special problems. Although they are usually
in poor weather than dirt roads, the loose gravel is a hazard. Speed
kept to 35 miles (55 kilometers) per hour or less because of the damage
that can be
done by flying gravel. When passing another car speed should be
reduced. In many areas it is common practice to cover the glass lenses
with cardboard or heavy screening for daylight driving.
HELPER is always good practice on a pioneer road. Even in a
with a winch, having another person with the driver makes it
to get the car out of trouble. A helper can make sure the car is lined
up on a log
bridge, can check to see that a suspicious rock will not hit the oil pan
gear, and perform similar duties. In many parts of the world it is
get such assistance in exchange for a ride.
NIGHT should be avoided, especially in an unfamiliar area.
When it is
absolutely necessary, take a good flashlight in addition to any other
tools and supplies. If the car's lights seem very dim, check for mud
or dust on
the lenses. If allowed by law, it is often useful to add extra driving
should be protected from branches and other obstacles.
A WORD ON
BRAKES: Stopping the car with all four wheels locked up and
although spectacular, is not the quickest way to stop. You also lose
ability, since the front wheels can only be steered if they are turning. The
although it requires practice, is to use as much pressure on the brake
pedal as the
wheels can take without locking up. If they do skid, too much
on mud or snow where traction is poor, continuous application of
will send the car out of control. Under such conditions you can either
brake, and therefore must alternate between the two. Pumping the
brakes is a
good compromise: when the brakes are applied, the car slows but is
when the brakes are released the car can be steered, but is not being
common method of avoiding or overcoming road hazards is through
the use of
four-wheel drive. As the name indicates, this system provides power
to all four
wheels of the car, not just to the rear or front wheels as is generally
the case with
sedan-type automobiles. Any vehicle used for rugged driving is
equipped with four-wheel drive.
is a problem, such as driving on snow or mud, tire chains are
used. Tire chains, on the rear wheels or on all of the wheels, add
to tractive power on slippery roads. They are considered in Section
Improved traction can also be obtained with a limited-slip differential.
is available on most cars as a factory option. It supplies power to the
the best traction. While it does add to reliability, a limited-slip
offers some special maintenance problems, and is therefore not a
At least one
vehicle, the German Unimog, provides differential locks that
slipping ability of the differential. As a result all power is
to the tire with traction, even if only one tire has traction at the
drive should be engaged only when it is needed. The practice of
leaving a car
in 4WD just because it might be necessary somewhere down the
increases tire wear and may also damage the drive train. This is
four tires are being moved under power, but the tires are not exactly
the same size
due to tire wear and differences in tread thickness and inflation
larger tire will go farther with a single revolution than the smaller
one, and one
of the two will have to be scuffed along to make up the difference
and rear axle speeds. This scuffing wears away the tread, and if
the road is
hard and dry so that the tires cannot scuff, the drive train may be
drivers will run in two-wheel drive until they see an obstacle ahead,
shift to 4WD without stopping. Because the car is still moving at a good
momentum may carry the car through the obstacle, with the help of
traction that results from engaging the front wheel drive. Once past
two-wheel drive can be resumed.
vehicles are equipped with constant four-wheel power supplied
gearbox similar to a differential. This system allows for variations in
eliminating dragging or scuffing and resulting tire damage. It also
the need for a control lever to engage the front wheel drive. This
more commonly found on luxury touring cars.
Traveling in Convoy
way to avoid getting stuck, or to simplify the process of extricating
a stuck car,
is to travel with two or more vehicles in a convoy. Each car can help
either pushing or pulling a stalled vehicle through difficult areas. If
a car must
travel on a poor road without a winch, having another car along with
a winch is
almost as good as having its own.
It is usually
advisable to send the more experienced driver first when going in
order to show the best way over or around obstacles. His chances of
through a difficult area are improved by his experience, and if he passes
following car does not, he can tow it through.
different sizes of cars are traveling in the same group, the drivers should
which one to send first. In deep snow, mud, or swamps, for example,
car should be sent through first. Its greater road clearance gives a
of getting through, and it can then tow the smaller car if it gets
stuck. If the
smaller car went first and got stuck, it would be necessary to pull
it out backward
(unless it had a winch) and then send the bigger car through.
On a bridge
of questionable strength, send the small car first. A weak bridge may
smaller car where it would collapse under the larger one. The driver
of the small
car can evaluate the larger car's chances as he crosses.
A great aid
to getting through slippery areas is the use of tire chains. Chains are
mud or snow, but provide a very rough ride on a smooth or hard road.
They are a
nuisance when they must be put on and taken off frequently to allow
alternating sections of good and poor road.
On very poor
roads or where no roads exist, chains on all four wheels and the
use of 4WD
will provide a tremendous increase in tractive power. Tire chains
be used on only two wheels if four-wheel drive is used. The
effective circumference of the tires with and without chains will
tremendous strains to the car's drive train, which may damage the vehicle.
The best type
of tire chains has V-shaped bars welded across the links that run
driving surface of the tire. This bar gives both added strength and,
important, added traction.
important consideration for long life of tire chains is a good fit on the
chain should be so tight that it cannot slip when the wheel turns. The
rubber circles used to pull the chains tight are not meant to hold loose
place. If necessary these spreaders can be supplemented with loops of
rubber. To pull the chains tight, many drivers deflate the tire
fasten the chains as tight as they will go, and then inflate the tire to
pressure. Another some what easier method is to put the chains on as tight
then drive around a bit until they have "settled in." This should not
than a few hundred feet (100 meters), then the chains can be pulled
up again. It
is surprising to see how much slack is left in the chains even though
tight when applied. Similarly, it is good practice to stop periodically
that the chains are tight while driving. They should never slap the
exhaust pipe, or any other part of the car.
tire chains when they are not needed causes severe wear. If used
hard-surfaced road, for example, the chains will soon be ruined by the
Loss of Traction
most commonly faced hazard on pioneer roads is loss of traction.
be caused by mud, snow, ice, wet leaves, or similar surface
or it can be related to another problem. For example, a car might be
hung up on a
rock and have the double problem of being anchored to the rock
insufficient traction to pull off.
mud is very similar to driving on snow, except that mud offers much
resistance to the passage of a wheel than snow does. In computing the
resistance, a measure of the retarding effect of a road surface to forward
movement of a
vehicle, the following formula is used:
(gross weight of vehicle, pounds or kgs)
x (road factor)
= rolling resistance (in lbs or
formula the following figures may be used for the "road factor":
good concrete road, 15
2 in (or 5 cm) of snow, 25
4 in (or 10 cm) of snow, 37
smooth dirt road, 25
sandy dirt road, 37
mud, 35 to 150, depending on type
soft sand, 60 to 150
a practical situation a driver will not stop near a swamp and get our
calculator to figure what the rolling resistance will be. On a theoretical
these figures it is evident that the resistance of mud is as much
as six times
as great as that of two inches (5 cm) of snow. To overcome the
the driver will need to use lower gears or other tractive aids.
experience will indicate that different types of mud have different effects
on the car.
Some mud may be recognized by a distinctive color or appearance.
will learn to be prepared for deep, thick mud, a slippery hill, or some
difficulty solely by the appearance of the mud's surface.
getting stuck, a good basic rule is never to do anything suddenly while
driving on a
slippery surface. Brakes, accelerator, or steering, if suddenly
usually result in a spin or slip. As a mental guide, it is often useful
that there is a drinking cup sitting on the front of the car, full to the
water. The goal is to drive the car without spilling a drop.
If the car
does skid in mud or snow, keep off the brake pedal. It will only make
worse. Instead, gently press the accelerator and steer in the direction in
which the car
is sliding. This may not be the desired direction of travel, but as
soon as the
car is under control it can be slowed and turned.
In an area
where loss of traction is a frequent problem, it is useful to carry a piece
canvas, or expanded metal to lay in front of a spinning tire. Planks are
often used in
the same way, but are less convenient to carry.
getting stuck in a swamp or mud hole it may be worth the effort
cut leafy branches or sticks to throw in before attempting to cross.
rocks, planks, sticks, sand, thick grass, or any other material that will
traction may take less time to gather than would be required to pull the
car out if it
be a great help in getting through a slippery area. If hills and swamps
is often the case, a driver can build up speed going downbill and
the swamp as fast as possible. The car will rapidly lose speed in the
mud, but the
inertia may carry it through. In any event, it will get farther than if
the car had
entered at slow speed. This method is rough on the car, and should
never be used
if a solid obstacle such as a rock or stump may be hidden in the
mud, since it
could rip the front end of the car apart. There is no way to get up
any speed in
an area where the hills are also slick, so under such circumstances
is of no value.
CAR can also be a problem where traction is low. Rather than
brakes, which will generally cause the car to spin or slide, shift the
to a lower gear to slow down. If the car must be stopped, pump the
brakes up and
ON A STEEP
HILL with poor traction a car may slip downward with all four
locked. This may be forward, sideways, or backward, or the car may spin
as it goes down. The same aids that are useful for moving will also
help to stop:
tire chains, leaves and branches on the road surface, etc. Another
great help in
such a situation is the "Block," which increases the area exposed
slippery surface. The Block is nothing more than a large piece of timber,
a handle cut into one end, which seems to be a universal piece of
driving on a poor road. It may be called a chock or wedge, or any
of a hundred
names in other languages, but it is found in any part of the world
pavement has not yet reached--and some where it has.
Piled-Up Mud or Solid Obstacles
obstacle caused by mud is the retarding effect when the chassis of the
deep enough to get hung up on the road surface. This is a special hazard
for cars with
small tires and, consequently, a low frame.
If there are
no rocks or stumps in the mud, the inertia principle described in
can be used to carry the car though the deep mud, or at least well
passengers to get out before a deep swamp will lighten the load, and
may help to
avoid getting stuck. There is much to be said for the universal
slogan, "Everybody get out and push!" Getting out decreases the load
the frame of the car; pushing increases the tractive effort.
If the other
vehicles using the road are of similar size to your own, it is usually
best to stay
in the ruts on a very muddy road. The mud in the ruts is likely to be
somewhat by earlier passages.
getting hung up, especially in a small car, it may be better to get off the
altogether under some circumstances.
getting stuck in deep snow may be somewhat different. Often the snow
higher than the hood of the car, so that the problem is not merely one of
up on the chassis. It becomes necessary to push the car into the
snow, and the
traction may not be adequate. The snow must be removed in such
a case. This
is usually done with a plow or blower mounted on the front of the
In snow less
than two feet (1/2 meter) deep, the principles used for driving in mud
getting hung up on rocks, stumps, and other solid obstacles is more a
judgment than power. Usually such obstacles are large enough to
passage, and one cannot simply push through without damaging the car.
car moving, then, means going around such obstacles if the car
freely over them. If there is any doubt, always get out and check.
most common type of bridge on a frontier road consists of parallel
across the stream. Generally there are three logs. One is on one side of
and two are on the other side. Both large and small vehicles will use
log on one side, the inner of the double logs is arranged to fit the
vehicle likely to use the road, and the outer log will accommodate
getting stuck on such a bridge is largely a matter of getting lined up
before starting across. While experience may allow some drivers to
without slowing down, the novice will do better to stop and check
sighting along the line of the logs it will be possible to determine
tires are properly lined up. Some drivers carry a piece of string for
bridges. One end of the string is held at the far end of the bridge and
the other end
at the back tire of the car; it should line up with the entire length
of the log
and the front tire of the car as well. (See Figure 3.06),
When you are
sure that the car is lined up, shift the car into 4WD, but not low
across the bridge as quickly as possible, so that inertia may carry
wheels across even if the rear ones slip off or the bridge collapses. In
event, the front wheels will often be able to pull the car across if they
the other side.
practiced, the crossing of a bridge of this type becomes quite routine, and
will learn to judge from some distance a rotten log or one that may slip
the capacity of the bridge is in doubt, it is usually advisable to ask
walk across, thus lightening the load on the bridge and perhaps
a bridge while towing a trailer, bear in mind the added length of
vehicles and do not stop before the trailer is fully across the bridge.
Section 6.80 on driving with a trailer.)
One of the
most common problems with log bridges, other than collapse due to
overloading, is the separation of the logs. This allows the tires to slip off
of the logs,
trapping the car. This can be prevented by proper bridge design,
logs with stakes or large rocks at the ends. A driver approaching
a bridge that
looks like its logs may separate can usually save time by fixing the
trying to cross. If the logs do drop the car, the bridge will have to
trauma to which many drivers may be unaccustomed is tipping over.
occur due to the road surface or the way in which the vehicle is loaded,
body style in which the load is carried high, such as a stake or platform
inherently less stable than one where the load is low, such as a pickup
Section 2.02.) Luggage racks on the roof will add to the tendency
to roll over.
also result from the angle of the road. On a slick hill with a drop
at the edge,
for example, try to keep the car away from the ditch. If two wheels
on one side
slip into the ditch, even though it may not be very deep, the car is
roll over. The inertia built up in sliding into the ditch will help to carry
the car over
onto its side.
unaccustomed to pioneer roads, some drivers feel insecure on them. If a
car feels as
though it is about to tip over, it is often helpful to get out and look
at it from in
front or behind. Generally it feels worse than it looks, and a quick
reassure the driver.
tie a length of string with a small weight on the end--a stone or
example--to some convenient part of the dashboard where it can
freely. As the car starts to tip the driver becomes familiar with how
angle between the string and the floor represents a danger point.
novice, it may even be worth tipping the car intentionally just to see how
far it can go
before capsizing. The learning experience may save a lot of grief
later. Fortunately speeds on pioneer roads are low, so that there is
danger to life from capsizing. The most notable exception would be a
where a great drop may be involved.
section has emphasized techniques to be used in avoiding
there is an important point to remember if capsizing is inevitable:
Shut off the
engine. As the car rolls over, oil will be drained away from the oil
the engine will get no lubrication, and it will risk freezing up. After
course, the first concern is the physical safety of the occupants.
reference may be made to Section 7.00 on field expedients for advice
Fording and Wading
construction problems, many frontier roads may not have bridges
streams. Cars are expected to ford the water, which is not common
areas where paved roads are the norm. Getting stuck while fording
extra problems, and extra care is warranted to avoid stalling.
with a ford area, stop and get out for a check before driving
through the water if possible on the same route the car will
bottom should be relatively firm and free of large rocks. There
acceptable entrance and exit paths. The current must not be strong
carry the car off, and the water should not be too deep. The allowable
depth will be
governed by the size of the car. Knee deep or slightly more is
greatest depth that a small car such as a jeep or land rover will cross
larger truck will be able to go proportionately deeper.
If the water
will be deep enough to wet the fan blades, loosen the fan belt
while crossing, so that the fan does not turn. This will keep the
system from getting sprayed and drowned. Of course, the fan belt must
immediately after crossing the ford.
If the car
has a clutch housing plug, as the Land Rover does, be sure it is in place
entering the water. This plug drains moisture from the clutch housing
when it is
removed, but the clutch would be "lubricated" by the water and the
would be corroded if the housing were full of water.
fording, keep the left foot lightly on the brake pedal. This will keep water
between the brake shoes and the drums, which would lubricate the
make them useless. Disc brakes, available on some 4WD cars,
reduce the problem of water lubrication.
Drive the car
slowly through water, since high speed will result in water being
thrown up by
the wheels which will drown the ignition system and stall the car.
diesel-powered vehicle such as the Unimog or a diesel Land Rover offers the
having no ignition system. It is consequently much more reliable
than a gasoline engine.
If current in
the stream threatens to wash the car downstream, attach the winch
cable to a
tree on the other side before starting across. If there is no winch on the
car, put a
wire cable across the stream along the down-stream side of the ford
area to act
as a guide for the car. This cable should be securely anchored to trees
or rocks on
completing the ford, check to see that the brakes are working. If they have
and are ineffective, hold the brake pedal down lightly while driving;
the heat will
dry the brake linings and restore stopping power.
If the fan
belt gets wet while crossing it may slip and fail to cool the radiator or
generator. For a quick check, look at the ammeter. If it shows a discharge
rather than a
charge, the belt is probably slipping. Stop and dry the belt with a
a trailer can be simplified by unhitching the trailer and sending the
first, then towing the trailer across with a length of wire rope.
If the water
is deep enough to cover the exhaust pipe, the pressure in the exhaust
reduce engine power or stall the engine. Once the engine has
water pressure will make it virtually impossible to restart, and the
car will have
to be towed out.
If a car is
driven into water that is too deep, or where the bottom is unsatisfactory,
it may stall
or capsize or both. Stalling on land is of little consequence, but in
water it may
be a serious matter. Extra attention to fording is therefore
accidents may result from a broken bridge, a ford that is too deep,
or from slipping
off an adjacent road into deep water. In all of these cases the
be avoided by the exercise of sufficient care.
in Section 2.01, it is well worth the trouble to remove the doors if
accident is even a remote possibility. This simple expedient can
be a real
is inevitable, it is important to shut off the engine before it goes
This will prevent the pistons from drawing water into the cylinders
and trying to
compress it as they do the gas-air vapor. Water cannot be
and the engine will be ruined in the attempt.
If there is
time, it is advisable to shut off all electrical accessories that may be
lights, radio, windshield wipers, electric fuel pump, etc.
instruction in Sections 5.01 and 7.20 regarding recovery and restoration of
drivers would be reluctant to experiment, it is interesting to note
classic Volkswagen "Beetle"--one of the most widely distributed
earth--will float in water for a short time if lightly loaded. Opening
however, lets the water in and sinks the car, so it is necessary to escape
EXTRICATING THE VEHICLE
No matter how
carefully they may try to avoid hazards, even the best drivers will
find that on
some roads there are obstacles that cannot be passed by ordinary
means and the
car becomes stuck. This section presents a number of suggestions
out of difficulties involving mud, rocks, log bridges, and other
step when the vehicle is stuck is to consider what resources are
The greatest asset is probably a winch. There are few problems that
remedied with this all-purpose tool, since it can move the car without
uses of the winch are so varied that an entire section (Section 6.00)
devoted to its operation.
a winch, however, there are many things that can be done to
car before it is necessary to give up and send for help--if any is
A SHOVEL is a
very basic tool, and should be a part of the equipment carried
in the car if
mud, sand, or snow must be crossed.
provide tremendous power, although the travel they can
limited to a few inches in most cases.
PLANKS can be
used as levers, hole fillers, mats to provide traction, etc. They
platforms for jacks, which otherwise may slip and drop the car.
A BLOCK AND
TACKLE can multiply a person's pulling power several times,
and there are
many types of ratchet hoists and similar devices that can be used
to move a
stuck vehicle in much the same way as a winch except that they are
and do not have the speed of a winch.
often overlooked as a source of rescue power. The kind of
available will vary widely from one area to another, but any animal that
can pull a
plow should be capable of pulling a car if necessary. In areas where
is inexpensive and plentiful it is often possible to gather a group
of people to
haul on a towrope for a small fee, or even for no charge at all if motor
enough of a novelty.
WELD A HOOK
onto a wheel for use in an emergency as a replacement for
traction. Weld the hook in such a way that it would be inside the tire if
a tire were
fitted to the wheel. When stuck, jack up and remove the slipping
replace it with the prepared wheel. Attach a rope to the hook on the
attach the other end to a solid anchor such as tree or rock, in front of
Drive the car forward, letting the hook hold the rope and wind it onto
like a winch. (See Figure 4.00a)
can often be wrapped around a tire in much the same manner. The
trick is to
drive the car along the length of the rope until it is out of the difficult
wide tires this is not difficult, and is a very satisfactory way of
the car. (See Figure 4.00b.)
PRACTICE is that of attaching a rope to the propeller shaft to get
The shaft was not meant to handle a pulling load from the side;
intended only to transfer a twisting motion from the gearbox to the
The use of a propeller shaft in this way may bend the shaft or
can often be used as ropes if not enough manufactured rope
Generally the vines should be twisted to separate the fibers at the
point where a
knot is to be made, or else the vine will break. In many tropical
are vines that will serve very well as towing cables, taking a
amount of strain without breaking. Residents of the area will
which vines are useful for this work.
is not a resource in the same way as the other items listed
here, but it
is a great aid in many cases. With it advice can be sought, and if the
car cannot be
extricated the radio can be used to send for assistance. Where radio
is in common
use in this manner, everyone seems to make check calls on the
resulting confusion and jammed frequencies. A much more satisfactory
is to make check calls at some less common time, perhaps 20
Stuck in Mud or Snow
stuck in mud or snow in two basic ways: They either lose traction on
surface or become bogged down when the frame is hung up. A
of both is also common. This section considers the loss of traction.
increases traction and eliminates "dead" wheels, the problem of loss
is most commonly faced on a hill. In flat areas the 4WD will usually
of traction, especially if used with tire chains on all four wheels.
requires greater traction than flat ground.
If a car
slips while trying to climb a hill, it may be useful to remove some of the
load from the
vehicle and make another attempt. As outlined in Section 3.05,
there is a
reason why most foreign drivers soon learn to say "Everybody get out
push!" in the local language. This method, though admittedly primitive,
load and increases the traction.
wheels in an effort to get out of a muddy or snowy spot will rarely
do any good
at all. The temptation is to use a heavy foot on the accelerator; it
that sheer power should get the car out. This is not the case,
spinning will soon overheat the tires, bonding the inner tubes to
melting the inner tubes, or even setting fire to the tires. A little
will reveal that the greatest traction is obtained by creeping the
car out of
such a spot as slowly as possible so that the wheels stick to the surface
technique of little value in an extended swamp, muddy hill, or snowy
rocking the car back and forth, which may be done with the engine or by
While it may get the car out of the slippery spot if it is small, a 4WD
car is not
likely to get stuck in a small slippery spot. In a swamp, for example,
it will take
a great deal of rocking to get to the other side.
There are a
number of useful methods that can be applied when stuck in snow
or mud for
lack of traction. They are presented here in no particular order, and
selected in relation to the problem at hand.
SLIP DIFFERENTIAL may be aided in its work by lightly
brake pedal with the left foot while operating the accelerator with
foot. This will simulate traction for one of the wheels if both wheels
on an axle
are spinning. Then the special differential will be able to do its job
power to the wheel with better traction.
WHEEL on a car without a limited slip differential can often be
lightly pressing the brake pedal, as outlined above.
help get a car through a slick spot. If stuck, back up as far
then charge into the obstacle with as much speed as possible.
get the car through; it should at least move it a few feet more
from where it
had been. The process can then be repeated.
brush, sand, boards, grass, rags, or anything else that might
traction can be put in front of the wheels if the car can back up a bit. This
may be combined with the momentum method mentioned above
to get the
car moving again.
THE JACK can
be used to lift the wheels if the car cannot move backward or
Raise a wheel and put in rocks, sticks, burlap, grass, branches, a truck
anything else that may increase traction. Let the wheel down with
the jack and
repeat the process on the other wheels.
be a virtue if the sun is shining on a car stuck in mud. Using a
remove mud from around the vehicle, and let the sun dry the area
to allow the car to move. Often this may take some time, but the time
otherwise be spent in hard physical labor trying to get the car out, and it
easier to wait for the sun to do the work.
in a swampy area can also be used to carry mud away. It will
to channel the water, using a shovel, so that it will move the mud
from the area
where the car is stuck. If the mud rests on a hard base it will
up the water and make more mud, worsening the problem.
BRAKE can often be used to hold a spinning wheel so that the
on that axle can be used to move the car. If the car has parking brakes
on each rear
wheel rather than a single brake on the transmission, fasten a rope
to the wire
cable that operates the brake on the spring wheel using a C-clamp
pliers. Pass the rope under the chassis, under the front of the car, and
into the cab.
Pull hard on the rope, possibly using a short lever such as a stick
of wood or
hammer handle, and this will pull the wire cable, setting the brake
on one wheel.
While holding the brake on, gently apply power. As the car begins
release the parking brake extension rope and drive out of the difficult
method cannot be used, almost any means can be tried to stop a wheel from
Some suggestions include wedging the space between the spinning
wheel and the
body with a big plank, chaining the wheel to the chassis so it
or jamming it with rocks under the fender. The other wheel on that
then get the power that was wasted on spinning, possibly moving the
course, such wedging or other fastening must be removed as soon as the
car is free
or the wheel will be dragged and may halt the car.
All of these
expedients are made unnecessary on the Mercedes-Benz Unimog,
locks for both differentials. Both wheels on the axle lock together so
either one gets traction it will move the Unimog, and the other won't spin.
Hung Up in Mud or Snow
major threat from mud or snow is snow deep enough in it to allow
to become hung up. This creates so much drag on the car that the tires
traction, and the car cannot proceed.
difficulty is often more easily dealt with than that of pure loss of traction,
driver is able to see the obstacle and can either remove it or go around
the most common method of extricating a car from deep snow or mud
is to dig it
out, thus removing the obstacle.
in Section 3.05, there are snow conditions in which it is unreasonable
to expect a
car to operate without a plow. If snow is two feet (1/2 meter) or
depth, a 4WD car with chains should be able to get through.
If the front
end is hung up in the snow or mud, try backing out. It may help to
traction under the wheels using sand, gravel, sticks, leaves, grass,
whatever else is at hand. Once off the obstacle, cut it down with
If a snow
drift threatens to block forward progress, the driver can try pushing
the deep section, stopping before becoming hung up on the snow,
out and trying again. A short distance will be gained each time until
breaks through the drift. Drivers who hit the drift at full speed generally
get hung up
before breaking through.
of the load is another useful expedient. It allows the frame to rise
springs, since the springs are not so heavily loaded. This increase in
clearance may make it possible to get the car out. It should at least make
it easier to
free the car. The axles may rise slightly as a result of reduced load
on the tires,
but will not rise as much as the chassis.
If the car
cannot be backed up, it will be necessary to lift it over the obstacle.
With a small
car and a large number of people it may be possible to lift the car
hand to get off the obstacle. Otherwise jack up the wheels one by one
and pack the
space under them with logs, sticks, or planks. This will provide
roadway, albeit rather crude, on which the car can be driven over the
Once the car
is moving again, use every means to keep it going. Momentum is
a great aid
to getting a car through deep snow or mud, and keeping a car moving
much easier than getting it started from a dead stop. If the hazard is an
one, it may be advisable to drive with one side of the car off the road,
up on the
ridge of snow or mud, if the ridge is packed hard enough. Once moving,
and 3.05 will provide some assistance on how to keep the car
Hung Up on a Solid Obstacle
similar to being hung up in mud or snow, the problem of getting stuck
on a rock,
stump, or other solid obstacle presents its own difficulties. The prime
concern is to
avoid damage to the car, since a rock can rip a hole in the crankcase
or gas tank
or cause damage to the steering or drive train.
It is not
usually practical to pull a solid obstacle out from under the car, since
the weight of
the car is resting on it. If the car has a winch, it may be possible
technique described in Section 6.52. The only alternative is to lift the
car off the
obstacle. The most common way of doing this is with a jack, lifting
the car and
placing logs or planks under the wheels to raise the chassis off the
may only be necessary to raise one side of the car, particularly if the
in a log bridge can mean either the inconvenience of having to
car from between the logs or the major calamity of losing the car
water. Difficulties involving submerging are discussed in Section 5.01.
If the tires
are stuck between the logs of a bridge, spinning will rarely get them
explained in Section 4.01, the heat that results from the friction will only
tires. Much greater tractive power results if the wheels do not spin.
Often it may
be possible for several people to lift a car upward and forward while
it is driven
off the bridge.
A jack can be
used to lift the wheel from the space between the logs, and the car
can then be
intentionally pushed sideways off the jack, dropping the wheel onto
a log. (See
A plank can
be used to fill the space between logs. The tire should be jacked up
from the hole
and the plank inserted under it to provide a temporary roadway.
The tire is
then lowered onto the plank and the car driven off the bridge.
A small tree
trunk or branch can be used as a ramp from below the bridge in some
one end of the log, perhaps four inches (10 cm) in diameter, in
separated logs in front of the stuck tire from the underside of the
it forward as far as it will go, and then raise the free end from the
it meets the tire. A rope can be used to haul the lower end of the log
secure it temporarily while the car is driven off. (See Figure 4.04b)
while fording a stream is no different from being stuck elsewhere,
principal exception: if the car is stuck with the engine or tailpipe under
water, do not
try to restart the engine once it has stopped. Pull the car out of the
other power: people, another car, animals, etc.
all the expedients listed elsewhere in this section apply to a car stuck
PROCEDURES WHEN STRANDED
In the event
that none of the advice given in Sections 4.00 through 4.05 or any
attempts will extricate the vehicle, then it may be considered stranded, and
assistance will be necessary. In this event one must either await the
help or go and look for assistance.
many parts of the world where being stranded is a serious matter, due
intemperate weather, wild animals, lack of food or water, or simply the
the area. This book is not intended as a survival course, but there
items to review in advance, before you find yourself stranded.
the variety of supplies that may be needed in a vehicle used in a
a complete section (Section 14. 10)has been devoted to this subject.
CAR is generally not a good idea unless you (or a member of
are absolutely sure of where you are and where the nearest source
of help is,
and how to get there. In hot areas such as deserts the car provides
shade, which are not available elsewhere. The best shelter in a desert
will be found
by digging a hole under the car.
In very cold
climates the vehicle will provide shelter from wind, and the bulk
of the car makes
it more easily seen by potential rescuers than an individual
climate the car will provide shelter from animals. Even if the car has
it is generally safer and more comfortable to sleep in it than on the
check should be made to see that no gas is leaking to cause a fire
SUPPLY should be carried in the car in any area where drinking
water is not
In a warm
climate, if no water is available, a simple solar still can be constructed.
Dig a hole
about a foot deep and three feet in diameter and place a cup or other
the middle of it. Lay a sheet of clear plastic over the hole and weight
with a ring of dirt to hold it in place. Into the center of the plastic drop
a small stone
so that the plastic points downward into the cup. Water will
the soil due to the heat of the sun, and will drop from the center
plastic sheet into the cup. (See Figure 5.00)
snow-covered areas, snow can be melted to provide drinking water. If there
is no wood Or
Other local fuel, consider putting a small amount of gasoline on
air cleaner element and burning it. Snow can be contained in a
hubcap or a
tool box for heating over the fire.
WALK FOR HELP
only along the road, if there is one, unless a member of the
party is very
familiar with the area. In general, even though the distance is
is better to follow the road when searching for assistance. This is
true if there are any other vehicles in the area that might use the same
road or a
be made to attract attention, either by day or night. If people are
known to be
nearby, it may be possible to attract their attention by sounding the
daytime, a smoky fire will usually be seen from a distance of many miles
on a calm
day. Gasoline from the car can be used to start the fire. For fuel, either
sticks or a
tire can be used. Once a good fire has been made with dry sticks, green
be added to make smoke. If using a tire pick the worst one on the
car, take it
off the rim, and arrange a good pile of kindling to get it started. A tire
is hard to
ignite, and some rags soaked in gas or some other source of heat will
be needed to
start it burning. Once started, the fire will produce a great deal of
make a fire on high ground so that it can be seen.
If a car has
become submerged in water it may be considered stranded, since the
be used to extricate it. The principal consideration will be getting
occupants out and marking the location of the car. Then recovery
can be arranged.
of a submerged car is no trouble if the doors have been
they have not, the water pressure will prevent them from being
the car has nearly filled with water. For this reason it will be
escape through a window or wait until the car has nearly filled
opening a door. In a tightly built car this may take as much as several
although generally 10 or 15 minutes is a more average time.
PRESERVERS may be arranged for those who cannot swim if the car is
from land. In many 4WD cars the seat cushions are made of foam
will float. Empty or partially empty fuel cans are excellent floats,
and a spare
tire will float even while carrying the weight of the steel rim.
LOCATION may be important if the car is likely to be moved
by current or
will be hard to find for any other reason. Tie a rope or string to the
attach the other end to a float for a marker.
CAR if it is in fast-moving water where it may be carried off
It can be tied with rope or cable to any secure anchor on the land such
as a tree.
OPERATIONS become quite routine in some areas where bridges
reliable, or where roads often follow waterways. In the Netherlands, for
emergency crews have been formed whose sole job is the recovery of
A winch on a
recovery vehicle can usually provide enough power to haul out a
car. Winching techniques for salvage are described in Section 6.40.
If no winch
is available, two or more vehicles may be needed to pull out the
car. The towing cable should be attached to front towing hooks on
car, or to its front axle. If the car is not upright under the water,
it will be
much easier to right the vehicle while most of the weight is supported
by the water
rather than after it is on land. This can be done with cables to the
When the car
has been brought near land and starts to rise above the surface of
the water, it
will be necessary to let any water drain out of it to lighten the load
recovery vehicles. Open any doors or other water-retaining barriers to
drain the car
as completely as possible as it comes out of the water.
can be used when the submerged car cannot be dragged over a
for fear of damaging it. To float the car, it is necessary to put
air inside the car, or attach them to the outside. The containers may
be old inner
tubes, oil drums, gas cans, or even plastic bags filled with air. The
the heavier water, and raises the car to the surface.
55-gallon (200 liter) fuel drum will lift about 300 pounds (1 35 kg)
if the water
is pumped out of it. To use a drum or any similar container, first fill
it with water
so that it just barely floats, and arrange it in the submerged vehicle
so that the
filling hole is at the bottom. An Enginair pump, tire pump, the exhaust
salvage vehicle (if the submerged car is not too deep), or any other
source of air
can be used to pump air into the drum. The bubbles will rise inside
gradually moving the water out through the filling hole. When air
filled the drum they will start to pour out the filling hole, rising to
and indicating that the process is completed.
containers have been put in or attached to the car and filled with
air in this
manner, the car will rise to the surface and can then be pulled to shore
with a cable
on field expedients after submerging describes how to rehabilitate
WINCHES AND TOWING
recovery processes use a winch, or towing by another vehicle, that the
two have been
grouped in this section. Suggestions for towing a trailer are also
tool for all of these operations is the tow rope, which may be a natural
fiber rope or strap, wire cable, chain, or any combination of these.
common form of tow cable or winch cable is wire rope. The basic
this material over fiber rope such as manila is its great strength. In
chain, wire rope offers lighter weight for the same strength. The
table illustrates the breaking strength of several common sizes of
fiber core plow steel rope. (Galvanized cable is about 90 percent of this
5,660 pounds ( 2,570 kg)
( 3,980 kg)
12,300 pounds ( 5,580 kg)
( 7,440 kg)
21,100 pounds ( 9,570 kg)
(14.25 mm) 26,300
pounds (11,930 kg)
32,400 pounds (14,700 kg)
46,200 pounds (20,950 kg)
inch (22.25 mm)
81,900 pounds (37,150 kg)
It is evident
from examination of this chart that even with relatively small cable
that can be supported will be in excess of the weight of the car. There
therefore, no advantage to using very heavy wire cable in most cases. It is
work with, since it is hard to bend and join, and it is very heavy.
Joining Wire Cable
disadvantage of wire cable is the difficulty of joining one section
With fiber rope, this is easily done with a knot, but if a wire rope
knotted the strands will be kinked and weakened. Often a knot cannot
from wire rope if it has been strained. Also, a knot will jam in a
mechanism and will keep the cable from lying flat.
to use ordinary knots in wire rope need not be a handicap if the
prepared in advance. Every piece of cable should have either a hook
or a loop in
each end, never just a straight end.
HOOKS can be
placed in wire rope for the greatest ease of attachment to another
cable or to a car or tree. Hooks are available with holes through which
the cable can
be passed. The cable is then joined as described in succeeding
EYES can be
made in the end of wire rope by splicing, but this is a very difficult
consuming task. A much easier way is to use several U-bolts to secure
compromise between the spliced eye, with its tremendous strength,
and an eye
with U-bolts, which is very quick to make, is a folded eye. It is made
the end of the wire rope into two strands approximately equal in
the cable is unraveled it retains its form, leaving a channel where
half had been. Unravel the cable for about three feet, then fold the ends
opposite directions to form an eye. Carefully lay the strands back
again to complete the eye, then clamp the remaining pigtail of cable
with a U-bolt
or rope clip. (See Photo 6.02d.)
A hook can be
placed in this type of eye by threading the two strands through
the hole in
the hook from the opposite directions before rejoining the two halves.
sections of wire cable, perhaps 8 feet (2.5 meters) to 15 feet (4.5 meters)
are much more valuable when traveling in convoy than a single great
save handling unneeded cable and can be readily stored.
TO JOIN LOOPS
in the ends of cables that have no hooks, put one loop through
and then secure it with a heavy rod such as a tire iron, jack handle,
some other convenient item. A long as a strain is maintained on the
joint will hold well. (See Figure 6.02.)
CABLE that has been pulled tight will be much weaker than
the rest of
the cable. Cut out the kinked section and make two shorter cables;
there is no
practical way of salvaging a kinked section of cable.
of photographs <see photos 6.02a & 6.02b> depicts a simple way to
make a strong eye in the end
of a wire
cable, such as a winch cable or towing line. First, locking pliers are
placed on the
cable to prevent it from unwinding too far. Then the cable is split
relatively equal portions and unwound back to the pliers. A shown in
the portions of cable are then threaded through the eye of the hook,
if one is to
In the top
photograph, the two segments of the cable have been mated together
to form the
eye. The remaining portion, above the pliers in Photo 6.02c, will be
complete the re-forming of the cable. In photo 6.02d, U-clamps have
installed and the end of the splice wrapped with tape to avoid injury from
wires. Notice that one of the U-clamps is mounted on the eye, and the
other two on
the standing portion of the wire and the pigtail end. For light loads,
may be sufficient.
Storage of Wire Rope
rope is not very flexible, storage often becomes a problem. On some
front bumper can be used for storage. On a Land-Rover or Toyota Land
example, a great length of wire rope can be wound in a figure 8
ends of the front bumper.
If cable is
stored on the front bumper, be sure that it cannot hang down and get
snagged on a
rock or some other obstacle. The cable is very strong, and could
considerable damage to the car before the vehicle stopped or the obstacle was
Wire rope can
also carried conveniently by wrapping around a wheel trim. On
space is provided for more than one spare tire, this may be a useful
way to carry
cable. On a truck with flat sides, two wheels can be attached so that
wire rope can
be wrapped around them in a figure 8. (See Figure 6.03)
Land-Rover, where the spare tire is carried on the hood, it is often
wind a short cable around the spare tire. If the cable is not often
needed in a
Land-Rover station wagon, it can be wrapped around the backs of
seats, between the seats and the wall.
It is often
convenient to carry cable on the cab roof. A light basket can be made
reinforcing rod to carry the cable, or a conventional cartop carrier may
serve the purpose.
Types of Fiber Rope
The two basic
types of rope are fiber rope and wire rope. The fiber rope may
into natural and synthetic fibers. Each offers distinct advantages
is the best of the natural fiber ropes. The individual strands
of fiber are
long and strong, making a rope that has greater strength and
than hemp, jute, sisal, or other materials sometimes used for rope.
chart illustrates the maximum breaking strength of manila rope
by one manufacturer.
1/2 inch (12.5 mm)
2,600 pounds (1,180 kg)
5/8 inch (16
4,400 pounds 2,000 kg)
3/4 inch (19
5,400 pounds (2,450 kg)
inch (25.5 mm) 9,000
pounds (4,080 kg)
1 1/4 inch (31 mm)
13,500 pounds (6,120 kg)
service, a rope should not be stressed to more than half of the breaking
an emergency dictates that the rope must be stressed to near the
strength, it should be retired from strenuous service because of the
it may break with the next heavy pull. Similarly, any rope that has
and pulled severely so that the imprint of the knot remains in the
ENDS of a rope is the process of binding fibers so that they
do not fray
at the ends. If the fibers do start to fray, the rope will soon unravel,
unwound. This makes it very difficult to tie the end of the rope, and
substantially since the pull is not equal on each strand.An easy way
to whip the
ends of fiber rope is to wrap them in black plastic electrical tape. A
better way is
to use a piece of light string as described in the following steps: (See
Leave a few inches (cm) of string hanging
over the end of the rope and lay
the string along the rope from the end
back about two inches (5 cm). Hold
it with the thumb of the left hand while
supporting the rope in the palm of
Pull the main part of the string back beside
the first strand, leaving a loop
that is held by the thumb of the left
Starting about an inch (2.5 cm) from the end
of the rope, begin winding the
string around the rope, spiraling toward
the left thumb.
When the wrapping has nearly reached the
loop, cut the string and pass the
end of the spiral through the loop.
Pull on the free end of the string that was left
hanging in step 1. This will
draw the other end under the wrapping.
When the end is about halfway into
the wrapping, cut off both ends of the
string and trim the rope to complete
such as clothesline, can be prevented from fraying by dipping the
varnish or lacquer.
eye into the end of the rope is not difficult, and makes a permanent
loop at the
end for attaching the rope to a car, tree, or whatever is needed. While
not a hard job, it requires practice and is beyond the scope of this
book. One of
the best ways to learn splicing is from a sailor or fisherman.
natural fiber ropes should be in a place where there is ventilation
rot from moisture. Natural fiber rope should be dried before storing
if it is damp
Synthetic Fiber Ropes
replacement for natural fiber ropes, synthetic fiber ropes have become very
can be used for the same purposes. They are strong and light and
They can be used with a capstan winch, for towing, and other similar
was one of the first successful synthetic fiber ropes. Nylon
makes a very
strong rope with some stretch, which can take up the shock of
disabled vehicle. The cost of nylon rope is higher than manila, but it
and is less subject to abuse. In addition, it will float, and doesn't rot.
ROPE has recently become available in large sizes. It is
nylon or manila, and so light that it will float, but it does not have
stretch as nylon. The initial cost is about the same as manila. It is an
all-purpose rope for towing, anchoring, winching, and other heavy
use. It is
also available in small diameters for securing a load in a truck and
purposes. Even the very small diameters will hold 500 to 1,000 pounds
(225 to 450
ENDS of a synthetic rope is easily done with heat. Simply put
the end of
the rope in a flame, or press it against a hot ember from a wood or coal
heat will fuse the fibers together.
EYE in synthetic rope is just as useful as with natural fibers. The
difference is that a longer splice is needed because the fibers are more
manila. Small diameters of synthetic rope are usually braided and
spliced by ordinary methods; an eye must be tied in the end.
Knots for Fiber Ropes
One of the
great advantages of fiber rope over wire rope is that it can be easily
knots. Probably the most useful knot for towing and winching is the
is for several reasons: it cannot jam, and no matter how hard it is
can be easily opened; it will not slip up to make a smaller eye under
can be used to join a rope to another rope or to an object such as a car
As with any
knot, the only way to become familiar with it is through practice.
Take a small
piece of rope and tie this knot over and over again until it becomes
nature, and it loses its mystery.
To tie a
bowline, follow the accompanying diagrams and remember the little
has helped novices learn this most useful knot for centuries: "Once
upon a time
there was a snake who lived in a hole near a tree. One day the snake
awoke in his hole
and decided to see what was going on outside. He stuck his
head out of
the hole, went around the tree, and, seeing nothing that interested
back down in his hole." The standing end of the rope is the tree; the
free end is
the snake. (See Figure 6.12)
should never be used to join two ropes for towing, since
jam them so tightly that they cannot be untied without damaging the
TO JOIN TWO
ROPES for towing, tie a bowline in the end of one rope, then
tie an interlocking
bowline in the other. In similar fashion, a bowline can be used
to join fiber
rope to wire rope, chain, or some other object.
If a fiber
rope is tied to a sharp-edged object, such as a spring shackle or car
should be protected with a layer of rags, a piece of old tire, a piece
of hose or
some other padding. If a rope is to be used for this type of service as
thing, such as the end of a winch cable, it is preferable to attach a short
chain to the end of the rope, and a hook on the end of the chain. The
make it possible to connect to any sharp-edged object without cutting.
TOWING with a
fiber rope is more satisfactory than with wire rope or chain
can stretch. This same advantage, however, means that the load must
gradually if the rope is not to be broken. This is not a serious problem
with a winch,
where drum speed is very low, but it should be remembered when
derelict or extricating a stuck vehicle.
Nylon Towing Straps <see photos
prepared nylon towing straps are available, consisting of a strong
with forged steel hooks on each end. Generally about 20 feet (6 meters)
these straps are very compact when folded up and several can be
carried in a
small cloth bag. They are most useful for connecting a towing
vehicle to a
stuck vehicle, rather than with a winch. These straps are relatively
and are a worthwhile investment.
to a wire cable, the nylon towing strap has the ability to stretch. This
nylon strap two great advantages: First, the potential for damage to
stuck and towing vehicles caused by the sudden exertion of a great deal
of force is
virtually eliminated. Second, there is tremendous potential energy in
towing strap. The stuck vehicle thus has, in effect, two forces
remove it: the tractive effort of the towing truck, and the potential
in the stretched cable. This can double the pulling force on the
vehicle, in comparison to the use of wire cable, which can only transfer
effort of the towing vehicle to the stuck vehicle.
same effect is achieved if a nylon towing strap is used in
with a winch, the stretching value is not as great. The best use of the
is a direct connection between the chassis of the towing vehicle and
of the stuck vehicle. The towing vehicle should pull on the towing
it is barely tight, then the towing car should make a maximum effort
to jerk the
stuck vehicle free. The combined tractive force and extension of the
strap can be
very effective. Several straps can be used for a longer reach by
them to each other. The stretching effect is cumulative and is
greatly increased by using two or three tow straps in series.
greater ease of handling than wire rope, and greater strength than
It is easy to handle and does not get kinked or jammed easily. It can
around an axle or bumper without damage, since the metal links will
not be cut by
disadvantages of chain are its heavy weight and the difficulty of
piece to another. It is also subject to rust.
Since it is
difficult or impossible to tie knots in chain, other methods must be
used to join
pieces together. The most convenient is to have a hook at each end
of the chain.
Hooks can be either the wide-mouth type, which will slip over
links, or the
narrow-mouth type--sometimes called snatch hooks--which are
enough to hold one link and will not slip over the next link. The snatch
hook is often
easier to get unfastened after towing or winching, since the hook
does not slip
under the car to the axle or other point of attachment.
Chain can be
joined to a piece of wire rope to provide a tow cable of greater value
element used alone. The ends should be made of short pieces of
perhaps three feet long, with a hook at the end. The main body of the tow
be made of wire rope. It is not possible to use chain on a capstan
friction with the turning capstan would be insufficient to pull the
it would theoretically be possible to use chain on a drum winch,
would be much too great. The combination of chain and wire rope
these disadvantages. <see photos
Storage of Chain
it is very flexible, is easier to store than wire rope. Since it cannot
avoids one of the big problems of natural fiber rope.
Chain can be
carried in a cloth bag under the seat of a car, or in a tool box of the
many 4WD cars have under the front seat.
If a spare
tire is carried on the hood such as is often done with the Land-Rover
chain can be
carried in the depression at the center of the wheel. This should not
be done in
areas where the car is likely to capsize, since the chain will be needed
capsizing and may be under the car.
satisfactory way to repair chain is by welding. A link is cut and spread
admit the other end of the broken portion, then closed and welded.
are also available at very little cost for chain repairs. These are similar
to regular links, except that they have been split lengthwise so that
they can be
opened. (See Figure 6.23a)
A bolt can be
used to connect the ends of a broken chain, but the end product will
not be as
strong as a section of unbroken chain. (See Figure 6.23b)
most common way of repairing chain is with a piece of wire passed
ends of the two parts as many times as is practical. While this may
serve as a
field expedient, it should not be regarded as a permanent repair.
The winch is
probably the most useful single accessory item on a car used in
terrain. Where a car must normally depend on the traction of its wheels,
makes it possible to move the car without any traction whatever from
4WD vehicle can be fitted with a winch on the front end. Many
can also be
provided with a winch at the rear for special purposes.
While a winch
does represent a major investment, it should be remembered that
it can be
transferred to another car at some later date when the present vehicle
is no longer
Selecting a Winch
manufacturers offer only one model of which for a given vehicle. This
necessity for making a choice. In cases where several types are
following points should be considered:
A WORM GEAR
in the drive train of the winch will keep it from slipping
power is removed. The worm gear is usually used to drive the
end of the
drum on which the cable is wound. It consists of a threaded shaft
similar to a
very large bolt, which is turned by the power source. The threads
in a circular gear around the end of the cable drum. When the
shaft turns, the gear teeth are slowly "screwed" around to turn the
TYPES of winch are in common use, the drum and capstan. The
has a rotating drum to which one end of the cable is attached. As
turns it winds up the cable like a spool of thread. The capstan winch
also has a
rotating drum, but the rope is not attached. A few turns of fiber rope
around the slowly turning drum, or capstan, and the free end held by
Pulling on the free end increases the friction on the drum, and the
to move toward the operator. When in use, the other end of the rope
to a tree or other fixed object. As the operator pulls the free end, the
rope is wound
along by the drum and pulls the car ahead.
winch is the more popular arrangement, since it needs no attendant to
hold the free
end as a capstan winch does, and the cable is stored on the drum,
the problem of where to keep it. A drum winch generally uses wire
is stronger and smaller then the fiber rope used on capstan winches.
Installing a Winch
While it is
possible to install a winch on a car in the field, it generally requires
chassis and welding. For this reason it is better to get the winch
the factory on a new vehicle. An exception is the electric winch,
which has no
mechanical link to the engine and can be bolted or welded to the
frame of the
car with little difficulty.
common location for a winch is in the front bumper of a vehicle; it is
to mount a winch under the rear of the pickup truck type body. The
mounting location should be based in part on the type of service and
Front mounting is useful for vehicles on difficult terrain that will have
"rescue" themselves from problem areas where four-wheel drive cannot
move the car.
Rear mounting a winch is best for vehicles that will be responsible
recovery of others, or will be used on relatively good roads.
provides better weight balance, putting the mass of the winch
over the rear
wheels. It can also be a great advantage when trailers are used to
truck's carrying capacity. The winch can be used to pull the trailer
risky bridge after the truck has passed. Front mounting adds the weight
of the winch
to that of the engine which already weighs heavily on the front tires.
Winch Drive Systems
several different systems by which the power of the vehicle's engine
to the rotating drum of the winch. In many cases a single
will offer several different drive options.
consists of a drive shaft from the front of the engine, usually off
connection that drives the V-belt to the fan and generator. This shaft
the radiator to the front of the car where the winch is mounted, and
continues through a small gearbox and shifting mechanism in the
housing, and then to the drum. This type of winch is generally controlled
front of the car.
In many cases
the drive shaft comes from the front of the car's gearbox, with a
handle in the cab rather than on the winch itself. In this case the shaft
or beside the engine to the winch location. This arrangement has
of being controlled from the driver's seat.
need not necessarily be mounted on the front of the car, and when it
is located at
the rear the power generally comes from the gearbox. A shaft
the rear of the car to the winch. Any winch drive system that takes
from the vehicle's transmission, and this would include most large
the advantage of being controlled by the driver from inside the cab.
arrangement is safer in the event of a broken cable, and allows the driver
engine speed to control the pull on the cable.
WINCHES use a small hydraulic pump that is usually driven by
takeoff on the vehicle transmission. This pump is connected with hoses
hydraulic motor in a winch. This arrangement offers immense power. The
manual, for example, notes that the hydraulic winch fitted to that
move a fully loaded truck across a dry surface with its wheels
hydraulic winch offers a built-in safety release to prevent overloading
the system or
the cable, and is controlled from inside the cab.
WINCHES are generally available from surplus houses, as well as
equipment manufacturers. They are not usually installed by car manufacturers,
later. The surplus types are made with special-purpose motors
aircraft motors and adapted to drive the winch. Others are specifically
this purpose. Since electric winches do not need a shaft to the
can be adapted to most vehicles with little effort, and are easily
They are the easiest type to put in the field, and to move to a new car.
offer the advantage of being operable when the engine is not running,
such as when
the car is stuck in deep water with the engine drowned--as long
battery is in good condition. Models are available with a capacity up to
(5,000 kg). They are relatively light in weight, and it is practical
to put one on
the front and one on the rear of a vehicle. The great disadvantage
electric winch is its high electric current demand. Extended use of the
discharge the vehicle's battery, even if the engine is left running.
The goal in
selecting winch cable is to use the smallest diameter that will not
break under the
strain. Heavy cable is not very flexible and tends to bind on the
There is no sense in using cable that will hold more than the
that can be exerted by the winch. As an example, the standard
supplied on the Ford Bronco is a 5/16 inch (8mm) diameter wire rope, 150
meters) long. Uncoated plow steel rope of this size will hold more than
(3,600 kg), certainly enough for a car whose gross weight is under
(1,800 kg). (See Section 6.01.)
There is a
common tendency to assume that the bigger a wire rope is, the better
it is. This
tendency should be avoided through realistic examination of the
the car's weight and the strength of the cable in question.
Use of the Winch
discussing the use of the winch in recovery operations, it is well to note
versatile device is useful for a great many other things. In logging and
building with logs, for example, the use of the winch cable makes it
haul logs out of areas where the car cannot go. The winch cable can
haul a log
across a stream from the other side, or across a swamp that would be
for the car.
The winch can
be used for removing rotten logs from a bridge by lifting them
to loosen the ends; then the car can be backed away, towing the rotten
In towing a
trailer, if the combined vehicle and trailer cannot get up a hill it is
possible to drive the car up alone, then haul the trailer up with the winch
fitted with a winch can lift its own front end for tire changes, service,
mounting tire chains in the field. Simply fasten the end of the winch cable
over-hanging tree branch and operate the winch until the front wheels are
off the ground.
The winch may
be used to lift heavy loads from another truck by running the
a pulley in a tree and down to the heavy load. If the load is to be
put on a
truck, for example, lift it with the winch, drive the carrying truck under
it, and then
lower it with the winch. To remove the load, lift it off with the winch
and drive the
truck out from under it. (See Figure 6.40a.)
If the load
is very heavy, it may drag the winching car ahead. In this event, secure
the rear of
the winching car to a tree or other anchor with a piece of cable.
similar technique can be used without a winch, simply backing up the
car to pull
on the cable, much more precise control is possible through the use
of a winch
with its slow drum speed.
To lift a
load into or out of the vehicle on which the winch is mounted is more
but is not impossible. Put a pulley straight ahead of the car or on a tree
or some other
anchor, and another pulley above the car. Run the winch cable to
the load and
back up the car. The load will rise; if it does not rise enough, wind
in the winch;
if it rises too much, pay out the winch. When the load is over the
body of the
vehicle, pay out cable to let it down. Reverse the procedure to
remove a very
heavy load. (See Figure 6.40b.)
than one car is under the same ownership, it is often practical to fit
only half of
the vehicles with winches if they are to be sent out in pairs. One
serve two cars nearly as well as if every car had its own winch.
winch can be used in so many ways, it is well to experiment and
it in a safe environment before it is needed. A car that is knee deep
in mud is not
a practical place for experimenting, and in some cases, such as a
bridge, it will be necessary to use the winch quickly to avoid disaster.
This is not a
good time for a first trial of the winch.
Anchoring the Winch Cable
purpose of a winch in recovery operations is to eliminate the need for
traction. It does this by making use of a fixed object--most commonly
a tree or
rock--as an anchor, and pulling against it. The pulling force can be
so it is important to select the anchor with care. It is surprising how
winch will rip out small trees and other insecure anchors.
An anchor may
be a tree, rock, fallen log, or any one of a number of sturdy fixed
may also be another car, located on relatively better ground than the
The anchor should be as nearly in line with the direction in which the
car is to go
as can be arranged. If the anchor is off to one side, the car will be
If there is
no suitable anchor in front of the car, check behind. It may be possible
to get out
backward by running the cable under the chassis and out the back.
On the road
where there is no tree or other anchor straight ahead--or nearly
ahead--a cable can be strung from one side of the road to the other
road. (See Figure 6.41a).
A BOAT ANCHOR
may seem out of place in many parts of the world, but if
trees are not
common, or have been cleared from the roadside, a boat anchor
well for a car. Simply carry the boat anchor ahead of the car, running
out the full
length of the winch cable so that the lift will not pull the anchor
upward out of
the ground. Start the anchor into the ground by jumping on it if
although it will sink itself into soft dirt or mud and may disappear
entirely in a
swamp. When the winch is operated it will pull the anchor deeper
into the dirt
until the car starts to move out. If the anchor is stuck and hard to
the car had been freed, wind the winch cable onto the drum until
the car is
above the anchor, and it will then lift upward and out of the ground.
has used a boat anchor with immense success and a great many
stares in extricating stuck vehicles from thick mud.
A DEADMAN is
a type of anchor that provides great holding power, although
difficult to build. In its simplest form, it is built in the following steps:
Dig a narrow trench in the middle of the
road some distance in front of the
stuck vehicle. It need be wide enough only
to hold the winch cable. It
should be about 8 feet (2.5 meters) or 10
feet (3 meters) long, with the end
nearer the car tapered up to the ground
level, and the far end perhaps a foot
(30 cm) deep.
Dig a wider trench perpendicular to the
first one to a depth of about a foot
(30 cm). It should be wide enough to hold
a log, and measure perhaps 4 feet
(1 meter) long.
Cut out a log of suitable size to fit in the
trench dug in step 2, and put the
winch cable around the center of it. Drop
it into the middle.
When the winch cable is taken up, the
deadman will press against the sides
of the trench, forming an anchor. In very
soft ground, it may be necessary
to dig deeper or use a longer log.
A deadman can
be a semi-permanent installation in a spot in the road that for one
another cannot be repaired and at which cars can expect to be stuck.
is built and buried so that a car can drive over it. A short length
of cable is
attached to the log and left sticking out of the ground where the car's
can be attached to it. An installation of this type at the top of a
hill, for example, can save a great deal of frustration and time.
winch cable has been successfully anchored, the actual recovery can
this point it is well to remember the tremendous power exerted by the
the cable and the anchor--often in excess of the weight of the car.
reason it is a good precaution to clear onlookers from the vicinity of the
cable. If it
should break, the winch will usually whip back under the frame of
the car; the
force is sufficient to cut off a leg.
caution in this regard was repaid on one occasion when a heavily
cable broke off at the hook. The cable, recoiling back under the
through a heavy tire and destroyed it. Onlookers had been cleared
area, however, so no one was injured.
should also be mindful of what would happen to the car if the cable
broke or the
anchor were dislodged. Would the car be dropped into a dangerous
Would it be released and fall back into a river? Would it capsize?
broken cable is of no use no matter where it is broken, it should be
the most common place for a winch cable to break is at a kink or where
it joins the
hook or chain at the end. Any bend in a wire rope produces a weak
spot that is
usually the first to break.
Winding in the Winch Cable
anchor holds and the cable does not break, the cable will be wound
in and the
car will be freed. The cable, as long as it is under strain, will usually
wind flat on
the drum without lumps or kinks.
is no load, after the vehicle has been pulled free, it is best to have
see that the cable is wound neatly on the drum. If snarls and tangles
do develop in
the rope on the drum, they are often very difficult to remove. One
method is to
attach the end of the winch cable to a tree and back away, keeping
the cable and letting the drum turn freely so that the cable can pay out.
is necessary, even with this method, to have an assistant with a
tire iron to help free the snarled cable.
winch is not in use, set the controls so that the drum will not spin freely,
tangles. Sometimes it will be necessary to secure the end of the cable
with a piece
of heavy cord, or "baling wire."
Block and Tackle
A block and
tackle can be used to increase the power of a winch. With such an
it is possible for a relatively small vehicle to move a much larger
one that it
is stuck. Bear in mind, however, that a great deal of cable will be
the pulley blocks must be very sturdy. (See Figure 6.44)
large single pulley can be used to change the direction of pull
the winch. The pulley can, for example, be hung in a tree and the
run through it to a stuck vehicle to exert an upward lift. Pulleys
made for this
purpose are available. They have hooks that swivel to the side,
possible to drop the cable into the wheel without having to pull the
of the cable through. (See photos 6.44b and c.)
Recovery with a Winch
principal uses of a winch are for the recovery of the vehicle upon which
the winch is
mounted or for the salvage of other vehicles. This unit will discuss
presents a great hazard to a vehicle. If a car is stuck in a
and the winch must be used to pull it free, the operator must be certain
that when the
car moves forward it will not rip open the oil pan, differential,
transmission housing, or some other part of the car.
or light snow does not present the same hazard as rocks.
In general it
is safe to pull the car from mud or snow, since the usual cause of
in mud or snow is loss of traction. The winch, not needing any
overcomes this difficulty and can move the car. The only exception is
mud or snow
so deep that it is over the front of the car, in which case the winch
overloaded by having to move all the accumulated mud or snow. In that
event it will
be necessary to dig out some of the mud or snow first.
TRACTION can sometimes be added to the power of the winch to
pull to move the car, but in general this is not good practice. The
have sufficient power to move even a heavily loaded vehicle
assistance. If the wheels are used, when they get traction the vehicle will
and overrun the cable. This will foul the cable on the drum or tangle
it under the
chassis and in the wheels. It is much better to let the winch do the
the car out and keeping the cable tight on the drum so that it winds
Winching from a Bridge
great force of the winch will be enough to move a car whose tires
wedged in a log bridge, or which is hung up on the chassis on the
special methods are needed.
In some cases
it may be useful to get an upward lift at the front of the car to pull
the tires out
of the slot between logs. To do this, attach the winch cable as high
in a tree ahead of the car. The pull on the cable will then be upward,
lift the front of the car. If there is no tree in front of the car, anchor
the winch hook
in accordance with Section 6.4 1, and put a sturdy four-foot-long
under the cable near the car. As the winch takes up the slack, the
stick will be
wedged between the cable and the ground, and the car will attempt
to climb up
the cable and, therefore, up the stick. (See Figure 6.51)
Removing a Log Under the Car
cause of getting stuck is running the car onto an unseen log or stick
mud. The car gets hung up on the log and cannot move ahead.
the same difficulty is encountered on a bridge made of many small
will come loose and catch the chassis of the car.
To remove the
log or stick from under the car, assuming that the car cannot be
the winch must be used with a pulley to change the direction of the
determine which way the log can be pulled out. For this example, assume
that it can
be removed from the front of the car; the same principles apply
whether it is
to a side or the rear.
Using a tow
cable, attach the rear of the car to a tree or some suitable anchor so
cannot move forward. Fasten a large towing pulley such as that discussed
6.44 to a tree or other anchor in front of the car. Run the winch cable
pulley and back to the log. When power is applied to the winch,
it will take
up the slack and then try to move the car forward, with the log as an
the rear of the car is fastened, the winch will pull out the log. The
be careful not to damage the under frame of the car, and sometimes
it may be
necessary to jack up the vehicle before starting the operation. (See
Lowering with the Winch
In the same
way that the winch overcomes the need for traction in moving the
it can be used to replace wheel traction in slowing the car or halting
it. On a very
steep hill with a poor bridge at the bottom, for example, it will be
stop the car at the edge of the bridge. If a slick road surface makes
impossible, the winch can be used.
descending the hill, run the winch cable under the chassis and out the
back of the
vehicle to an anchor. Engage the drum in reverse. Put the
for the wheels in neutral so that no power will be applied to them.
Run the engine
and engage the clutch to pay out cable, letting the car down the
Disengage the clutch to stop paying out cable, and the car will stop securely.
Using the Winch for Salvage
principles of recovery of a vehicle with its own winch also apply to
the use of a
winch to salvage another vehicle. The basic difference is that the
which the winch is mounted must be regarded as an anchor as far as
the stuck car
is concerned. In many cases the friction of the winch car's tires
ground will not be enough to keep it from sliding ahead when the
operated. In that event it will be necessary to anchor the winching car
with a cable
to the rear end.
TRACTION, as described in Section 6.50, should not be used when
another car with the winch. There is a great danger that the stuck car,
will become tangled in the winch cable. An operator who has once
had to free a
jammed winch cable from the axle of a vehicle will not try it again;
it may be
necessary to cut the cable to get it out of the axle.
CABLE carefully to the stuck vehicle. The winch exerts a
amount of pressure, and will easily fold up a conventional bumper.
If the car
has no towing hitch, attach the winch cable to the axle housing, a spring
the chassis itself.
Salvaging a Capsized Vehicle
To right a
capsized vehicle, the pull on the winch cable must come from the
of the tipped car. This will tend to roll the car over onto its wheels.
If the winch
cannot be placed in a suitable location, use a pulley to direct the pull
in the right
cable over the vehicle and attach it as low as possible on the other side.
example, that the car has rolled over on the right side. The winch
come over the chassis, which is now vertical, and across the left side
of the car,
now on the top. It will then go down the top of the car to the ground.
Dig a small
hole until the cable can be passed through the cab window, and
attach it to
some sturdy part of the vehicle. If the window frame or the door pillar
does not seem
strong enough, cut a three-foot (1 meter) section of log to use for
across the window and attach the cable to that. If possible, pass the cable
left side and attach it to the chassis. (See Figure 6.61)
winch cable is tightened the pull will tend to turn the car over onto its
IN SLICK MUD
or snow, the vehicle may tend to slide along on its side without
This can be counteracted by running a cable under the car from the
chassis to a
tree on the opposite side from the winch. With the bottom of the car
the tree, the winch will be able to exert enough force on the top to
Salvaging a Car from Water
helps to support much of the weight of a submerged car, it can be
assistance in helping to right a capsized vehicle. Before attempting to
move a car
forward when it had capsized under water, it is advisable to right it
this can done will depend upon the situation, but the basic procedure
is the same
as the one described in Section 6.61 above.
Once the car
has been righted and can roll on its wheels under water, the winch
cable can be
attached to the front or rear of the car and it can be pulled out. If
bank is steep or soft, it may be useful to run the winch cable through
a pulley in a
tree to get an upward pull as the car moves ahead.
In the case
of a car that has been capsized in water with a rocky bottom, where
the car could
be damaged if it were towed, it should be floated free. See Section
Towing the Derelict
So many of
the things that pertain to winching also are useful for towing that the
two have been
grouped together. In this section the problems of moving a
car that is
incapable of self-propulsion are considered. This assumes that the
car is not
stuck in mud or some other obstacle, and would be free to move if
it were not
AN OLD TIRE
is a great asset in towing. It takes up the shocks of starting, and
load on the tow cable, if one is used. A tire can be used by itself or
combination with a conventional tow cable.
One of the
best ways to tow a derelict, and also one of the safest, is by connecting
the rear of
the towing car to the front of the derelict with a tire. Tie the tire tightly
to each car
so that there is no slack. When the towing car moves ahead, the tire
slightly and then start to pull the derelict. The great advantage is that
the tire will
also cushion the shock of stopping the derelict. If the derelict has
the tire will serve to slow it at the same rate as the towing car,
damage to either vehicle. (See Figure 6.70)
A car with no
brakes should be towed with a rigid towing connection such as a
tire. If a
cable is used, the derelict will not be able to stop going downhill, and
into the rear of the towing car.
BOARD can be very useful on a car that is often used to retrieve
such as a garage tow truck. This is nothing more than a wide heavy
piece of metal, perhaps a foot (30 cm) in width and as long as the car
bumper. It is
mounted in place of the front bumper and provides a convenient
way to push a
derelict. It is not a good idea to push a car over a long distance,
since the driver of the pushing vehicle cannot see well. This is
true in areas with poor roads, where the driver of the derelict is likely
to be pushed
against his will into a swamp, snowbank, or rotten bridge.
Attaching the Tow Cable
where the tow cable is to be attached to a car should be carefully
since the pull will be enough to cause damage to bumpers and other
parts. Towing hooks can be obtained as options on virtually all
4WD cars, and
are a worthwhile investment in areas where towing is often
where a car is likely to get stuck and need to be pulled free. If the
no towing hooks, attach the tow cable to a spring shackle, axle, or
towing hook see Photo 15.20)
When a tow
cable is to be used, as distinct from a tightly tied tire or a push board,
a long cable
is preferable to a short one. A long cable allows the driver of the
see the obstacles immediately in front of him and steer away from
them, and it
gives him time to stop his car when the towing car stops. With a
the derelict may hit the rear of the towing car if the driver does not
time to react and stop.
Towing can be
done with a chain, wire cable, natural fiber rope, or synthetic
fiber rope or
strap. Synthetic fiber has the advantage that it will stretch to take
up the shock
as the towing vehicle starts forward. Nylon is the best material for
tow ropes and
straps, combining great strength with elasticity.
Overcoming Mechanical Drag
If a derelict
is to be towed, the wheels must turn freely. If they are locked to the
through the drive train, it will be impossible to tow the car at all.
mechanical drag is overcome depends upon what part of the derelict
can be easily overcome by putting the gearshift in neutral
the parking brake; the car will then be free to roll.
DAMAGE may or may not jam the gears. If the gears are not
the car in neutral and the wheels should turn freely. If the gears are
to free the transfer case and put it in neutral. This will also free the
that they can turn. If the transfer case has been damaged, it will be
unbolt and remove the the propeller shafts running to the differentials.
This must be
done in such a way that a stub end will not be left on the
to cause damage as it turns.
DAMAGE, even to the outside casing, may jam the gears
that they will not turn. If this happens, the drive shafts must be taken
out of the
axle housing, at least on one side and maybe on both sides. This can
only be done
with a fully floating axle, where the axle shaft does not fasten to
the wheel of
the car.) If the front end differential is damaged and the car has hub
are used to free the front wheels on good roads, unlocking them will
wheels from the differential. It may then be possible to drive the derelict
on the rear
wheels; in any event it will be possible to tow it.
Towing a Trailer
offers a great many advantages when used in combination with a sturdy
vehicle. A trailer can nearly double the capacity of a truck at extremely
Special services can be provided by a trailer without the need to
tie up a
vehicle on a permanent basis. Examples are fire-fighting equipment,
facilities, and educational and demonstration projects. Several
can be prepared at moderate cost and can be towed by the same
As a fire
engine, for example, a trailer can be equipped with a water tank, a pump
driven by a
small gasoline engine, and some hose. In an emergency, the trailer
quickly hitched to the tow car and taken to the scene of the fire.
As a service
trailer, the unit might include a combination welder and power
driven by a gas engine, together with cabinets for tools and equipment
educational trailer might include video or slide projectors, books, and other
it might have samples of agricultural or other self-improvement
arranged in a suitable display. Such a trailer can be towed to a village
there for a time for study, then moved to the next site.
A trailer is
impractical in areas where roads are nearly impassable for the towing
car, since it
reduces maneuverability. In general, if a towing car can pass a given
great difficulty involving a lot of backing and jockeying, it should
to pull a trailer.
If there are
short sections that are very difficult to pass, such as deep swamps or
hills, it may be possible to send the tow car through first and then pull
across with a winch or tow cable.
difficult areas, it is often possible to pull a trailer with a crawler
author has made a great many trips over distances of up to 50 miles
trailer behind a Caterpillar tractor when seasonal rain made roads nearly
rule of trailer operation is that absolutely nobody must ever be
ride in the trailer when it is pulled by a car. (The only possible
when the trailer is pulled by a crawler tractor due to its slow speed.
subject to jackknifing on steep downward slopes, to becoming
rolling over, and all sorts of other difficulties on bad roads. In
countries it is illegal to carry passengers in a trailer. Allowing a person
to ride in
the trailer is inviting disaster.
consideration in operating with a trailer is how to hitch it to the towing
There are a great many types of hitches available, but the most
for a four-wheel drive vehicle is a ball hitch bolted or welded to the
items as bumper hitches, axle hitches, and frame hitches are
use on passenger sedans for towing house trailers on good roads.
trailers are towed with a bracket-and-pin hitch. The towing vehicle
has a pin in
a towing hitch at the rear, and this pin drops through a hole in a flat
plate at the
front of the trailer towing arm. While such a hitch is strong, it cannot
turn as the
car and trailer are twisted by the road, and may break under the strain.
modification is the type of hitch in which the eye on the trailer is mounted on
swivel so that it can turn. This type of hitch is sometimes seen on heavy
equipment, such as air compressors mounted on their own
overcomes the twist problem but is noisier than a ball hitch because
towing plate or ring has some free movement on the towing car's pin.
For a moderate
size trailer, a ball hitch is by far the best arrangement, combining
security with the ability to swivel and twist freely.
are required by law in many countries and are a practical necessity
legal specifications. Two safety chains should be attached to the
front of the
towing arm of the trailer, sometimes referred to as the tongue. These
should be crossed under the hitch and joined to the towing car. Thus
chains will cradle the hitch if it breaks and will keep the trailer from
the ground. The chains, if not crossed under the hitch, would simply
trailer; if the hitch broke, the trailer tongue would fall to the ground
dragged along by the chains until it met an obstacle which would either
chains or rip them out of the back of the car.
brakes should be provided to assist the hitch in stopping the trailer if it
pounds (675 kg) or more fully loaded. The brakes may be manual
and in most cases the manufacturer can supply a breakaway switch
so that if
the hitch breaks, the trailer brakes will be applied automatically.
Towing a Trailer
step in towing a trailer is the loading, which must be carefully done to
overloading any part of the combined tow car and trailer. The load should
on the trailer so that the tongue presses downward with a weight of
percent of the whole trailer. If the gross weight of the trailer is 1,500
kg), then the tongue weight on the tow car should be about 150
If the tongue
weight is too great, it will put too much load on the towing car, if
it is too
light, or if the tongue rides up with the trailer weight all at the rear, it will
lift up and
may jump off the hitch.
BACKING UP is
the most difficult part of trailer operation for most drivers to
is no way to learn this procedure from a book, except to remember
front wheels must be turned in what seems to be the wrong direction to
trailer when backing. The only answer is to take the vehicle with the
a relatively unobstructed area and try it a few times. (See Figure
is no trouble with a trailer. Just keep in mind the additional
length, particularly on a bridge or when making a tight turn.
is the term used to describe the "folding up" of a trailer and tow
car when the
trailer overruns the tow car and spins around beside it. This
on a hill, where the trailer, without brakes, will slide down
car and twist around until the rear of the trailer is beside the cab door
of the car.
If this happens suddenly, the trailer tongue, hitch, or body, or the tow
car hitch or
body, may be badly damaged by the impact. (See Figure 6.82)
It may also
happen if the towing vehicle is suddenly braked to a stop or hits
stops quickly. The inertia of the trailer will carry it ahead, and
jackknife to the side.
in its early stages can be halted in some cases by speeding up the
tow car. This
will snap the trailer back behind the car and another effort can be
made to stop
the two vehicles. It may also help to steer the car away from the
side on which
the trailer is jackknifing: If the trailer is coming around to the right
to the left to get the hitch in front of the center of gravity of the
is one of the best arguments for separate brakes on the trailer, since
brakes will generally prevent this trouble.
A flat tire
on a trailer is often hard to detect, especially on a bad road where the
wanders a lot even with good tires. For this reason it is a good idea to get
out and look
at the trailer tires periodically. Some trailers have skids under the
support the weight of the trailer in the event of a flat tire, but these are
not useful on
poor roads because they get hung up on rocks and in mud.
Extricating a Stuck Trailer
with a trailer attached to the car can offer some special problems.
the easiest way to get free is to unhitch the trailer and get the car out,
then pull the
trailer out with a tow cable or the vehicle's winch.
trailer is stuck but the car is free, it is often possible to unhitch the car,
it to a
different angle of approach to the trailer, and hitch it on for another try.
The pull in a
different direction may free the stack trailer.
If a car is
frequently used to pull a trailer in a difficult area, it is often worthwhile
to weld a
ball hitch to the front of the car as well as the rear. The driver will find
are many times when he can get the trailer out of a predicament if he
can see what
it is doing under strain. Vision of the trailer is greatly improved
if it is
attached to the front towing hitch. Putting the trailer in front of the car
easier to back the trailer into a small or difficult spot.
all the suggestions given in Sections 4.00 and 6.50 for extricating a
will apply to the combination of a car and trailer. The principal
that the trailer wheels are "dead weight" and cannot provide any
so all power must come from the towing vehicle.
When a car
fails on the road, the first consideration is how to get it running again.
In an area
where service facilities are few or nonexistent, this is a matter of using
imagination to devise some way to get the machinery operating. This
not concerned with the beauty of a repair or even whether the
would approve the techniques; a field expedient is intended only
as a means of
getting the car moving again. Once the vehicle has reached its
home base, it
can be repaired by more conventional methods and restored to its
convenience the section has been divided into units covering each major
part of the
many field expedients which need not be categorized: They apply to
of the vehicle.
and other parts can often be taken from other parts of the car if they
are in short
supply. If the flange on the propeller shaft comes apart and the bolts
are lost, for
example, replacements can be taken from the battery hold-down
mountings, bumper brackets, or other places where they are not
NUTS are occasionally lost in mud or snow. Even if an entire
set is lost
while changing a tire, no great damage is done. Take one nut from each
of the other
wheels. Even two nuts per wheel will serve in a pinch. It may be
take nuts from the spare tire mounting on some types of cars.
A BIT OF OIL
to free a stuck nut or choke control can be taken from the dipstick
crankcase. Just pull up the stick as though checking the oil level, and a
few drops of
oil will run off it.
"FROZEN" NUT can stop progress on a field repair until it is removed.
there is dirt
on the threads, clear it out with a wire brush, rag, or a piece of string
the bolt. If it is rusted on, apply a few drops of oil or Liquid
the nut with a hammer to work the lubricant into the space between
the nut and
the bolt, then remove the nut. Heat will also help to free a frozen nut
it slightly. The heat might come from a road flare, or jack handle
that has been
heated in a small fire. If all else fails, greater leverage on the nut
may be the
answer, but it may also break off the bolt or stud. Try putting a piece
of pipe on
the wrench handle as an extension.
SPRINGS can be replaced with a piece of old inner tube.
This is an
indispensable item in any toolbox that can be used for many purposes.
replace the return spring on the accelerator pedal, for example.
A WORK LIGHT
at night can be easily made by taking out a parking light,
all, from a fender. Chop off enough wire with it to reach the battery.
repair has been made, put the light on the cab floor as a reminder to
fix it when
the car is back in the shop.
SOLDER can be
improvised from a toothpaste tube or any similar disposable
tube that is
not plastic. (Although it seems unlikely that a stuck traveler needing
have a toothpaste tube with him, the suggestion is included on the
it could happen.)
A COTTER PIN
can be replaced by a short piece of wire if necessary. If a cotter
pin was used
to secure an assembly that was taken apart during repairs, be sure
the pin or to put something in its place. Otherwise the nut, rod, or
secured by the pin will work loose and fall off. Often a paper clip,
or nail will serve the purpose.
THINGS CLEAN is difficult but important in making field repairs.
dirt in them will not go on again, and dirt in a brake, gas, or oil line
can be a real
disaster. Before starting to disassemble things, spread out a tarp,
raincoat, seat cover, or even a big leaf to hold the parts as they come off.
out in the order in which they were removed will make assembly
Capsizing and Submerging Accidents
ACCIDENTS are not common in areas where roads are well
but become quite routine in many parts of the world. Cars on
roads are usually going slowly when they tip over, so that no major body
results. Many mechanical parts of the car are affected by capsizing,
should be examined before attempting to restart. The first
obviously, is to right the car; information on this procedure is
for spillage of battery water, crankcase oil, radiator water, fuel, and
Clean off spills and refill if necessary. If no serious damage has
been done to
the body of the car, and if the engine looks normal, attempt to start
the car. If
it will not operate, see the check lists in Section 8.00.
SUBMERGING ACCIDENT there are other items to check. In general,
a car that
has been submerged for a short period can be salvaged with little
prime consideration is whether water was taken into the engine.
If water is
drawn into the cylinders the pistons will attempt to compress it; water
compressed, and the engine will burst open or the crank arms or shaft
will be badly
damaged in the attempt.
If the car
was submerged in salt water, wash it carefully with fresh water at the
opportunity to avoid corrosion.
It may be
necessary to remove accumulated mud, silt, or sand from the body and
before further work can be done.
recovery and inspection for exterior damage, run through the following
Drain, flush, and refill all fluids: gas,
oil, brake fluid, transmission oil,
differential oil, steering box oil, air
cleaner oil, radiator water, etc.
Inspect the battery and replace if
necessary. In salt water it will have been
nearly short-circuited. The electrolyte
may be contaminated by any submersion.
In general it is not practical to flush
out and restore a battery if it
has been contaminated.
Inspect electrical parts; dry or replace as
needed. This would include starter,
generator, voltage regulator, spark coil,
distributor, lamps, horn, connections
on back of dashboard, etc.
Attempt to start the engine and move the
car. If it does not function, see
Section 8.00 on check lists.
Drive Train Expedients
SLIPPING may be due to oil on the clutch facing. As a temporary
the plates apart by holding the pedal down with a stick overnight.
oil can be burned out by slipping the clutch under load. It may
be useful to
blow a gritty-type household cleanser such as Comet or Ajax into
using a small hose inserted in the drain plug hole.
CLUTCH that will not allow gearshifting is evidenced by the
of the gears even though the clutch pedal is pressed down. It may
to get home in one gear, usually second, by engaging the gear with
stopped and then starting the engine.
It is quite
possible to drive without the clutch after starting the engine with the
in first gear. To shift up to a higher gear, hold the gearshift lightly
and press it
toward neutral. When the engine speed matches the road speed the
gears will be
spinning at the same speed and the transmission will drop into
without effort. Slow the engine to match road speed in the next higher
gently press the gearshift into the higher gear while using the
to find the right engine speed. The same procedure will work in
to shift to a lower gear.
ROVERS have a habit of hopping out of low range under load if
they are not
properly adjusted. To solve the problem temporarily, drop a large
rock into the
space between the transfer case lever and the toeboard of the cab.
Steering System Expedients
steering problems do not require field expedients, since the car can be
failure is fairly common in rough use. The joints at the ends of
the tire rods
come apart due to wear, rusting, or abrasive road materials in the
joint. All of
these should be detected in regular inspection. If they are not, the
will either be free of each other or of the steering system. To repair,
fit the ball
back into the socket, jacking the wheels if necessary to get free
Then secure the joint with baling wire; the patch should be checked
on the way home.
BENT TIE RODS
may be caused by hitting a stump or rock, and may throw the
out of alignment so badly that the car cannot proceed. Straighten
the bent rod
as much as possible by tying it to a tree and backing up, or by using
the jack or
the winch for power.
A BENT CRANK
ARM will turn fine in one direction but not at all the other
way, or the
car may only be able to go in circles. The tires will not be out of
however. Straighten the arm with the jack placed against the chassis
convenient point. It may be possible to put a plank or small log against
the arm as a
lever and pull the end up with the winch.
A BROKEN TIE
ROD is rare, even in rough service. If one does break, other
parts such as
ball joints will probably be damaged. As a field expedient,
the rod as much as possible and put a stick inside the broken ends or
break with the license plate or some other piece of sheet metal, securing
wire or radiator hose clamps. That will keep the rod straight, but the
fall out of the "splint." Fasten a length of wire or chain between the
two ends of
the rod to maintain the length. (See Figure 7.30.)
Brake System Expedients
BRAKES indicates that they need adjustment. This can be
done on the
road if necessary, as detailed in Section 10.42.
LINE cannot be fixed with tape because of the high
the car has a split brake system with independent braking on two
of wheels, there is no problem. If it does not, close the broken line
and folding the tubing with heavy pliers. The others will then work,
may need to be bled or have fluid added.
BRAKE DRUM cannot be fixed in the field. To keep the brake
fasten the pistons in place by wrapping them with wire. If the wire
is not strong
enough to hold them when the brakes are applied, pinch off the
brake line to
the affected wheel.
A SMALL HOLE
in a brake line can sometimes be repaired by covering it with
a patch cut
from inner tube rubber and holding the patch in place with a worm-type
hose clamp applied
right over the leak. It will then be necessary to refill
and bleed the
BRAKES will cause one or more wheels to get hot or even lock
up. A poor
grade of brake fluid, clogging of the master cylinder relief port, or
in the line may cause this problem. Bleed some fluid off at any
wheel and see
if the wheels turn freely. In the shop, be sure to flush out the whole
carefully and put in new brake fluid.
should be carried in the toolbox of any car with a history of
trouble. If none is available and the brakes are inoperative for lack of fluid,
do not use
water or oil as replacement. The author has driven a great many miles
distilled sugar-cane rum as brake fluid. The alcohol does not
brake tubing or the rubber parts of the system.
Fuel System Expedients
LINES cannot generally be patched with adhesive or plastic
the gasoline dissolves the adhesive. If a joint must be patched with
the area carefully with a dry rag first. A worm clamp is a better patch,
or cut the
broken section and insert a short piece of tube or hose.
LINE can be replace with a piece of plastic tube. Cut out the
section, and slip the plastic tube over the cut ends. Secure with hose
clamps or a
few turns of baling wire twisted tight.
LINES can be cleaned by blowing them out. Open joints in
sections of the line and blow the pipes and hoses out by mouth or with
a tire pump.
the lines, they must be refilled with fuel. The fuel pump may not
be able to do
this, especially if the battery is weak and cannot crank the engine
for a long
period. There are several alternatives. Open the fuel filler cap and
into the fuel tank by mouth, thus pushing the gas through the lines to
carburetor. Remove the fuel lines from carburetor inlet and suck on it with
until gas appears in the glass cup of the fuel filter. Do this carefully,
so you don't
get the gasoline in your mouth.
On some cars,
such as the Land Rover, there is a manual lever on the bottom of
the fuel pump
that makes it possible to pump fuel without cranking the engine.
It is also
possible to remove the air cleaner and pour a small amount of fuel
the carburetor, which will run the engine for a few moments and
pump to bring up a supply of fuel. These procedures for getting fuel
carburetor will also work after a car has run out of gas and the tank has
FUEL FILTER of the in-line type can be bypassed if necessary
the filter and replacing it with a short piece of pipe, or by sticking
right through the filter element to allow fuel to flow. This will,
allow foreign matter normally trapped in the filter to reach the
SEDIMENT BOWL on some fuel pumps may be broken by a
stone. It can
be replaced by a small medicine jar of either glass or plastic. If the
jar is too
short to be secured by the clamp, put a few washers or a small stick
clamp and the bottom of the jar to make up the difference. If the
glass bowl is
only cracked and not broken, it can be patched with laundry soap
of the type
usually sold in square bars or long bricks.
TANKS can be fixed with the same type of soap mentioned
does not dissolve in gasoline and can be worked and molded to fit the
space. Such a
repair, though crude, often lasts for years. Liquid Steel, if
does the same job and makes an excellent semipermanent repair. It
is easy to
use and quick drying.
NO GAS can be
caused by a clogged fuel line between the tank and the engine
or a broken
fuel pump. A simple field repair can get the vehicle home: Use a
draw gas from a container into the carburetor directly, bypassing the
and the pump. Arrange a one-gallon can of fuel in or on the vehicle
so that it is
higher than the carburetor, perhaps on the hood in front of the
on the roof, or inside where it can be held by a passenger.
the fuel line where it enters the carburetor. Use a length of plastic
siphon gas out of the can, and when the flow is started, connect it
the carburetor. If there is no tubing in the toolbox, it can be
from windshield washers or other nonessential equipment. The car
until the temporary tank is empty.
WATER IN THE
GAS will sink to the bottom of the tank, since it is heavier than
When water in the gas tank has reached the level of the fuel tube to
water will be pumped to the engine. The engine will run erratically
completely. Remove the drain plug in the gas tank slowly and let the
out until gas starts to flow, then tighten it. Clear the water out of the
fuel line and
carburetor and the car will run.
A chamois can
be used to separate gas and water: Pour the contaminated
through the chamois and water will be held back while the gas passes.
where gasoline is often of poor quality, it is a good idea to filter all fuel
manner. Many 4WD cars have fuel filters in the filler hose to the gas tank
to keep out
water and other debris.
vehicle is a precarious operation and should be regarded as
Chock the wheels carefully so the car cannot roll while on the jack.
Put the jack
on a secure footing, using a plank if necessary. Put the lifting end
flat surface where it will not slip off-the chassis itself or the flat part
of the bottom
spring leaf is excellent. Some jacks have curved top plates made
the axle housing.
JACK is an inexcusable oversight, but such things do happen. If
caught with a
flat tire and no jack, block the axle up with a rock, log, toolbox,
or some other
support. Then dig a hole under the tire with a shovel until the tire
removed and replaced. (See Figure 7.60a)
DRIVING ON A
FLAT will ruin the tire. If there is no way to fix the tire, remove
it and drive
on the rim. The rim will be ruined in any event, and this way at least
the tire will
be saved. There is also the danger of fire if a flat tire is driven upon,
continuous flexing builds up great heat.
TIRE is not a big project, but for those who have never had to
do it, here
is a quick outline. First try to get the car out of the flow of traffic, if
there is any.
Remove the spare tire from its mount and get
out the jack and tools.
Turn the lug nuts on the wheel just enough
to break them free. On some
cars the studs may be marked L and R. Turn
those marked L the "wrong"
way--clockwise to loosen them.
Chock the wheels with stones, boards, etc.,
so the car cannot shift and fall
off the jack. Too many drivers have been
injured or killed because they
overlooked this precaution.
Put the jack on a firm footing under the
axle, chassis, spring leaf, or some
other suitable lifting point. A frame or
bumper jack should lift at points
specified in the instructions from the car
manufacturer. Jack up until the
tire just clears the ground.
Loosen and remove the lug nuts, keeping them
Remove the flat tire. It makes a convenient
seat while working on the
Put the new tire in position, lining up the
studs with the holes in the wheel.
It may be necessary to jack the axle up
some more to do this.
Put the lug nuts on and tighten with the
wrench until the wheel starts to turn.
Lower the new tire to the ground with the
the nuts all the way, alternating from one side of the wheel to the
other as shown in Figure 7.60b to avoid
warping the wheel.
the chocks, stow the flat tire, jack, and tools.
are described in detail in Section 10.62 on shop procedures.
break frequently in rough service. They
are easily repaired in
manner as tow chains. (See Section 6.23.) Specially designed repair
also available in several shapes for tire chains. These can be applied
with a large
pair of pliers while on the road.
Cooling System Expedients
ENGINE may be the result of overwork or lack of water.
In any event,
leave the engine running without a load so that it will continue to
water there is. Try putting the transmission in neutral and running
the engine at
a fast idle for a few minutes; if there is enough coolant and the fan
belt is not
broken, the engine should cool off.
TO ADD WATER
to a boiling radiator, leave the engine idling. Loosen the
very carefully with a large rag to protect the hands from the blast
When steam has flowed out, take the cap off and slowly add water until
WATER from a local source to the car is sometimes a problem in
even if a stream is nearby. Consider the use of hubcaps, a hat, the sleeve
of a raincoat
tied in a knot at the end, a large leaf formed into a cup, an air cleaner
hose with one
end plugged, a plastic bag, or a toolbox. Fuel from an extra five-gallon
can could be
emptied into the vehicle's fuel tank and the can used for
this case the can should be allowed to dry completely before being used
IF THERE IS
NO WATER available, almost any thin liquid can be used in the
an emergency. Probably the most common substitute is urine,
beer or soft drinks are also useful. No gasoline or oil should ever
be put in the
radiator. The entire cooling system, including the engine block,
well flushed as soon as possible.
RADIATOR HOSE can be mended with plastic tape. Since high
open the leak again, loosen the radiator cap so the system will not
LEAKS that can be seen can be mended. Dry the area around the
leak and put
on a thick coat of Liquid Steel to make an excellent repair. If Liquid
Steel is not
available, cut a dry stick and jam it into the hole; the stick will swell
in the water
and close the leak. If the hole is not visible, no great amount of water
out, and periodic filling will keep the car going until repairs can be
made in the
A BROKEN FAN
BELT must be replaced immediately. Do not drive even a
distance without the fan belt, since the engine will overheat and may
damaged. Always carry a spare belt. A none is available, a few
nylon or polypropylene rope will serve. A nylon stocking, though not
likely to be
available, is an excellent substitute.
for the radiator in moderately cold weather will not affect
that is running. In extremely cold weather, however, the radiator may
slush or even freeze. The engine will then overheat, but steam will be
escape through the radiator overflow if it is blocked by ice, and the
may burst. If an engine without antifreeze in the radiator must be
stopped for a
period long enough for the water to freeze, either operate it often
keep the water warm, or drain out all the water.
problems can be divided into two broad categories: those involving
voltage ignition circuit and those involving the low voltage starting,
ignition, and accessory circuits.
Problems in the Primary Circuit
In most vehicles
the primary electrical circuit has a voltage of 12 volts, although
vehicles have six-volt systems and a few diesel-powered systems
use 24 volts
or more. Higher voltage is also common in large trucks.
BATTERY is one of the most common complaints involving the
electrical circuit. It is usually evidenced by failure to crank the engine.
assuming that the battery is not charged, a careful check of its connections
made. It is much more common to find that corroded terminals
the power flow than to find that the battery has suddenly and
To clean the
terminals, remove them from the battery and scrape the insides of
connectors with a pocketknife until they are bright and clean. The posts on
should be cleaned with a knife or a piece of rough sandpaper. (Special
tools are also available for this purpose.) Then replace the connector
battery, tighten it in place, and attempt to start the vehicle. If it still
check the heavy wires from the battery to the chassis or engine block,
and from the
battery to the starter or starter solenoid. The connections on these
be clean and bright.
BATTERY IS DEAD, the car can be started in any one of a number of
4WD cars are provided with a hand crank that may be used start
Battery jumper cables will supply power to the dead battery from
vehicle. Or the car may be rolled or pushed to start the engine. Each
methods is described in some detail below. Once the engine is started,
should resist the temptation to "floor" the accelerator pedal. It is
stay running at a low speed.
are heavy wires with clips on the ends used to connect the
one car to the battery of another without removing the batteries or their
cables. To use cables to start a car with a dead battery, drive a car
with a good
battery as close as possible to the dead one. Connect the positive
one battery to the positive terminal on the other; the abbreviation
POS or PLUS
should be molded into the battery case near the proper terminal.
fashion join the two negative terminals. Start the car with the dead
then remove the jumper cables.
a hand crank was the only way to start cars until the electric
invented, and is still a very satisfactory starting method. There must
power left in the battery to make a spark across the spark plug, so this
not work with a totally dead battery. A diesel engine cannot
hand-cranked because of the high compression, but some diesels
have a valve
lifter control to open the cylinders. When the engine is being
valves are held open. When the engine has been cranked up to as
fast as the
operator can turn it the valves are released and the engine starts.
START cranks the engine through the gearbox and wheels as the
car is moved
by gravity or some other source of momentum. Put the transmission
in second or
third gear and turn on the ignition key. Hold the clutch pedal
the car by pushing it with another vehicle, pushing by hand, rolling
down a hill,
or any other means. When the car is moving, let the clutch up slowly
engine will be cranked and should start. Never try to start a car by towing
it, since it
may charge forward when the engine starts, ramming the towing car.
start is perhaps the easiest of the three methods discussed for starting
a car with a
dead battery; many cars with doubtful batteries are left stopped on
this reason. Diesel engines may be started in the same way, and it is
common to see
heavy construction equipment parked on a hill to make use of
gravity for a
rolling start. It is very difficult to roll or push a car with tire chains,
or one in mud
or snow. A car with an automatic transmission should not be
MOTOR may also be the cause of failure to start. On occasion
mechanism, which separates the motor from the car's engine after
it has been
started, will fail to release. Or it may jam and not turn at all. Some
4WD cars have
square end-shafts on the starter motor that can be held in a
wrench so that
the motor shaft can be moved to free it if it jams. On other
is necessary to remove the starter motor.
A BLOWN FUSE
will disable lights, windshield wipers, gauges, radio, horn,
electrical appliances on the car. If there is no replacement fuse
wrap the old blown fuse with a piece of tinfoil from a candy or
package. The tinfoil will serve as a conductor, but should be replaced
with a fuse
of the proper rating as soon as possible. It might also be possible to
take a fuse
from a less useful circuit that is not needed at the time. The fuses are
located on a plastic block on the fire wall, under the dashboard, in the
compartment, or in some other accessible location. Some accessories,
those added after manufacture, such as a radio, tape player, extra
may have a fuse installed in a plastic tube in the wire to the accessory.
TO FIND THE
CAUSE of a blown fuse, connect a test lamp across the fuse
The test lamp can be a special one made for the purpose, or it can be
bulb taken from a lamp on the vehicle. The bulb will shine brightly
as long as
the fused circuit is "shorted," i.e., when the positive wire from the
connected to the negative wire without a load such as a lamp. When
the source of
the short circuit has been found and eliminated, the test light will
glow dimly or
not at all. (See Figure 9.70)
BATTERY is usually ruined, although it may be possible to save
it by thawing
it in a warm room and recharging. A battery that is fully charged
at about 70 degrees below zero Celsius, but a completely discharged
battery freezes at about zero degrees Celsius. Since few areas have
as low as the freezing point of a well charged battery, the obvious
answer to the
problem of frozen batteries is to keep them fully charged. In some
it is common to use electric heaters for car batteries, or to remove
carry them inside a heated building when not in service.
Ignition System Expedients
most frequent cause of failure of the high voltage ignition system
on the wires. This may be caused by rain of splashed water from the
road, or it
may come from condensation on a foggy morning or when temperature
are right. If the wires from the spark coil to the distributor and from
distributor to the spark plugs are not in good condition, they may absorb
through pores or cracks, worsening the problem. If wet wiring is
these wires should be carefully dried with an absorbent rag, as should
the top of
the spark coil, the outside and inside of the distributor cap, and the
porcelain insulators of the spark plugs.
If wet wiring
is a frequent problem, the wires should be replaced with new slick-surfaced
will shed water. It is also possible to use a plastic varnish
for the purpose to provide a coating on the wires.
COIL may get wet and fail to function, especially on cars where
the coil is
mounted on the fire wall and subject to road spray. If it is not possible
to move the
coil, cover it with a plastic bag to protect it.
may escape from cracked wires or distributor cap, with the
visible to the naked eye. As a temporary repair, clean the affected
carefully and then apply black plastic electrical tape over the crack in
may fail for any one of a number of reasons. If the engine runs
not at all, and a spark plug is suspected of being the cause of the
can usually be at least partially restored by a thorough cleaning of the
the porcelain insulator and sandpapering and regapping the electrodes.
advice on this will be found in Section 10.55.
If the spark
voltage is weak and the plug will not fire properly, try closing the
gap to about
0.010 inches (0.25 mm). This can be approximated closely enough
by using a
paper matchbook cover as a gauge. The voltage may be able to jump
gap and get the car to the shop.
few things go wrong with engines in the field; it is more often the
equipment such as fuel lines, electrical devices, and other accessories
trouble. Real engine trouble can rarely be fixed in the field. A
arm, for example, requires major repairs that are better handled
in a clean
CRANKCASE oil pan may be caused by a sharp rock or some other
damage is relatively minor, a rip can often be fixed with soap in the
same way as a
gas tank. (See Section 7.50.) If the pan is pushed in it may be
struck by the
descending crank arms, causing additional damage. If this much
damage to the
crankcase is suspected, turn the engine by hand to see if it turns
freely. If it
does hit the pan, it will be necessary to remove the pan and straighten
before it can be used.
ENGINE is usually caused by a stuck accelerator pedal. After
car, investigation will usually reveal that the return spring is broken
or may have
fallen off. It can be replaced by a piece of inner tube rubber until
replacement can be obtained; do not use the rubber for an extended
however, for it will dry from the heat of the engine and break.
senseless to open the hood of a disabled car in the hope of seeing what the
So many things that can go wrong with a car that it would be only
greatest good fortune that such a casual inspection would find the fault.
lists in this section are intended to replace hit-or-miss fumbling as a
locating trouble. Items are listed according to obvious symptoms so
that even if
only a few outward signs are known the driver can attempt to locate
difficulty. In some cases it may be necessary to refer to Section 9.00 on
procedures for further means of isolating the problem and making a
diagnosis. Once the problem has been found, if further advice on repairs
is needed it
may be useful to refer to Section 7.00 on field expedients or Section
10.00 on shop
Cranking and Starting Trouble
this nature may be divided into two categories: the engine will not
crank at all,
or the engine cranks but will not start and run. Each of these is
In order to
start a gas engine, it is necessary to turn it by some outside force,
electric starter motor or a hand crank. When the ignition and fuel
moving, they provide the necessary spark and fuel vapor in
and the engine will then operate by itself.
Engine Will Not Crank
battery and its connections by trying to make a spark between the two
with a piece of wire or the handles of a pair of pliers. It should make
spark. If not, the battery is weak or dead.
starting relay or switch with a screwdriver blade or piece of heavy
wire. If this
is the inoperative element, the engine will be cranked through the
The wires to
the starter may be broken, loose, or corroded.
strap that connects the engine block to the car frame may be
engaging gear may be jammed.
rare, the engine itself may be jammed. Try to turn it with the crank
or by rolling
the car by hand while in gear. If it will not turn at all, remove all
plugs. If water squirts out of the spark plug holes when the engine is
head gasket or block is leaking and major work is needed.
Engine Cranks, Will Not Start
must have three things to run: fuel, air, and a spark to ignite the
of these tests are designed to find which of these ingredients is
all three can be brought together at approximately the right time, the
run. It may not run smoothly, but it will run.
AIR is the
least likely of the three elements to be missing. Check to see that the
is not clogged. If there is a hose between the air cleaner and the
as is usually the case with oil bath air cleaners, see that it is free and
If in doubt, remove the air cleaner.
FUEL is not
difficult to trace through the system from the gas tank to the
Be sure there is gas at every point: gas tank, fuel line, pump, filter,
Open the fuel line at several points and be sure that fuel flows out
engine is cranked. Check to see that the vent hole in the gas tank filler
cap is open,
or the vacuum in the tank will stop the gas from flowing. The
float valve could be stuck.
the carburetor is caused by too much gas in relation to the
air. It is often caused by pumping the accelerator in an effort to get
started and can be detected by a smell of gas around the engine. Wait
for the surplus fuel to evaporate, and then try again to start the
there is a manual choke, push it in to open the butterfly valve and get
flow of air to the carburetor. To start under these circumstances,
accelerator pedal to the floor without pumping it and crank the engine
prevent starting by contaminating the fuel or by leaking power
ignition wiring. Examine the gas going into the carburetor to be sure
it does not
contain any water.
TROUBLES are perhaps the hardest to find because there are
contributing factors and the electricity cannot be seen. If there seems
to be air and
fuel getting to the engine, check the following points: ignition
wiring may be
wet or cracked; the sparking voltage may be leaking from the
cap or the spark coil cap; the tops of the spark plugs may be wet or
To test the
spark circuit, pull the wire from the center of the distributor and hold
it about 1/4
of an inch (5 mm) from the engine block while cranking the engine,
the starter or the hand crank. An alternate way of checking the coil
is to open
and close the breaker points by hand with the ignition key turned on.
method, there should be a spark from the center wire of the coil
when it is
held near the engine block. If there is no spark, check the coil, points,
distributor, and the small primary wire between the coil and the
distributor in the same way by holding a spark-plug wire near the
and looking for a spark while cranking the engine. If there is no
spark be sure
the distributor and wires are dry and check for damage. The inside
distributor cap may be wet with condensation.
If there is
still no spark, the primary voltage may be too low to give sparking
on the headlights and crank the engine with the starter motor. If
headlights get very dim or go out, the primary voltage is too low, probably
because of a
dead or weak battery.
problems may also block engine starting:
If the start
motor spins but does not turn the engine, the starter engaging gear
disassembled and cleaned carefully. The car can still be started by hand
If the car
seems to run for the moment--the starter motor is cranking but stops
ignition key returns to the operating position--check the resistor in the
wiring to the ignition coil. This resistor may be burned out and not
current. As a further check, try "jumping" it with a piece of wire.
is usually in a small porcelain block on the fire wall.
block in the air system may be caused by collapse of the inner layer
of the air
hose. The hose may appear perfect on both external and internal
but under suction the liner may come loose from the coiled wire
thus block the hose.
Engine Starts, Then Quits
By far the
most common cause of this complaint, especially in cold climates, is
which may be adjusted incorrectly or not working at all. In addition,
the fuel may
be contaminated with water or dirt, or the fuel line may be blocked
blocked. (See also Section 8.60 on conking out and Section 10.31
Low Charge; Dead Battery
fan belt is the most common cause of a dead battery, aside from
useful life of the battery itself. If the belt is too loose, it will not
generator, and the battery will become discharged in normal use.
or alternator itself may be loose on its mountings.
Check for an
open circuit between the generator or alternator and the battery.
connections should be clean and tight. Remember that a large current must
be carried by
on the generator may be stuck in their holders or worn, or the
glazed or burned so that the brushes do not make good contact.
regulator may need to be examined and tested.
accessories may have been left on when the battery was not charging,
If failure to
charge takes place after fording deep water, the problem is probably
a wet fan
belt. Water lubricates the belt and allows it to slip over the generator
Poor Spark Across Spark Plugs
plugs are fouled with deposits, they may be of the wrong type for the
the owner's manual to determine the correct type.
porcelain insulators may indicate a spark plug that is running too hot.
is needed. Cracked insulators can also be caused by flying
may result from water on the wiring or from poor supply voltage
distributor and coil.
ignition (although this type is not common) it may be caused by
broken magneto brushes.
distributor arm may be stuck or sluggish in operation.
Engine Runs--Will Not Stop
An engine that
runs after the ignition key has been turned off is described as
since it is operating in the same way as a diesel engine without a
deposits inside the cylinder may be heated by fuel combustion and serve
subsequent cycles of the engine.
A poor grade
of fuel may also cause dieseling.
the problem temporarily, set the parking brake, engage the
any gear, and let up the clutch. With the car unable to move, the
Low Oil Pressure or No Pressure
engine immediately before permanent damage is done.
there is sufficient oil in the crankcase.
The oil pump
may be damaged.
intake filter where oil enters the pump may be clogged.
diluted oil will cause low pressure.
gauge or indicator light may be wrong.
An oil line
may be loose from its connections so that oil leaks out, or be pinched
or clogged so
that not enough oil can pass.
pressure drops slowly over an extended period of months, it may be due
to wearing in
the bearings, allowing oil to leak out of the space between the shaft
crankcase breather cap is plugged, a vacuum in the crankcase may draw
diluting the oil and causing low pressure.
Engine Uses Too Much Oil
usually a matter of wear in the engine. The following points should be
gasket may be broken or cracked.
may be worn, especially the intake valve.
head gasket may be broken or cracked, or the cylinder head may
breather cap or the breather in the rocker arm cover may be
bearings or pistons may be excessively worn.
On cars with
a vacuum booster for the brakes, check to see that the pump
not cracked or dried out.
Steering Problems, Alignment, Wheel, etc.
operation of the brakes can affect steering, it may be useful to inspect
system in accordance with Section 8.40. The following sections
Front Tires Worn
pressure. Either too much or too little can affect steering.
wheels and tires are properly balanced if used at speeds over 30 mph (50
kph). At low
speed balance is not usually a problem.
may be out of round due to wear or damage.
toe-in may need adjustment. (See Section 10.61 on steering
Uneven Tire Wear
roads are hard on tires, and a set of tires may last a very short time
what would be expected on a paved road. If wear is uneven or
however, the following items should be checked:
The tires may
be out of balance, though this is rarely a problem on frontier roads.
A wheel may
be bent or damaged, or mounted loosely on the lugs.
Tires may be
underinflated or overinflated.
Check to see
that the axle is mounted straight. Sometimes the center pin in the
supporting the axle breaks, allowing the axle to shift.
may be out of line through overloading or road damage.
should be checked for a broken main leaf.
Vibration in Drive Train
universal joints in the drive train for broken cups, missing needle
shaft may be bent or may be out of balance.
flanges in the drive train may be loose.
on the drive shaft may be worn or damaged.
Wheel Bearings Hot
The brakes on
the affected wheel may be dragging or may have dirt in them. (See
have sufficient grease of good quality.
be adjusted too tight.
be damaged or broken.
swaying, wandering, hard steering, and other troubles may be
caused by any
of the following items: wrong tire pressure; loose or tight front
bearings; steering box loose from mountings; loose steering rods or
broken road spring or main leaf, chassis bent; brakes dragging; bent rear
axle; worn shock absorbers; tires of unequal size; shock absorbers
On cars with
a hydraulic steering damper, such as the Volkswagen, shimmying
may be caused
by failure of this damper.
steering wheel is too hard to turn, check the following: a stick or other
object may be caught in the steering gear; the front wheels may not turn
steering gearbox may need oil; gears or bearings in the steering
be jammed with grit; the bearing at the top of the steering column,
steering wheel, may be stuck.
steering wheel turns too freely, it is usually the result of wear. If the car
ceases to steer properly, check the following: front wheels not
rod loose or broken; check free movement between steering wheel
tie rod bent; ball joint loose or apart; tie rod connection to wheel
or apart; cranking arm bent or loose.
most frequent complaint regarding brakes is that they do not stop
the car. On
frontier roads a driver is not usually particular about lesser
because the speed is low and the road is rough enough that a minor
pull to one
side or some other trouble won't be noticed. Difficulties with brakes
divided into several sections below.
Brake Pedal Sinks to Floor; Brakes Do Not
This may be
due to lack of brake fluid. Check the master cylinder, wheel
and connecting tubing for a break or leak.
Air in the
system will allow the pedal to sink and give a spongy feeling. The
same flag can
be caused by rubber hoses in the brake system, which swell up
pressure, a plugged master cylinder cap vent, contaminated or poor grade
a leak in the system, or the sealing cups in the master cylinder may
be worn. The
shoes may be so poorly adjusted that they do not reach the drums.
Brake Pedal Operates Properly; Brakes Do Not
If the car
has gone through water, the linings are probably wet. Hold the brake
lightly while driving to heat the linings and dry them.
may be of poor quality or may be glazed.
or oil may be on the shoes.
Brake Pedal Rises and Brakes Drag
cylinder compensating port is being blocked by dirt, a swollen
failure of the master cylinder piston to return fully, or improper
the pushrod. For all of these troubles, the master cylinder should
The use of
inferior brake fluid can cause this complaint. (Refer to Section 7.40.)
Brake Pedal Satisfactory; Brakes Drag
In this event
the brakes will probably overheat. Check the following: Swollen
in brake line; dirt or gravel in drums; shoes adjusted too tight,
drums; shoes not being returned after use due to weak brake shoe
springs; brake fluid tube mashed or restricted; linings too thick, touching
Car Pulls to One Side When Braking
If the car
pulls to one side it indicates that one of the brakes is not working
could be on either side, depending on whether one brake is slipping
opposite one is locking.
oil, or water on a lining will cause it to slip.
cylinders may be mounted loosely so that they do not open the shoes
open them unevenly.
may be restricted or clogged.
may be so badly worn or scored that they do not hold properly.
must be of the same material. If any brakes need relining, both
wheels on the
same axle must be relined at the same time.
suggestions listed under Section 8.45 above. In addition, check brake
adjustment and look for cracked drums. Brakes that are operating properly
may seem to
grab on slippery road surfaces if not used gently, particularly if only
one or two
tires can get traction.
Brake Pedal Does Not Return
If the pedal
does not come up again after the brakes have been used check the
spring; see that the master cylinder is mounted securely; and
clearance around the pedal shaft. Sometimes a rock or stick will
jam in the
pedal mechanism either above or below the floorboards.
Clutch and Gearshift Problems
clutch and gearshift are used together, it is easy to confuse problems
of one with
the other. In checking a disabled vehicle, therefore, it is advisable
to refer to
both sections below.
GEARS DO NOT
ENGAGE. Examine the clutch to see that it is releasing all
the way and
not dragging. The gears in the transmission may also need
though this is rare except when the gearbox has been disassembled.
GEARS DO NOT
DISENGAGE. The same troubles as mentioned above under
do not engage" should be checked. In addition, the splines on the
may be damaged.
SLIPS OUT OF
GEAR. Several things can cause this problem. Check the
shift fork bent so gears do not mesh fully; shift linkage out of
transmission splines worn; too much end play in transmission gear
badly worn or damaged by lack of oil or the presence of dirt;
badly worn; synchronizer rings worn.
SLIPPING may be caused by weak or broken pressure springs; pedal
tight with no free movement; worn clutch linings; pedal mechanism
on the linings; or the driver may be "riding the
left foot on the clutch pedal and pressing it partially
excessive wear and heating.
GRABBING may be caused by a release lever that is out of
oil on the linings; loose engine mountings; sticking clutch pedal
weak return spring or bent parts; clutch plate hub sticking on pinion
of rust, etc; broken or weak pressure springs; binding or worn
CHATTERS. This is caused by three main factors: poor or loose
mounts; uneven release of the pressure plate; and oil or grease on the
lining. If the clutch vibrates or shudders, look for worn propeller-shaft
joints, a loose flywheel, bent splined shaft, or a bent driven plate.
If the clutch will not release properly, gear shifting is very
even impossible. This may be caused by oil on the linings, poor lever
adjustment, dirt in the clutch, bent clutch plate, a stuck withdrawal
hydraulic clutch, also look for a shortage of fluid or the presence of air in
system. This type of clutch is subject to many of the ailments of
brakes, including spongy pedal, sinking pedal, etc. (See Section 8.40
conditions in brake systems.
Rough Running or Conking Out
that runs roughly may suffer from any of a number of troubles. The
may cause only a minor irregularity in the operation, or it may result
loss of power. In the most extreme case the engine will "conk out,"
can be localized by observing when the rough running is worst:
speed, when the engine is loaded, when accelerating, etc.
UNDER LOAD. Check the following items: overheated spark
air cleaner; improper ignition timing; poor quality of fuel; spark
incorrect gap; spark plugs are not the type specified for the engine.
UNDER ACCELERATION. Although this may be due to the spark
across a dirty or wet insulator to the engine block or other metal parts
of the car,
it is more commonly due to fuel problems. Look for water in the
float bowl or fuel strainer. The idle mixture may be too rich. The air
be clogged and result in choking the engine. If electrical problems
suspected, check the breaker point setting, coil performance, and spark plug
The condenser may be damaged.
KNOCKS. The two most common causes of knock, which is
a sound like loose marbles rattling around in the engine, are poor
improper timing. Other difficulties related to this symptom are carbon
the engine, improper carburetor adjustment, worn bearings, wrong
worn or damaged spark plugs, inoperative distributor advance
and the need for valve adjustment.
BACKFIRES. The first thing to check is ignition timing. After that,
carburetor adjustment, valve timing, valve tappet clearance, loose timing
deposits in the cylinders, weak valve springs or sticking valves,
sealing tightly, or valve stems and guides worn.
Engine Short of Power
Any of the
items listed in Section 8.61 will affect engine power. In general, a
power results in a drop in engine speed, a tendency for the engine
to die under
a normal load, and possible overheating.
are mistimed will work well with a light load but not with a heavy
valve stems or guides will cause a shortage of power and may be
looking for a change in engine speed when gasoline is squirted on
A hot exhaust
manifold may indicate sticky valves or lack of sufficient
around the valves, restricting the flow of hot exhaust gases.
the carburetor or looking for incorrect adjustment, remember that
too lean a
mixture will cause poor acceleration or even backfiring in the
Too rich a mixture causes sluggish pickup, makes the engine run in
"loping" manner, and may result in black smoke in the exhaust.
compression may be caused by worn rings, valves, or cylinder head gasket.
It may be
detected with a compression meter.
muffler is clogged or constricted, the engine will lack power or may stop
of lack of power, or what may seem to be lack of power, include
brakes, slipping clutch, leaks or restrictions in the fuel line, bad coil
ignition timing off.
compression may be caused by worn or scored cylinder walls, which will
bluish exhaust because of the high oil consumption. It may result from
stuck valves, tight tappet adjustment, or a broken valve spring. Poor
lubrication will reduce compression and also increase friction. If the
or block is cracked, the engine needs major repairs or must be
Often this condition is indicated by the presence of water in the
a gurgling noise in the radiator as bubbles are forced into the
system by engine compression.
In an engine
with four cylinders, the loss of one cylinder due to a cracked spark
leaking spark voltage will result in a great power drop. In a six or eight
engine this loss will be less noticeable and may even go undetected.
Engine Conks Out
Any of the
difficulties listed in Sections 8.61 and 8.62 may lead to "conking
complete stoppage of the engine.
In trying to
diagnose why an engine quits, notice how the stoppage takes place.
If the engine
chugs and sputters as it comes to a stop, the difficulty can probably
be traced to
the fuel system. If the engine stops suddenly without trying to keep
electrical trouble is likely.
If the engine
can be made to run at higher speeds but quits when idling, the idle
speed may be
adjusted too low.
TROUBLES that cause conking out include the following: bad
coil, condenser, or points; ignition wires wet or cracked so that
out; loose circuit in primary circuit of ignition, possibly where wires
go through a
connector block on the fire wall; loose battery connections; loose
ignition circuit. A common complaint on some cars is breakage of the
within the distributor that carries power from the primary winding of
coil to the inner plate of the distributor and flexes each time the
is advanced on acceleration. (See Figure 8.63.)
TROUBLES should be checked as follows: carburetor adjusted
too lean or
too rich; fuel has water in it; heat has caused vapor lock in the
pump or float chamber of the carburetor; fuel line clogged; choke
shut; air cleaner clogged; dirt in the carburetor needle valve.
Engine Conks Out, Will Not Restart
an engine that conks out due to some maladjustment can be restarted
and run a bit
before it conks out again. The running interval may be only a few
the engine is not totally dead. In the event that the engine is dead
and will not
restart, additional trouble must be suspected.
Be sure there
is fuel in the tank and that it is getting to the carburetor. If the
seriously overheated, the pistons may have seized in the cylinders. The
may be caused by lack of oil.
the notes in Section 8.10 on starting troubles may be used if there has
been no major
damage to the engine.
Engine Overheats, Radiator Boils
common cause of an overheated cooling system is lack of sufficient
sure the radiator is full of clean water. If the radiator is boiling, the
must be exercised in opening the cap since steam or boiling water
can shoot out
with great force. Put a large rag over the cap and loosen it only
that a little steam can escape. When no more steam escapes,
open the cap a bit more until it is free. Keep well away from the open
while slowly pouring in water.
A car with an
overheated or boiling cooling system should not be shut off; the
be left idling if at all possible until sufficient water has been added
system has cooled.
may be caused by too lean a carburetor mixture, insufficient
the spark timing, low oil level, oil that is too thick, overloading the
dirty oil or a clogged crankcase sump filter, an air-flow obstruction on
of the radiator, choked or damaged exhaust pipe or muffler, loose fan
inoperative thermostat, damaged water pump, diluted or thin oil, slipping
carbon deposits in the cylinders, or over loading the vehicle.
are so many causes of overheating, it is useful to break down the list
into a few
STARTING, poor operation at moderate speeds, and generally sluggish
is probably caused by timing problems. Look for breaker arm
wear, worn or
damaged spark advance mechanism, or a loose distributor.
and low oil pressure, together with overheating, indicate
problems. Oil may be diluted or of the wrong grade. Sludge may
the intake filter in the crankcase or a screen in the oil pump.
OPERATION at normal speeds may be due to low fuel level in the
bowl, caused by the float, or could result from dirt clogging the jets
TEMPERATURE RISE when the car is started may indicate a slipping
or broken fan
belt, or the radiator may be covered with chaff, mud, leaves or
foreign matter. If airflow is normal, the temperature rise may result
pump problems, dirt in the engine water passages, or dirt or
the radiator tubes.
PERFORMANCE, even though the engine seems to run
probably be traced to the brakes or clutch, or may be due to
the engine with a heavy load.
In some cases
of engine or gearbox trouble, the difficulty can be located by the
source of the
noise. At times, however, the source of the noise is not apparent..
is intended to aid in identifying the problem by finding the source
of the noise.
As a start
toward isolating the noise, determine if it is the same whether the
moving or standing still. If it is the same, the problem is probably in
the engine or
clutch; if the noise changes when the car is not moving, or if it stops
the problem is more likely in the wheels, drive train, or body.
some noises are caused by the road surface. Try the car on a
surface if this is suspected. For example, the sound made by tires with
big lugs in
the tread moving on certain types of road is virtually the same as the
sound of worn
gears in the differential.
THE HOOD is usually the result of exhaust gases escaping
exhaust manifold or the pipe leading to the muffler. This sound may
be quiet when
the engine is idling and then increase greatly when the engine is
under a load.
SQUEALING noise from under the hood, especially at high engine
usually caused by a glazed fan belt slipping over the pulleys or by a
RATTLING MARBLES when the engine load is increased, such
as on a hill,
is called "knocking." It may be caused by the use of a poor grade
or incorrect ignition timing.
NOISES generally occur near the engine and are usually the
result of a
dry bearing. Check the bearing at the center of the fan to see if it is
The generator shaft bearing may be hot as the result of too little oil.
also be caused by worn generator brushes or by a loose fan belt.
SHAFT NOISES may come from worn spline joints, loose
joints, worn bearings in the differential or the gearbox, lack of
grease in the
universal joints, of worn or missing needles in the universal joint
can be localized somewhat by observing whether the noise
the car is moving under power, coasting, or both. If it only makes
power, check the pinion bearings in the differential for excessive
wear or grit.
These bearings might also be adjusted too tight. If the noise is heard
coasting, the ring gear and the pinion may be adjusted too loosely; also
wear or grit in the pinion bearings. If the noise is heard both under
while coasting, check for a worn universal joint, damaged axle shaft
loose or worn differential side bearings, worn pinion or ring gear teeth,
adjusted too deep into the ring gear, loose or worn wheel bearings, or grit
in the pinion
NOISE can result from loose wheel lugs or lug nuts, worn or
wheel bearings, a blister or bump on the tire, need for lubrication,
NOISE can usually be traced to loose wheel hub nuts, worn
loose brake backing plate, or warped or dragging brake shoes.
a limited-slip differential are subject to a peculiar chattering noise
from the rear
end if the differential is filled with the wrong lubricant.
WHILE TURNING usually indicates something loose that bangs
body of the car. Examples are a shock absorber mount broken off,
muffler or exhaust pipe, or such unlikely but common troubles as a beer
can in the
toolbox or a rock or marble in the pickup body rolling around. A solid
klunk after a
turn can also indicate excessive end play in the axle shafts.
BANGING NOISE when the car goes over a bump can indicate
missing shock absorber rubber bushings, worn rubber engine mounts,
spring, the radiator cap or gas filler cap hanging loose on its chain, a
seat belt hanging
out the door, or a vehicle so badly overloaded that the frame
can be traced to a worn speedometer gear, worn synchromesh
primary bearings, or the wrong kind of oil. Lack of oil
in noise, and the problem can also be worn gears in the
if one speed
in the transmission makes more noise than the others.
TESTS AND TESTING EQUIPMENT
check lists given in Section 8.00 will often localize a problem to the
it can be identified and repaired, sometimes more positive tests are
some cases, these can be conducted with materials at hand; other
elementary testing equipment is helpful.
Cooling System Tests
thermostat can be tested by putting it in water on a stove and checking the
with a thermometer. It will be possible to see the thermostat open
the temperatures should conform to the car manual.
Oil in the
radiator indicates that the block may be cracked or a gasket leaking.
compression of each cylinder with a commercial pressure gauge. The
should test to within 20 pounds (1.5 kg/[cm.sup.2]) of each other; a cylinder
compression indicates a leak. (See Section 9.20 for test method.)
If air or
exhaust gas from the engine leaks into the cooling system, the water
level in the
radiator will rise and some water will be forced out the overflow tube
radiator filler neck. When the engine is stopped, the water will return
natural level and it will be necessary to add more water to the radiator. Air
can be forced
through a poor seal on the water pump, or exhaust gas can enter
system through a leaking cylinder head gasket. To test for air or
exhaust gas in
the cooling system, run the engine until it is warm. Put the lower
end of the
radiator overflow hose into a bottle of water. Remove the regular cap
radiator and replace it with a cover that only seals the top edge of the
a piece of old inner tube rubber held in place with a flat board pressed
radiator by hand will serve the purpose, or an old radiator cap can be
a test cap by removal of the lower pressure ring that protrudes
underside of the cap. If bubbles come from the overflow tube in the
water, air or exhaust gas is getting into the cooling system.
are available for testing radiators, consisting of a hand-operated
pump and a
pressure gauge designed to fit over the radiator filler opening. The
pump is used
to build up pressure in the system so leaks can be located. The
indicates whether any pressure has been lost. Operating pressure in the
system gives much the same results, except that the mechanic must
work on the
radiator when it is dangerously hot and there is no pressure gauge
to detect a
slow leak. As an expedient, it may be possible to make a hole in the
top of the
radiator to connect a pressure gauge, which should indicate within one
kg) of the rating stamped on the cap. The hole must be sealed after
the test. If
the radiator does not achieve the proper pressure, the engine will
tests are made by putting a commercial vacuum gauge in
manifold. Some vehicles have connections for this purpose; on cars
vacuum-operated windshield wipers, the vacuum hose to the wipers can be
other cars it may be necessary to drill and tap the manifold; when this
is done, it
will be necessary to fit a plug to fill the hole for normal operation.
should indicate about 17-21 inches (43-53 cm) of vacuum while the
idling. When the throttle is suddenly opened and closed, the gauge will
drop below 5
inches (12 cm), climb to about 25 inches (62 cm), and then return
reading of less than 16 inches (40 cm) indicates a worn engine in need
If the gauge is steady at low speeds but vibrates at high speed, weak
should be suspected. If the needle vibrates at low speed and is
high speed, check for worn valve guides. If the gauge drops
to about 4 inches (10 cm), a sticky or burned valve may be the
A quick check
for worn piston rings, as indicated by consistently low vacuum-gauge
to put a spoonful of heavy oil into the suspected cylinder--or
cylinders. This will temporarily alleviate the problem as the oil closes
around the rings.
If the gauge
reading is very low, look for a leak in the intake manifold or the
To find this leak, apply heavy oil (gearbox oil, for example) to the
between the engine block and the intake manifold and to the carburetor
the idle speed of the engine increases as the heavy oil is put on a joint,
sealing it, that spot is leaking. In some cases the leak may be so big
that the oil
will be sucked in without any change in engine speed. A new gasket
may be needed
if tightening the bolts will not close the leak.
If the vacuum
gauge floats up and down slowly over a range of about 4 or 5
cm), the carburetor probably needs adjustment. If the range is
only about 2
inches (5 cm) on the gauge, look for spark plugs that are gapped
WATER IN THE
OIL is much the same as oil in the water (see Section 9.10)
that the engine block is cracked or the head gasket is leaking. To
presence of water in the oil, dip a few drops of oil from a hot engine
dipstick and drop it onto the hot exhaust manifold. If it spreads and
there is no problem; if it spits and sizzles as the water boils out,
a leak must
FILTER can be tested easily by removing it. Start the engine with the
filter on and
then remove it with the engine still running. If the engine increases
the filter, the filter should be replaced or cleaned.
TEST requires a commercial compression gauge that measures
of the air mixture in the cylinders. To make the test, remove
cleaner. Block the throttle and choke fully open. Remove all the spark
the compression gauge in each of the cylinders while cranking the
several turns and record the reading from each cylinder. The highest
and lowest readings
should be within 20 pounds (1.5 kg/[cm.sup.2]) of each other, and
should push the gauge up to at least 70 or 75 pounds (5 - 5.25 kg/[cm.sup.2])
on the first
are higher than specified by the manual indicate carbon deposits.
compression on one cylinder indicates a leaky or burned valve. If the
climbs 10 to 20 pounds (0.7 - 1.5 kg/[cm.sup.2]) on each revolution and then
again, leaking piston rings should be suspected. This can be tested
by putting a
spoonful of oil in the cylinder and checking again. If this improves
the rings are probably worn; if it does not, the valves are stuck or
adjacent cylinders have low readings, the head gasket is probably burned
CLUTCH can be found by parking the car with the front end against
a large tree
or by connecting the rear end to a tree with a sturdy cable. Start the
put the car in its lowest gear; let up the clutch as though to move the
engine should stall as soon as the pedal comes up a little. If the pedal
gets near the
top of its movement before the engine stalls, it should be adjusted.
If the engine
never stalls, the clutch is slipping.
Drive Train and Steering Tests
To test an
axle shaft for an invisible crack, clean it with gasoline and wipe it dry.
Hang it up
with a piece of wire or string and strike it with a hammer. Solvent
and oil will
be expelled from the crack by the vibrations.
whether it is the front or rear wheel bearings of a car that are making noise,
vehicle in two-wheel drive and operate it. If the noise does not change
when the car
is under power or coasting, the front wheel bearings need work;
if the noise
is different from that heard in four-wheel drive, the rear wheel
To test for a
specific damaged wheel bearing, jack up the suspected wheel. With
the brake off
and the gearbox in neutral, spin the wheel by hand and listen for
ROLLER BEARINGS can be tested after removal and careful
the clean bearing in kerosene or diesel fuel for temporary
Support the inner ring with the fingers and spin the outer ring. It
freely and coast to a stop. If another washing doesn't remove the
bearing should be replaced.
In checking a
bearing, also look for split, cracked, or broken rings, broken balls
or broken separators. If the bearing has a bluish color, it has been
the rings or raceway and should be discarded.
ABSORBERS can be tested by sitting on the fender or bumper over the
shock absorber. Jump off and note whether the car rises and stays up
If it bounces, the shock absorber is probably worn.
is to remove one end of the shock absorber from the mounting. Pull
the shaft all
the way out and then press it in. It should go in slowly and evenly,
substantial force to compress it.
PARTS should be checked with the front end of the vehicle off the
ground on a
jack stand or other support. If the steering wheel turns more easily
than when the
car is driving, the cause is probably a worn ball joint or steering
steering is still hard with the wheels off the ground, disconnect the
from the drag link. This will indicate whether the problem lies
steering wheel and the opened joint or beyond that point toward the
A BENT WHEEL
will cause bad shimmying and can easily be tested. Jack up
wheel until it just clears the ground. Spin the tire and lay a rock
beside it on the ground as a reference point. The tire should be the same
the brick all around its circumference.
Fuel System Checks
CAP must have a vent in it to prevent a vacuum from building up
in the fuel
tank as fuel is used by the engine. To test the cap, remove it and
blow through it. The hole need not be large--even a tiny pinhole is
since the rate of fuel use is very slow. With some pollution-control
there is a valve in the fuel-tank cap that may make it impossible to blow
cap malfunction is suspected, try running with the cap loose to
THE FUEL PUMP
can be tested with a pressure gauge, which is often included
vacuum gauges. The gauge should indicate 3 to 6 pounds (0.2-0.4 kg/[cm.sup.2])
for most vehicles. The gauge should be inserted by
the line between the fuel pump and carburetor and substituting
the gauge for
check, which requires no special equipment, is to see how much gas the
Disconnect the carburetor line and let the hose from the fuel pump
squirt into a
bottle while cranking the engine with the starter motor. It should
be able to
move about a pint (0.5 liter) in 30 seconds.
test of the brakes is to run the car and see whether the brakes are
able to stop
If the brakes
on one wheel are suspected of not working, jack up the wheel, spin
it by hand,
and apply the brake to see whether it stops.
Primary Electrical Tests
electrical system can be divided into two parts: the primary system and the
secondary, system. The primary system includes all the lights, horn,
generator or alternator, and fuses.
TESTS. To see if the battery is completely dead, try to make a spark
terminals with a piece of wire or the handles of a pair of pliers. It
should make a
battery test is to turn on the headlights and disconnect the center
wire of the
spark coil so the engine cannot start. Crank the engine with the starter
motor. If the
lights dim only slightly, the battery is satisfactory; if they go out
or get very
dim, the battery charge is low or there are corroded connections.
can also be used to test the battery. Remove the cap from cells
on top of the
battery and stick the hose into the liquid in the first cell while the
is compressed. When the hose is in the liquid, slowly release the
bulb to draw
liquid into the tube. When the float in the tube is free of the bottom,
specific gravity on the float itself. Most hydrometers compensate for
but the difference is not enough to be significant in locating a
cell or dead battery. If the specific gravity varies more than .025 or
cells, the battery should be replaced. A chart of specific-gravity
provided in Section 20.10.
ALTERNATOR PROBLEMS are often confused with
regulator problems. To differentiate between the two, start the engine
and set it at
a fast idle. Test the voltage at the battery with a voltmeter; on a 12-volt
charging voltage should be 14 or 15 volts. If you have no
check the brilliance of the headlights with the engine off and with it
running at a
fast idle. If the lights are brighter with the engine running, the
probably all right.
test, assuming that the ammeter shows no charge to the battery,
wire leading to the "field" terminal on the voltage regulator. Run
the engine at
a fast idle and momentarily connect a piece of wire from the "field"
the regulator to the "battery" terminal on the generator. If the
indicates a charge, the generator is all right and the voltage regulator
is at fault.
ammeter still shows no charge, the generator is not producing power and
is probably all right.
TESTS include visual inspection for solder drops around the
the armature, indicating that the armature has been overheated. If
so, it will
probably have to be replaced. The commutator should be slightly
should be smooth and without ridges. Slight ridges can be removed
sandpaper. The brushes should be free to slide in their holders so they meet
TESTS, for vehicles equipped with an alternator instead of a
(see Section 10.53), require the use of a carbon-pile type meter. This
combination voltmeter and ammeter using a special type of rheostat within
case. The connections for the meter vary from car to car, and the
should be consulted for the proper test method. In this test the
not connected to the voltage regulator, and it is important to keep
speed low to avoid damage to the alternator. It is also essential to
current polarity in these tests, following the service manual, or the
diodes in the
alternator may be ruined.
REGULATOR is most easily tested by substitution: Replace the
question with an identical one known to be in good condition, either one
another vehicle or a new one.
FUSES may be
blown, causing failure of certain electrical accessories. If it is
which fuse is blown, make a test light by arranging a panel light bulb
with a socket
and wire leads. Put one of the wire leads on each end of the fuse
while it is still connected in the circuit. If the bulb lights, the fuse
is blown; if
the fuse is in good condition, it will short-circuit the light and the
bulb will not
shine. (See Figure 9.70a.)
(See also Section 7.81.)
If it is not
possible to test a fuse in this manner, remove it from its holder. Put
one wire from
the test lamp on one end of the fuse and the other wire from the
test lamp to
the battery. When the other end of the fuse is placed on the other
terminal of the
battery, the current should flow through the fuse and light the
THE BATTERY may differ in some cars. The British Land
example, has a positive ground, and most Japanese, German, and
vehicles have a negative ground. This polarity must be
observed, or the battery and possibly the generator or voltage regulator
damaged. If the car is marked for positive ground, connect the positive
pole of the
battery to the frame of the car; on negative polarity, connect the
of the battery to the chassis.
If in doubt
as to the polarity of a battery due to worn off markings, a potato can
be used to
find the plus and minus poles. Connect wires to each pole of the
push the other ends into the cut face of half a potato, about one-quarter
inch (6 mm)
apart. Bubbles will form around the negative wire. Do this
in the shop
and mark the poles before you get stuck somewhere without a potato
in your tool
SWITCH. There are two basic types of starter switches in use: the
and the direct type. Most commonly, the ignition key operates a
or solenoid, which controls the current to the starter motor. If this
suspected of being defective, it can be bypassed with a screwdriver
blade or the
handles of a pair of pliers and the motor should crank. Similarly,
if a direct
switch such as that used in the early Land Rovers is suspected of being
can be shorted with a screwdriver blade.
MOTOR is often thought to be at fault when a car will not start,
working on the starter, check to see that the battery is well charged.
Turn on the
headlights and crank the starter motor. If the lights go out, the
weak or the connections are corroded between the battery, starting
starting motor. If the lights get dim and the motor turns very slowly
or not at
all, the engine may be overloading the starter motor. See if the engine
cranked by hand; if not, suspect heavy oil, tight bearings or pistons, or
water in the
cylinders. If it can be turned by hand but not by the starter motor,
the motor may
have worn bearings or a bent shaft.
If the lights
are bright during the test but the engine is not being cranked, there
is an open
circuit: electricity is not reaching the starter motor. Check the starter
indicated above. If these measures fail, the starter motor itself should
motor, since it actually operates only a short time, does not often fail.
common cause of starter failure is brushes that cannot reach the
either because of wear or pitting. The brushes can sometimes be
without dismantling the motor. They must be replaced with new ones
the motor. If the commutator is pitted, it can be repaired in the same
way as the
generator commutator. Either of these problems will cause sparking
brushes and commutator.
NO SPARK can
be caused by either the primary or ignition circuit of the car.
To check the
primary portion of the spark circuit, turn on the ignition switch and
engine by hand or by pushing the car very slowly while in gear. The
should move up and down as the coil is alternately engaged and
If it does
not, the problem is usually a loose or dirty connection in the wiring
battery, ignition switch, breaker points, and coil. The points may
corroded or misaligned that they do not correct properly.
ammeter does move up and down as the engine is turned by hand, the
circuit is functioning and the secondary circuits should be tested.
may be easily accomplished by pulling off a spark-plug wire and
holding the end of the wire about one-quarter inch (6 mm) from the
When the engine is cranked by the starter motor, there should be
spark between the wire and the block. If the spark plug cap is covered
by a rubber
boot, put a screwdriver inside the boot and wedge it into the cap as
of the conductor, then hold the screwdriver blade about one-quarter
inch (6 mm)
from the engine block.
may be checked if they are suspected of causing rough running
the wire to one plug at a time and seeing whether it makes any
the operation. If removing a wire causes the engine to run even
spark plug was contributing to engine operation. If removing the wire
does not make
any change, that spark plug was not operating and should be
test of a spark plug is to remove it from the engine, being careful that
no dirt falls
in the open hole. Connect its wire and hold the metal base of the
against the engine block. Crank the engine, and there should be a
the electrodes; if there is not, the plug is probably shorted.
COLOR can indicate a lot about the condition of the spark plug.
conical insulator around the electrode in the center of the base. It
light brown. If it is white, the engine is too hot, the mixture is too lean,
or the heat
value of the spark plug is too low. If it is dry and black, the fuel is
too rich, the
engine is misfiring, or the heat value of the plug is too high. If it
is black and
wet, oil is seeping into the cylinder past the piston rings or valve
DISTRIBUTOR may be easily checked in conjunction with the coil. First
coil and breaker points by pulling the wire from the center terminal
distributor. Hold it near the engine block and crank the engine, which
a regular pattern of sparks. If it does, a spark is going to the
Now pull off one of the outside wires and replace the center one. Try
again using the outside wire that had been connected to a spark plug.
should be sparks from the distributor to the spark plug.
CABLE sometimes becomes dried out, or the wire inside it may be
small leaks in the outside insulation may prevent starting or
operation of the car. The easiest way to look for electrical leaks is to wait
for night and
then crank the engine in the dark, when escaping sparks can be
seen. As a
further test, connect a screwdriver's metal blade to the engine block
with a piece
of wire. The blade now acts as an extension of the ground potential.
blade along the suspected ignition wire or around the distributor cap
to see if an
open spark can be produced.
is inside the distributor, and it is sometimes hard to tell
whether it is
at fault or the coil is not working properly. For this reason it is
replaced with the points as a routine measure.
As a check,
disconnect the condenser and turn on the ignition but do not crank
Open and close the breaker points by hand, and see whether a spark
the point gap. If it does, the condenser should be suspected; if there
is no spark,
the coil is probably at fault.
TIMING can be checked with a vacuum gauge. The highest
the gauge indicate the best timing, but to avoid engine-speed
it is best to back off on the advance until the vacuum drops about
inch (6 mm).
more commonly checked with a timing lamp, a small neon bulb that
is lit by the
ignition voltage. This lamp should be connected between the
one" spark plug and the ground terminal of the battery and the beam
the timing marks on the flywheel rim. As the engine runs, the flashes
of light will
make the timing marks appear to stand still. Changing the timing
the distributor will make the timing marks on the flywheel appear to
move ahead or
backward. Sometimes it is easier to see the timing marks if they
with chalk or paint.
CARBON MONOXIDE can be a serious matter and should be
immediately. To check the exhaust system for a leak, squirt a small
amount of oil
or kerosene into the air intake with the engine running. Dark
smoke will come
out the exhaust pipe and will indicate any leaks. As an extra
the exhaust pipe with the hand momentarily, immediately after
oil or kerosene. This will result in back pressure, which will make
COLOR is indicative of many engine conditions. Black
indicates the carburetor is set too rich, the inlet for the air filter is
or the filter
is dirty. It can also mean that the valve seats are defective, causing
exhaust color indicates oil consumption. This color is more easily
the engine is allowed to warm up first, then idled, and the accelerator
pedal is then
quickly pushed to the floor and released.
color indicates water in the exhaust system, either from condensation
muffler or a loose head gasket.
MANIFOLD can indicate that the valve timing is wrong, the
not seating correctly, the valve springs are worn or broken, the
valve is stuck, or the exhaust line is partially blocked.
sections of this manual describe road procedures and such diagnostic
work as could be undertaken in the field by the driver. This section
information for the mechanic, although the driver and mechanic may
well be the
same person, and techniques that are better suited to shop work than
lists can be used either in the field or in the shop, as very few of them
special equipment. These are described in Section 8.00. Once the
been located, repairs can be made.
operations are described in the shop manual for each vehicle, and
there is no
need for duplication here. There are many useful suggestions that are
in the manuals, however, and some basic operations are assumed
understood by the reader of the shop manual. Suggestions in this section
to be with the scope of a small shop with relatively simple tools,
and to be undertaken
by a mechanic without vast experience.
General Shop Hints
many suggestions regarding working practice, both for safety and
in the shop:
Do not wear
finger rings while working. They cause short circuits in electrical
can get caught on things, damaging the ring or the finger.
If oil is
spilled on the floor, clean it up promptly. Sawdust will soak it up, or sand
can be used
for this purpose.
gasoline is a fire hazard, and should be removed or allowed to evaporate
HINTS can be applied to any of several operations in the shop.
a wheel, gear, or any other part that must be replaced in the
orientation to a shaft or another gear, mark the matching points with a
with a punch. A marking pen can also be used, but be careful not
to wash off
the markings with gasoline.
parts in storage or mark them with an order in which they were
a marking pen.
an unfamiliar machine, lay out the pieces on the floor or
bench in the
order they are removed. To reassemble, start at the end and work
To bend small
tubing, put a section of spring inside it to keep it from collapsing.
packed sand can also be used.
dented tubing, fill the bent section with small balls from a bearing and
drive them in
with a hammer, opening up the dented section.
the threaded portion of a stud or bolt with a hammer will damage the
threads. Put a
nut, or better, two nuts, at the end of the bolt and beat on the nut
the end of a shaft will "mushroom" if it is beaten. For this reason
usually are supplied with lathe centers left in them, so that a punch can
in the center mark and the mechanic can hammer the punch instead
of the shaft
end. If the shaft is already mushroomed and must be repaired, it can
be filed or
ground down. If a lathe is available, it can be placed on the lathe and
A stuck bolt
can be removed with Liquid Wrench, a type of penetrating oil. If
the head is
damaged, sometimes a pipe wrench with teeth will hold it. If a screw
slot head is
damaged, saw another with a hacksaw. If the threads are damaged,
they can be restored with a small triangular file.
A broken bolt
or stud can be removed with a bolt extractor. "Easy-Out" is the
brand, and has become a term for the tool itself. A hole is drilled
into the end
of the broken bolt, and the bolt extractor is threaded into the hole.
Since it has
left hand threads, it will turn the bolt out when it has jammed in the
To remove a
stud without damaging the threads with a pipe wrench, put a nut
on the bolt
so that it is flush with the top of the stud. Drill a small hole at the crack
bolt and stud, parallel with the stud. Put a small pin in the hole,
nut to the stud. It is then possible to turn the nut with a wrench and
stud. (See Figure 10.10.)
If a stud is
not jammed too tightly it can sometimes be removed with two nuts.
Screw one nut
on the stud and then add the second. Holding one nut with a
the other against it until they are locked together. Turn the lower
nut to remove
To remove a
rusted nut, drill several holes through one side, then split the nut
with a cold
a bolt or other threaded rod, put a nut on before cutting. Then turn
the nut off
after cutting, and the nut will clean up the rough end of the cut bolt.
To remove a
gasket in one piece, soak it with varnish remover for several
before trying to get it off. The remover may be applied with a brush or
a rag. It is
best to use a new gasket whenever a joint has been opened if possible,
compressed the gasket cannot adequately fill the tiny holes in the
a complete seal.
Where heat is
not a factor, the plastic lid of a coffee container makes good gasket
for a gasket, put the gasket paper over the opening and tap gently
with a small
hammer to mark the holes for bolts, the outer edge, or any other
must be cut. Lift the gasket off and trim it with a knife or scissors.
Jacking up a
car is easier if the jack is under the axle. A bumper jack, or a jack
frame of the car, must lift the chassis first, then the springs will lift the
A part that
won't quite fit can often be made to fit by heating the larger portion
the smaller one. A bearing that can't fit over a shaft, for example,
can be heated
in boiling water or a hot oven while the shaft is cooled with ice.
will make enough difference in size to allow fitting.
To pack a
bearing with grease, put some grease in a small plastic bag and throw
bearing. Close off the end of the bag and knead it to pack the grease
balls or rollers. The same bag may be kept in the shop and used
little grease is used each time.
with frontier roads, vehicle bodies are usually spoiled before the
the engines on derelict cars and use them to operate generators,
irrigation pumps, welding machines, agricultural machinery, compressors,
or any of a
hundred other machines.
Drive Train, Gear Boxes, Differentials
When an axle
shaft is broken, it is often possible to guess which shaft broke. Put
in the oil hole of the differential to jam the gears, then try to turn
The wheel that turns freely is the one with the broken axle.
To remove an
axle shaft--one of the most common shop (and field) operations
bush--jack up the end of the axle with the broken shaft so that the oil will
run down to
the differential. Remove the wheel and brake drum and the cap over
the end of
the axle. Unfasten the axle and pull out the shaft. If the other end is
it may be possible to remove the axle shaft on the other side and
push out the
broken portion with a small diameter rod. Otherwise, the
must be taken apart--a job best done in the shop.
differential is not hard, but reassembly is sometimes more
is especially important to be sure that each part is clean before
since there is no way to flush dirt out once it is all assembled.
all or part of a differential, be sure the gear ratio is the same as the
a Toyota Land Cruiser, for example, the differential may have
either a 3.70
or 4.11 reduction ratio.
In most 4WD
cars the front and rear differentials are interchangeable. The rear
one gets the
most use, and if it is damaged it may be possible to switch with the
slip differential divides the torque equally between the two wheels,
the road surface. This reduces slipping on mud or ice and results
improved traction. This type of differential needs special lubricant.
ball, roller, or needle bearings is often frustrating because the balls
fall out. Use heavy grease to hold them in place during assembly.
roller or ball bearing should be done carefully, so that strain is not
put on the
side of the races. If the bearing is to fit over a shaft, press it on with
ring; if the bearing is to fit into a hole, press only on the outer ring. Do
not beat on
the bearing with a hammer, which will damage it. Use a wooden drift
of a soft
mallet if it is necessary to beat the bearing into place. It is sometimes
use heat to help seat a bearing, as described in Section 10.10.
removing a universal joint, mark its relationship to the two shafts so that
can be reassembled in the same way.
It is not
difficult to get a U-joint apart if things are done in the right order. Wash
carefully, and remove the clips holding the bearing cups into the yokes.
joint and tap on the flange end yoke to drive the bearing cup through
shaft yoke. Pull this bearing cup out, being careful not to spill the
the cup. Repeat this operation for the opposite side, and take the
yoke off. A brass or wood drift can then be used to drive out the
cups. (See Figure 10.24.)
To get the
U-joint back together: Assemble the needles in the cups, using grease
to hold them
in place. Put the spider journal into the flange yoke, put the bearing
under the end
of the spider journal and tap it into position. Put the retaining clip
at the end of the cup to hold it. Put the next bearing cup under the
end of the
spider journal opposite the installed bearing and tap it into position.
clip. Now put the cups on the other ends of the journal and install
the clips. If
there is a dust cover over the joint, replace it.
joints it is possible to put one bearing cup into each yoke on the bench,
then fit the
spider into it.
A leaky gas
tank can often be fixed with Liquid Steel epoxy without removing
the tank from
the vehicle. The area around the leak should be clean and dry.
make a temporary patch in a leaking tank.
A leak can
also be soldered or welded, but this operation is very risky because
explosive gasoline vapor. The tank should be removed from the car and
carefully with soapy water, inside and out. Fill the tank to the top with
drive out the fumes. It may be possible to weld the tank with the water
inside if the
water is drained to below the level of the leak, which should be at
the top of
To solder the
tank, sandpaper all around the leak to clean it, and apply soldering
the tank with a torch until the solder will melt on the tank, not merely
from the heat
of the torch. Flow solder over the leak, and allow it to cool slowly.
carburetor is removed it is a good idea to cover the opening so that loose
not fall into the intake manifold and cylinders.
adjustment can be accomplished with the vacuum gauge. Adjust the
main jet by
running the engine at 1,500 to 2,000 RPM, screw the needle valve
in until the
engine starts to falter, then adjust it outward until the highest vacuum
If there is an idle jet on the carburetor, adjust it while the car is
running at a
fast idle. Screw the valve in until the engine falters, and then out
highest vacuum reading as above.
carburetor can be cleaned with any number of commercial preparations, of
is the author's choice. Lacquer thinner is an acceptable
Adjusting the Choke
On cars with
manual choke controls, no adjustment is necessary. The choke
pulled out on the dashboard, operates a cable that pulls the choke
plate in the
carburetor to reduce the air supply. To check it, remove the air
have a helper operate the button while observing the plate inside the
barrel of the
carburetor. It should move from fully open to fully closed.
choke is somewhat more complex. To check it, remove the air
press the accelerator to the floor with the engine cold. The choke
close over the carburetor barrel. When the engine is started the
should open gradually until fully opened.
Do not put
oil on the linkage for the choke. Joints should be cleaned with a
solvent such as Gumout, or with gasoline.
There are two
basic types of automatic choke, both operated by engine heat. To
type that is located behind a round cover plate on the side of the
the cover itself is turned. With the engine cold, loosen the retaining
rotate the cover one notch in the desired direction--leaner or richer--and
type of automatic choke is set into a depression in the intake
With the engine cold, remove the cover holding the choke control in
gently remove the control mechanism. It will be marked to indicate
which way to
adjust for a richer or leaner mixture. Loosen the lock nut, change
adjustment, tighten the lock nut, and replace the control in the manifold.
On some older
cars the automatic choke is operated by a spiral heat coil in the
linkage to the carburetor. This coil turns a cam that holds the choke
As engine heat warms the metal coil, it slowly turns the cam to
from the choke plate lever.
is especially important with the braking system, and dirt in the
system is a
frequent cause of trouble. Before working on any part of the brake
cylinders, master cylinder, etc., clean it very carefully. Parts removed
system should be washed in alcohol or brake fluid, not in gasoline or
an air compressor is available, a blast of air will often clean the parts
small-diameter plastic tube can be used to siphon brake fluid from a
can to a
smaller container for use. The taste of brake fluid is very
and difficult to overcome, so it is best to siphon carefully.
Adjusting the Brakes
pedal goes down nearly to the floor before the brakes stop the car, they
adjusted. It should never be necessary to pump the brakes.
vehicles have self-adjusting brakes. To adjust this type, drive the
backward and apply the brakes firmly several times; then go forward
operation. The excess pedal travel should have been eliminated.
vehicles the brakes are adjusted manually. They use a cam that forces
the ends of
the brake shoes apart when turned. To adjust the brakes, jack up a
spin it by hand as if going forward. Turn the adjusting nut or star
the shoe moves into contact with the drum and stops the wheel or
Press the brake pedal sharply to center the shoes on the drum. Then
back off on
the adjustment until the shoe no longer rubs the drum. Repeat this
the self-adjusting or manually adjusted type, if the pedal still goes
down too far,
or if the shoe cannot be adjusted to reach the drum, new linings
or new drums
do not require adjustment but additional brake fluid may be needed
to keep the
reservoir full as the pads wear thin.
Bleeding the Brakes
is quite thick, and the bleeding operation must be carried out after
have been opened so that air can be removed from the system. If the
feels spongy there is probably air in the line, and bleeding should
the brakes, start with the wheel having the longest line to the master
work around to the shortest one. If the vehicle has power assisted
engine should not be operated while bleeding the brakes, and the
vacuum should be removed by applying the brakes several times before
are needed for the bleeding operation. Put about an inch (2.5 cm)
fluid in the bottom of a small glass jar, and put a piece of small-diameter
plastic tubing into the fluid. Put the other end of the tube over the
nipple on the wheel. There should be a tight fit over the rounded
the nipple. Loosen the nipple with a wrench. Have the assistant
the brake pedal to expel the air from the brake lines and the
tube. Pump the brake pedal slowly until there are no bubbles coming
out of the
tube, refilling the brake fluid reservoir on the master cylinder if
When no more bubbles appear, tighten the bleeding nipple and
tube. Repeat the operation on each wheel.
types of brake fluid. Use only the type specified by the vehicle
vehicles, hydraulic clutches must be bled in conjunction with the
shop manual will indicate whether this is necessary.
Relining the Brakes
lining should be replaced when the heads of the rivets are nearly
bonded lining should be replaced when there is about 1/16th of an
inch (1.5 mm)
of lining left. Sometimes a car operated in sand will have badly
brakes, caused by sand getting between the drums and the linings. In
both the drum and the lining will have to be replaced.
brake shoes for relining, remove the drum by taking off the wheel,
drum retaining screws, and pulling off the drum. Unhook the
return the brake shoes to the center, prying them off with a big
Mark the springs so they can be replaced correctly. Remove the
holding the shoe against the backing plate (if any). Spread the shoes apart
at the top
and remove them. The spring holding the bottom ends together can
removed. (See Figure 10.43.)
If the brake
drums are badly worn, the shoes may get stuck in a groove. It may
to slack the shoe adjustment in order to back the the shoes out of
before the drum can be removed.
If new shoes
cannot reach worn drums, it is possible to obtain oversize linings.
is to put a collar on the adjustment that spaces the shoes apart,
using a short
piece of pipe.
If the rubber
parts of a brake cylinder are damaged, it is possible to get a cylinder
kit rather than replace the entire cylinder. It is much easier to put the
in place if they are lubricated with brake fluid.
relining, a brake may drag if it is not possible to back off the adjustment
keep the shoe off the drum. If this is suspected, drive the car and then
wheel at the center for heat. Alternatively, jack up the wheel and try to
spin it; it
should rotate freely.
are more easily maintained than drum brakes. Two pads, one
on each side
of the revolving disc, apply pressure to stop the car. Although
somewhat, the pads are generally replaced by one of two basic
one type the pads are held in place by a heavy wire retainer; on the
the metal housing around the pads must be removed. The brake pedal
must not be
pressed while the pads are being replaced or the pressure pistons
forced out and it will be necessary to bleed the system. No adjustment
required on disc brakes although it may be necessary to add brake fluid
for pad wear.
The Hand Brake
brake should be kept in good condition so that it can be used to stop
the car in an
emergency. It is less subject to sudden failure than the hydraulic
Usually the hand brake uses a cable arrangement to pull the brake shoes
wheels. (See Figure 10.44.)
Some cars, such as the Land Rover, have a
drum brake on
the drive shaft separate from the wheel brake system.
the hand brake are usually limited to adjusting the free movement of
since the linings rarely wear. Tension in a cable type brake is usually
a turnbuckle to remove slack. (See also Section 10.41.)
Electrical Repairs <see figure 10.50>
will ruin clothing or car upholstery. If it is spilled, neutralize it with
baking soda and wash with liberal amounts of water.
battery can be charged with the car's generator or with a separate battery
very satisfactory battery charger can be built with a small gas engine
and a car
generator, and the cost of operation is much lower using the vehicle's
It is not
necessary to remove the battery from the car to charge it. When
the charger, however, it is essential that the proper polarity be
positive charger wire must be connected to the positive post of
and the negative charger wire to the negative battery post.
check if the battery is charging, look inside the filler holes for small
hydrogen gas released by the charging process. The explosive
this gas is the reason why batteries should only be charged in a
weather a battery will not take a charge well, and below 5 degrees
(-15[degrees] C) it becomes very hard to charge a battery.
that needs water frequently and is not leaking may be receiving an
through the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator, as most shop
indicate, is virtually impossible to repair without electronic testing
Some adjustments can be made as described below, but usually the
to voltage regulator problems is a new regulator.
As a first
check of a mechanical voltage regulator, disconnect the battery and
each relay. The contacts should close firmly with a very small space
the armature and the coil core. (See Figure 10.52.)
To adjust the
closing voltage, connect the battery and put a DC voltmeter
"Gen" and "Gnd" terminals on the relay. Raise the engine
cutout relay closes, and note the voltage. If it is not as indicated in the
it can be adjusted. To raise the closing voltage, bend the relay
spring post to stretch the spring. To lower the closing voltage, bend
the post down
to loosen the spring.
Generator and Alternator Repairs
difficulties with generators are caused by overloading or by foreign matter
generator housing. Overloading may result in enough heat in the
cause damage, but this is not a common problem. If the output of
is not enough to keep the battery charged, and if it is known that
regulator is in good condition, the generator can be adjusted. The
will provide instructions on this matter, which usually involves
third brush in the direction of rotation of the commutator.
If sand or
grit gets into the generator, extensive damage may be done to the
The best solution is to take the armature out of the generator and
mount it in a
lathe to turn down the commutator. If no lathe is available, one end
of the shaft
can be held in the chuck of an electric drill. If no power tools are
leave the armature in place and put a piece of fine sandpaper between
one of the
brushes and the damaged commutator. Turn the generator shaft by
engine at low speed, and the sandpaper will clean the rough spots
installing new brushes, which may be necessary when the generator does
any output, put sandpaper around the commutator with the grit side
outward against the brushes. Move the commutator back and forth
hand, and the sandpaper will fit the brushes to the curve of the
Many cars use
an alternator instead of a generator to provide electricity. The
appearance and connections are the same, but an alternator is generally
of larger diameter than a generator. An alternator generates
current (AC) which is then changed to direct current (DC) needed for
by a group of diodes. These diodes, looking like very small metal
delicate and easily damaged by reversed polarity. In service, however,
often lasts longer than a generator, and it has the advantage of
charging current at low engine speed.
the lighting system is usually indicated by a failure of the bulbs to
Equally straightforward, the solution to the problem is usually replacement
for electrical work under the dashboard: The modern vehicle
is so crowded
with wiring under this area that it is a good idea to disconnect the
before starting work. This will eliminate the possibility of blowing fuses
other damage by shorting terminals with a screwdriver or pliers.
An ailment of
the lighting system that can cause a great deal of confusion and
yet is very
easy to find is the result of wires short circuiting to the frame of the
no other cause can be found for blown fuses, or for lights working
in the wrong
combinations (such as the dome lighting coming on with the
check for this possibility. The most common spot for such trouble
wires go through the body panels. For example, check the hole where
through the back of the vehicle to the tail lights to see whether the edge
of the sheet
metal has cut through the insulation of the wire. Similar problems
can be caused
by a short circuit on a terminal block or a wire connector, possibly
from salt water, corrosion, or a bit of metal that must be removed.
several elements in the ignition system, any one of which may need
some cases, more than one element will need work, making it very
locate the problem.
must follow the recommendations of the shop manual. Five
are in common use: 7/8 inch, 1/2 inch, 18 mm, 14 mm, and 10 mm.
measurement is the outer diameter across the threads. Using these basic
hole sizes, a
vast variety of spark plug designs is available. The lower end of
should be even with the inner wall of the engine cylinder head. If the
plug is too
long, it will run hot. If it is too short it will be fouled by exhaust gas
formed in the
pocket. The length of the insulator tip below the insulator seat
determines the rate of heat flow from the center electrode to the cooling
water in the
engine, and therefore sets the "heat range" of the spark plug.
should be adjusted to the smallest gap recommended by the shop
that as they wear, the gap will increase until it reaches the maximum
the specifications. For example, if a gap of between .032 and .036
mm and 0.9 mm) is specified by the manual, set the gap to.032 inches
To set the
gap, bend only the side electrode. The center one will break easily if
is made bend it. Bend the electrode down toward the center until
gauge, set for the proper gap, just fits between the two electrodes. New
should be checked for proper gap, since they are rarely set correctly
with the spark plugs or the distributor, it is useful to mark the
wires so they
can be returned to the proper plugs. If they do become scrambled,
they must be
rearranged according to the firing order of the engine. This is
marked on the engine block. On the 2.5 liter Land Rover engine, for
firing order is molded into the engine block casting: 1-3-4-2. This
the front cylinder, number one, fires first. Then the third one back
front, the fourth, and the second, in that order. (See Figures 10.55b, 10.55c,
To replace a
spark plug after service, screw it finger tight into the cylinder head
meets the copper ring gasket. Tighten with a torque wrench (if available)
tension specified in the shop manual. If no torque wrench is available, it
improvised as shown in Section 14.50.
IGNITION is seldom found on vehicles used under frontier
These systems substitute packaged units for the separate parts found
conventional ignition system; some systems replace only a few components
in the sealed
unit, and others have an entire ignition "computer" that needs only
a few outside
connections to function. Since these systems are generally sealed
off in a
block of solid material, it is not practical to repair them. The only
test method and repair is by replacing the module with one known to
POINTS are inside the distributor. Unlike spark plugs, they should
be set at the
high end of the recommended range, since the gaps decrease with
should separate at or near the TDC (top dead center) mark on the
accordance with the shop manual. If they open too early, or before
engine will not develop full power and may kick back when cranked.
If they open
too late, there will be only a sluggish response to opening the throttle
engine will be underpowered.
can be set with engine stopped or running. To set timing with the
stopped, take the distributor cap off so the points are visible. Reference
is made to
the timing marks on the flywheel, turning the distributor housing so
points open at the correct timing mark as described in the shop manual.
At the same
time it is necessary to set the gap between the points. Most cars
notch in the point frame into which a screwdriver can be inserted as
a lever to
move the fixed breaker point. Loosen the screw holding the point
place and adjust the gap with the points fully open. The feeler gauge,
set to the
correct gap thickness as shown in the shop manual, should fit snugly
the points. Now recheck the timing, since the two adjustments
accurate method is to use a timing light, which is inserted in the circuit
"number one" spark plug. Disconnect and block the vacuum advance
start the engine, running at idle speed, and use the timing light to
the marks on the flywheel. As the distributor is turned slightly one
way or the
other, the timing marks will appear to move forward or backward.
On some cars
these timing marks are very hard to see, and a dab of white paint
or chalk will
greatly improve visibility.
COIL rarely needs repair, and when it does the only practical
thing to do
is to replace it. The coil should be replaced with an identical one if
it is necessary to use a replacement of another type, be sure that it
wired. The primary wires are usually marked as to polarity, and the
side of the coil must be connected to the "plus" side of the car's
If it is
installed backward there will be low power and misfiring at high engine
WIRING is often an unsuspected source of trouble. Unlike
wiring, the wires to the spark plugs can "leak" electricity. Wet
often stop an engine; if the spark plugs and the wires are dried with
a soft rag
the problem may be solved. If the wires are old and dried out, there
may be some
cracks from which power is leaking to the engine block or other
nearby. To check for this possibility, park the car in the dark and
engine, looking under the hood for sparks. A type of spray lacquer is
that will temporarily solve leaks in the wires; otherwise they should
inside the distributor is usually changed when new breaker
installed. The condenser should be the type specified by the
since the wrong type will affect engine power. If the condenser
is too small,
the moving arm of the breaker will develop a deposit and the fixed
have a crater. If the condenser is too large, the reverse will be true:
a crater in
the moving arm and a deposit on the fixed portion of the breaker.
CIRCUIT is basically very simple, and can be traced with little
when the elements are understood. From the battery, the power goes
ignition switch to the "plus" side of the coil. The "minus"
the coil is
attached to the frame of the car. (On cars with positive grounding,
is reversed. The only such vehicle in common use is the Land
which the "plus" side of the battery is attached to the frame.) This
the frame of the car from the coil's "minus" side is made through
points, which act as a switch. When the points are closed, the current
the coil, and when the points open, the current stops.
high-voltage circuit there are even fewer parts. The high voltage is
the buildup and collapse of power in the spark coil; from there it
flows to the
center of the distributor. Inside the distributor there is a moving
rotor, which connects the center wire to each of the outside wires in
turn as the
rotor turns. The power then flows from the coil through the rotor and
wire to a spark plug, where it jumps across the gap to the frame of the
in Section 9.70, the starter does not often fail. Most repairs are
those for the generator.
In the event
that the starter, engaging gear, or engine is jammed, the starter may
in trying to turn. In extreme cases the windings on the armature
damaged by heat. This condition is best detected by replacing the
damaged armature winding cannot readily be repaired, and a new
connecting segments of the field wiring, arranged around the inside
cylindrical case, can also be damaged by heat, stones, and other foreign
can be rejoined and taped securely.
can be bench-tested for brief periods by connecting it to a suitable
Repairs to Tires, Alignment, Steering,
steering are often the result of many small adjustments needing
work; their sum, however, is enough to make steering difficult.
most common complaint with steering on four-wheel drive vehicles
which may be caused by loose parts or by tires that are out of balance.
vehicles on frontier roads are rarely driven at high speed, tire
often be ruled out.
often be corrected by going systematically through the steering
looking for loose connections. A frequent problem is looseness between
box and the chassis, but the same sort of looseness anywhere in the
cause shimmy. In the event that this does not solve the problem, and
is satisfactory, an easy solution is to purchase a steering damper.
This is a
device very much like a shock absorber which is attached to the tie rod,
miracles for old 4WD cars.
ALIGNMENT is very difficult to adjust properly without special
rarely found in a small shop. Some guidance can occasionally be had
of tire wear, but on frontier roads the tires are usually ruptured
are worn enough to show any pattern. For the same reason, however,
there is not
usually much need for concern for alignment on roads where speed
is low. The
wheels usually do not need alignment unless there is collision
damage or a
similar major problem.
are involved in tire alignment: caster, camber, and toe-in. In a
caster is the inclination from vertical of the kingpin, compared
road. A vehicle having ball joints instead of a kingpin measures caster
by the angle
that the ball joints are tilted to the front or rear. Tilt to the front is
regarded as a
negative caster; to the rear is positive. CAMBER is the angle at
wheel is tilted to the side, that is, the angle between the centerline of
the wheel and
vertical. The most important factor as far as tire wear is
TOE-IN. This is the difference between the measurement at the
front and at
the back of the tires, from the center of one front tire to the center
ADJUSTMENT can be managed without complicated equipment, but
it should be
done carefully, since it is the greatest wear factor. Jack up the front
end of the
vehicle and support it securely. Spin the tires by hand and make a
around the road surface by holding the chalk against the turning tire.
Use a nail to
scribe a very narrow line in this chalk, holding the nail firmly in
a block of
wood resting on the floor so it cannot shift. Drop a plumb bob or use
carpenter's square to transfer the mark at the front of the tire to the floor,
and then to
do the same at the rear of the tire. Without touching the steering or
wheels, do the same for the other front tire. Measure the distance
two front marks and the two rear marks. The difference is the toe-in.
be adjusted in accordance with the shop manual by lengthening
the tie rods.
Two notes on
in the steering rods can become rusted to the point where the ball slips
out of the
socket. In this condition the car cannot be steered, although often
repairs can be made with a piece of heavy wire. When checking the
system, try to move the ball joints to be sure of their condition.
Some parts of
the steering system are not interchangeable between left-hand and
drive cars. The steering rod running from the steering wheel to the
example, is not the same on both right-hand and left-hand drive
if the wrong rod is used, the car will steer in reverse-going to the
the steering wheel is turned to the left.
Tires and Wheels
the wheel from the car is described in Section 7.60.
To get the
tire off the rim using hand tools, first be sure that all the air is out. The
is to remove the core from the valve. Then free the tire from the steel
wheel with a
heavy hammer, or in extreme cases by laying the tire on the ground,
plank on the tire, and driving a car onto the plank to force the the tire
down and away
from the steel wheel. When the tire is free on both sides, stand
portion of the tire so that it will fit into the depression at the center of
wheel. Pull the
tire off the opposite side with a tire iron, then work it off the
wheel all the
way around. With one side of the tire free, the tube can be pulled
repairs. If necessary, the other side of the tire can be removed in the same
tires are mounted on split rims. This type of wheel is made of two
pieces bolted together. To remove the tire, deflate it and remove the bolts
sides together. The sides will then come apart, and the tire can be
putting this type of wheel together, be sure that the tire is not
between the halves. There is usually a rubber protector flap between the
tube and the
wheel to eliminate this problem.
is not a difficult job once the leak has been found. To locate
inflate the tube and submerge it in a basin of water. Bubbles will
location of the leak. The tub need not be big enough to hold the
inflated tube, since one portion can be done at a time. A pond or brook
can also be
used for this purpose. If no leak can be found, check to be sure the
holding air. Put a short piece of hose over the valve and put the other
end in a jar
of water. If bubbles come out of the hose, air is leaking through the
types of tube patches are hot and cold. The cold patch does not
hold as well
as the hot one, but in some areas it is more easily obtained. It consists
of a small
piece of rubber and some glue with which to attach it over the hole.
To use this
type of patch, clean the area around the leak carefully. Apply the
cement to the
area around the leak and to the patch. Let the cement dry, and then
coat of cement on the patch and press it in place. Work out the
rolling the patch with a bottle or a round stick in the same manner
as a baker
making a pie crust.
A hot patch
needs somewhat more specialized equipment, but the tools are not
the results are better than with a cold patch. Scrub the area around
the leak with
a wire brush or with the small scraper provided with the patch kit.
Peel off the
white cover on one side of the patch and lay the patch against the
leak with its
metal backing facing outward. Clamp the patch in place with the
provided with the kit and set fire to the patch with a match. The heat
the rubber to the tube, making a permanent patch. After allowing to
tires are not often used in 4WD vehicles. If such a tire is pressed
sideways by a
large rock or some other obstruction, or if it is pinched between
the logs of a
bridge, it is likely to come free from the wheel and leak air. Small
tubeless tire can be repaired with plug patches sold for the purpose,
without removing the tire from the wheel. In the event of a larger
however, the tire must be discarded.
faced with the lack of a vehicle when no tires were available, has
large rips in tire sidewalls using heavy wire. The wire, about 8 gauge,
like staples through the sidewall from the inside of the tire. The
are folded over to secure the wire. A tire boot or a piece of old inner
be placed inside the tire at the point of repair to prevent the wire from
inflated tube. This type of repair cannot be recommended for
travel, but it is a satisfactory salvage method for low speeds. It can
often be used
to restore to service a tire with a lot of useful tread if the sidewall
ripped open by stones.
tubes should never be discarded, no manner how badly damaged.
always be cut up to make tire patches, gaskets, or replacements for
THE TIRE on the wheel is not any harder than getting it off.
any rust or scale off the rim, and if there is time or need this is a good
time to paint
the rim. Apply a mixture of brake fluid and graphite to the bead
tire--the portion that will touch the steel wheel. This makes it easier to
get on and
also easier to remove the next time.
Jam the wheel
into one side of the tire opening, tipping the wheel so that the
center portion is against the bead of the tire. The tire irons can then be
used to pull
the rest of the bead around the wheel. Insert the tube, lubricating
it with soapy
water. Get the tube's filling valve through the hole in the wheel,
and be sure
that the tube will not be pinched between the tire and the wheel.
Don't put the
valve insert into the tube yet. The tire should be centered on the
wheel and the
tube inflated until the tire "pops" onto the rim. Remove the tire
pump or the
compressor and the tire will deflate; this will work out any folds or
the tube. Screw the valve insert into the tube and pump the tire up to
machines available that will accomplish the removal and replacement
of tires and
tubes in a matter of minutes. Some are manual; others use
air power. In a shop where tire changing is a frequent task these
tools are a
very worthwhile investment. Some manual models cost under $100
and save vast
amounts of time and work.
TUBELESS TIRES on a wheel for inflating, tie a rope around the tire
tread like a
belt, and wind it up with a tire iron or a big screwdriver. The bead
apart and touch the wheel, making it possible to inflate the tire. It
impossible to inflate a tubeless tire with a hand or foot pump, since the
the air inside the tire is used to seat the tire on the wheel. An air
a small pump using air from the engine cylinder is a necessity
type of tire. Fortunately, tubeless tires are rarely found on bush
because of the difficulty of repairing them.
V-LUGS should have the lugs pointing forward at the top of the
provides the best traction and makes the tires self-cleaning. The
spare tire on
a vehicle of this type, if it is to be substituted for a damaged tire for
period, may need to be reversed on its wheel.
TO MOUNT THE
WHEEL on the car, set it on the studs and put on the lug nuts
These nuts must be pulled up tight or they will work off and ruin
possibly dropping the tire in the process. To avoid warping the wheel
when the nuts
are tightened, move to a nut opposite the last one tightened rather
around the wheel in order. (See diagram in Section 7.60.)
TIRES is sometimes recommended by manufacturers, but on
roads it is of little value since the tires will most likely rupture before
comes for rotation. (See Figure 10.62b.)
tire rotation schemes involve the spare tire, and vehicles on frontier
require several spare tires. On roads where tire rotation is possible,
is the usual order: right front to right rear, right rear to spare, spare
front, left front to left rear, and left rear to right front. The easiest
out the switch is to mark each tire with chalk to indicate where it
is to be mounted,
then jack up the entire car and switch tires.
BALANCING can reduce front-end shimmy, but frontier roads are
enough to offset any advantage of balancing. If balancing is to
be done, it
is most easily accomplished with a tool made for the purpose. If none
leave the wheel on the car, jack it up, and spin it by hand. Mark the
bottom with a
chalk mark when it comes to rest. If it consistently stops at the
it can be assumed that this is the heavy side, and the tire should be
the other side. Attach wheel weights to the inside and outside of
the wheel at
the top, counterbalancing the off-center weight of the wheel and
Balancing by this method may result in some improvement in tire balance,
but it is a
poor substitute for a balancing level.
Repairs to Springs
To remove a
broken leaf-type spring, jack the chassis until the tires are clear of
Remove the nuts from the U-bolts that hold the spring to the axle,
and the big
bolts holding the ends of the spring to the chassis. The spring can
removed. To take the springs apart, remove the tie bolt that goes through
the center of
the leaves, and they will separate.
reassemble, put the leaves together with the center tie bolt, and put the
under the car. Fasten the spring to the axle with the U-bolts, and
end of the spring to the chassis. To get the other end to line up with
the holes in
the shackle or the chassis, it may be necessary to put a jack under
the axle and
raise or lower it, flexing the spring. Leave the end bolts slightly
the car back and forth a bit to seat the springs, and then tighten the
securely. This will prevent undue wear on the bushings that hold the
are not often found in 4WD vehicles intended for rough
remove a spring of this type for replacement, first take off the shock
it is inside the coil. Then raise the chassis so the wheel hangs free,
spring, and remove it. Where coil springs are used in the front end
vehicle, it will also be necessary to remove a control arm or stabilizer.
Repairs to Shock Absorbers
absorbers, once damaged, cannot be repaired and must be replaced. If oil
leaks from a
shock absorber, for example, it should be replaced. The same is true
if the shaft
is bent or if there is some other damage.
To replace a
shock absorber, simply unbolt it and take it off. Put the new one
on in its
place, using new rubber bushings if possible. On some cars the shock
held in place by studs and big cotter pins, but the principle is the
This is an
easy job that makes a big difference in comfort.
THE FAN BELT
is easily removed by loosening the generator mounting
swinging the generator toward the engine block, and slipping the fan
belt off and
around the blade of the fan. Replace it by reversing this process,
there is about 1/2 inch (1 cm) of movement between the pulleys.
necessary to use a pry bar of some sort to pull the generator away from the
when tightening the fan belt. If a new belt squeaks when the engine
apply belt dressing or soap as a lubricant. The new fan belt may stretch
should be checked for tightness after two or three hours of engine
LEAKS in the
cooling system can be traced to white deposits around hose joints
or in the
radiator core. In hoses, tightening the clamps may cure the leak. In the
itself, there are commercial stop-leak preparations that will block small
holes and fix
the problem. If the car must be used while water is leaking, loosen
cap to lower the pressure in the cooling system. Check the water
radiator has a leak too large for stop-leak preparations to fix, the usual
remedy is to
solder the hole. The leak must first be located; often it is around
the joint of
the hose connection tube and the radiator body. Drain the radiator
to allow it
to be heated. Clean the area carefully with sandpaper, steel wool, or
a wire brush,
and heat it with a blowtorch or a large soldering iron. When hot
solder onto the radiator to cover the leak, and allow it to cool
filling with water.
Water Pump Repairs
with the water pump is generally limited to failure of the bearing in
This may be so severe that the impeller rubs against the inside of the
causing a shrill squeaking noise. The bearing cannot usually be
the whole pump must be replaced. To remove the pump for
drain the cooling system through the plug at the bottom of the
take the fan belt off the pump pulley, and unbolt the pump. On most
fan is mounted on the front of the pump shaft, and must be removed
to get the
pump out of the space between the radiator and engine block.
The pump can
be dismantled to look for evidence of bearing failure. A new
pump is installed
by reversing the removal process, using a new gasket between
the pump and
engine block to prevent leaking. The gasket may be sealed with
compound if available.
Exhaust System Repairs
must be fixed promptly, not only because of the annoyance
of the noise,
but because of the poisonous carbon monoxide that escapes from
and may get into the cab of the vehicle. A small hole can be fixed
with sandpaper and applying Plastic Steel or a similar high-temperature
compound. For a larger hole, clean the area and put on a
from a tin can, sealing it with Plastic Steel and securing it with wire.
screws can also be used to secure the patch to the muffler if the
is not badly rusted.
tailpipe or muffler that is badly rusted is more a matter of controlled
than removal. Jack up the chassis to get as much space between the
rear axle and
the body as possible. Then find the joint where disassembly is to
be made and
take it apart. Often this will involve a cold chisel and a hammer
to cut off
the damaged part of the system.
replacement muffler or pipe is not available, it is sometimes possible to make
by welding together parts of an exhaust system from another type
It is also possible to buy flexible exhaust line, which can be bent to
Emission Control Repairs
vehicles sold for frontier service have only basic equipment and
in recent years some countries have become aware of the growing
pollution of the atmosphere caused by cars, and are now requiring
emission controls to reduce emissions. If not properly adjusted and
they can greatly reduce fuel economy.
(positive crankcase ventilation) valve draws fumes from the crankcase
carburetor for burning in the engine. It is usually a metal cylinder,
thumb-size, connected by a hose from the crankcase or rocker arm cover
carburetor. To test, remove the end from the engine, run the engine
feel for a strong vacuum at the free end of the hose. When the PCV
shaken, there should be a clicking noise like a loose marble inside it. If
defective it should be replaced. Most manufacturers specify replacement
years. Sometimes the PCV valve can be restored by careful cleaning
with a strong
solvent like lacquer thinner or Gumout if no replacement is
The hoses must also be clear and clean,
cleaner may have a small filter to clean air before it enters the crankcase
as part of
the PCV system. Metal mesh filters can be cleaned in gasoline; fiber
must be replaced. This type of filter is usually a small plastic device
inside the air cleaner, covering the end of the hose to the crankcase.
vehicles fall apart before the engine becomes old enough to need
work, limiting the amount of engine work needed in a typical small
springs break, frames split, and axle shafts are broken, but usually
and gear train do not wear out.
tuning of the engine and exact adjustments for fuel economy are usually
keeping the vehicle running.
cases, taking the engine apart will require some special tools. There are,
jobs that can. be done in a small shop with standard tools.
seat tightly to seal the cylinders, and failure to do so will cause
difficulties. Valves are made to seat properly by grinding them against
block with an abrasive compound.
are located under the cylinder head, which must be removed for
remove the valve, compress the valve spring and remove the two
segments that hold the spring in place. Take out the valve from the head
for warping, burning, or pitting. Put the valves in a numbered holder
so they can
be returned to the same places.
Place a small
amount of grinding compound where the edge of the valve meets
block. Rotate the valve until a clean ring shows where the edge will
seal. This is
most easily done with a tool consisting of a stick with a rubber
at the end. The suction cup is stuck to the flat face of the valve and
the stick is
then rotated back and forth between the palms of the hands to turn
the valve and
grind it. When the valve seats well, remove all the compound
since any residue will cause rapid engine wear.
springs and put the small retainers back in place, adjust the tappets
the shop manual, and the job is done.
To adjust the
valve tappets, most engines have screw adjustments on the end of
arm. To gain access to the adjustment, remove the rocker arm cover,
bolted to the top of the engine. Turn the engine by hand until the valve
adjusted is fully extended from the engine block. There should be a little
the end of the valve and the end of the rocker arm. Loosen the
that holds the adjustment screw. Insert a feeler gauge of proper size
end of the valve and the rocker arm. Turn the screw until the feeler
just be moved in the gap. Holding the adjustment screw in place,
retaining nut. Adjust each valve in this way. (See Figure 10.91 a.)
One method of
compressing the valve springs is to squeeze them in a bench vise
them with two pieces of wire wrapped around the coils. When the
been put back in place, the wire can be cut and removed. (See Figure
In a shop
where valve grinding is done frequently, the purchase of a valve
installation tool may be worthwhile. This is a large clamp,
C-clamp, that fits around the cylinder head to press the springs
it easier to remove the keys holding the valve in place. (See
when a vehicle is out of service because of major engine work, it is
replace the engine with one from a wreck. If all vehicles from a fleet
are of the
same type, this process is made even easier. The process of removing
an engine is
largely devoted to disconnecting controls, cooling hoses, and fuel
and is not particularly difficult.
taking off the hood; it may also be necessary to take off the fenders or
grille on some cars. Remove the battery lines to the starter motor and
line from the battery if it is attached to the engine block. Remove
cleaner if it is separately located. Drain the radiator and disconnect its
the engine block. Take off the fan to avoid damaging the radiator.
exhaust manifold from the exhaust pipe. Remove heater hoses, if
Disconnect the fuel line, accelerator linkage, choke linkage, wires from the
ignition wires, oil pressure gauge wire, and radiator thermometer
the engine slightly with a hoist and disconnect it from the clutch or
housing. In some cases it is easier to take the clutch out with the engine.
engine mounts and lift out the engine.
engine is a matter of reversing all the above steps.
Miscellaneous Engine Repairs
PISTON RINGS is generally done as part of a general overhaul
of an engine
which might also include grinding valves and new bearings. The
must be removed and the oil pan taken off. Unbolt the lower ends
of the piston
cranking arms from the crankshaft and push the pistons out the top
of the block,
working on one at a time to keep them in order. Remove the old
clean the grooves in the piston walls. To put on the new rings, start
bottom one first. Using thin strips such as pieces of tin cans or feeler
to keep the rings from going into the wrong grooves, expand the
guide them into the correct grooves. If there is no specially made ring
tool available, a worm-type hose clamp can be used to squeeze the
rings and get
them back into the cylinder bore. The rings must be compressed
around the outside edge or they will bind and break when an attempt
is made to
push the piston back into the block. When the piston is in place the
crank arm can
be bolted on the crankshaft under the engine, replacing the
BEARINGS in an engine is not difficult and can often be done
removing the engine from the car. Since each engine is different, it is
best to refer
to the shop manual for the procedure. In general, it involves taking
off the oil
pan to expose the crankshaft and the cranking arms that connect the
the crankshaft. The ends of these cranking arms are unbolted and new
in place; new bearings are also slipped in around the crankshaft
where it is
mounted to the engine block.
replacing bearings it is best to run the engine slowly for several hours,
from another source to "run in" the new bearings. This is readily
turning the newly repaired engine with another car, letting a turning
wheel on the
power car touch and turn a wheel on the repaired car to crank the
can also be done by towing the car, although this can become tedious.
the result of improper burning of fuel in the cylinders. In areas
gasoline is of poor quality, knocking is a common problem. It is indicated
by a sound
like that of loose marbles rolling around in the engine when a load
such as climbing a hill. If the grade of gasoline is suspected, a better
grade of fuel
can be tried as an experiment. If no better fuel is available, the
timing should be slightly retarded until knocking is eliminated. Some
an adjustment on the distributor which can be turned to make minor
timing without loosening the entire distributor.
On an old
engine with loose-fitting parts due to wear, knocking could be the
worn crankshaft bearings or pistons that are loose in the cylinders.
indicated above, can be renewed if the engine is dismantled. The
cylinders and installation of cylinder liner sleeves or oversize
generally a job for a well-equipped overhaul shop.
is saved in many parts of the world for use in latrines to help
While effective, this practice cannot be condoned because it
the contamination of ground water. A better use for this used oil is as
in saw mills, well pumps, manual two-man saws, chain saw blades,
crushers, etc. It can also be used as fuel in specially designed ovens
Removing and Replacing Cylinder Head
valves or replace piston rings it is necessary to remove the cylinder
upper part of the engine that covers the ends of the cylinders. First
the spark plug wires. Remove the rocker arm cover from the top of
Remove the nuts holding the cylinder head in place. Lift the head
get it off the studs in the block.
the head, be sure the cylinders and the mating surfaces are clean.
Insert a new
gasket, without any gasket compound, over the studs in the engine
the cylinder head over the studs and put the nuts on finger-tight.
manual will indicate the proper sequence of tightening the nuts at the
center of the
head first, working outward toward the ends. Consult the torque
Section 20.10 for approximate tightness required. (See Figure 10.94.)
indicate the presence of carbon deposits in the engine, remove the
as described in Section 10.94. Scrape the carbon from the cylinder
head and the
tops of the pistons. Be sure to remove all loose carbon and dirt
reassembly. The valves should also be ground as part of this operation.
replacing the cylinder head, use a new gasket if one can be obtained, and
head bolts to the manufacturer's specifications.
the body of a vehicle are usually for the sake of appearance, rather
function. Recognizing the modest equipment at many small shops, some
have attached fenders and doors with bolts, rather than welding
so that they can be removed for repairs. When body panels are flat,
as is the
case with the Toyota Land Cruiser or Stout and the Land Rover, it is
lay a damaged panel on the garage floor and beat it out more or less
flat with a
mallet. One of the principal advantages of having several vehicles of
the same type
is that bolted-on panels of this type can be exchanged, or taken
cannot be repaired if broken, but a crack can be stopped
spreads and affects the entire pane. To do this, chuck a piece of
in the drill, and dip the end of it in a valve-grinding
Using light pressure on the drill, cut through the first layer of the
most windshields are made of laminated glass or plastic, this will
the crack from spreading through the rest of the glass layer.
window glass in a car, it must be set in with a rubber strip of some
sort. In some
cases a special tool is needed to put this strip together; usually the
illustrated in the shop manual, and it may be possible to improvise
similar. A great help in getting glass into the rubber gasket is to use
liquid as a lubricant. Never use oil to lubricate rubber parts.
plastic panels may be fastened into metal track slides using an adhesive,
such as silicone
glue. Many 4WD vehicles use sliding windows of this type,
the roll-up type found in sedans.
ROOF DENTS in
a car can often be removed by pushing an ice pick or similar
through the headliner inside the cab and carefully pushing the dent
out. Some 4WD
cars have no cab ceiling, making this trick unnecessary.
If damage to
the chassis is suspected but cannot be seen, measure the chassis and
compare it to
the shop manual. If no dimensions are available, measure the
diagonally and compare with the opposite measurement. Frame
is not usually possible in the small shop, but in some cases it may
use another vehicle as a source of power for this type of operation.
car can be parked against a tree and another vehicle used to push
into line, or the damaged chassis might be cabled to a tree and another
car used to
pull on it.
A frame that
is obviously broken is actually easier to fix than one that is only
of line. Overloading a pickup truck, for example, will often break
behind the cab. This type of break can be repaired if a welder is
jacking the broken section until it is lined up with the chassis behind
the cab and
welding patches into it. The patches may be sections of the chassis
of a derelict
vehicle, or any other available material. If no welder is available,
can be bolted in place, but a welded joint is a great deal stronger.
To weld a
split frame in a frame or a crack, open the crack up with a grinder or
that it is an open "V" shape. This will allow the welder to reach
of the metal,
rather than merely lay a bead on the surface. It is also a good idea
to drill a
small hole at the end of the crack to keep it from spreading.
A SHOP BUILDING
manual is primarily concerned with repairs and operation of 4WD
few words on repair facilities might the in order for persons who must
their own repair facilities. If more than occasional service is undertaken,
garage and workshop is practically a necessity. A roofed area is a great
a rainy climate and also provides shade from the sun.
should be as comfortable as possible for the workers. In a cold
should be heated if at all possible, since it is very difficult to perform
with small parts if the hands are cold and stiff. In the tropics, leave
walls of the building open on all four sides for ventilation and to
A large part
of the building should be devoted to parts storage. In most places
die shop will
be its own source of supply for most items. Salvaged parts must
categorized and saved for future use, and new parts must also be protected
rain, theft and other hazards. Parts should be stored in an orderly
that they can be found when needed. In general it is a good idea to
part, no matter how badly damaged, if the supply problem is difficult.
Often it will
develop that a need is so urgent that it becomes practical to repair
a broken part
and use it again. Alternatively, even a badly smashed part may be
used as raw
materials for the forge, as a welded patch, or for some other purpose.
vehicles must be cared for, it is a great advantage to have a two-car
vehicle can then be put in for extended service operations, and
be brought inside for a quick job like an oil change or a new spark
plug. It is
also very convenient to be able to put vehicles side by side to exchange
parts as a
means of testing, or to use battery jumper cables.
the size of a shop, remember that other people may bring in vehicles
for repair in
the future. These may be larger than your own cars. Space may also
depending on the type of operation, for repairs to bicycles, sewing
typewriters, phonographs, clocks, and other mechanical devices.
A shop where
heavy work is contemplated should have an overhead hoist inside
if this can possibly be arranged. It will save hours of work and
money in the
long run, although the cost of the hoist and track is considerable.
A good hoist
can be built by putting a sturdy log into the building over the repair
area when the
garage is being built. Any type of hoist can then be suspended
from the log.
If no hoist can be arranged in the building, a nearby tree might
As power for
the hoist, if a differential chain hoist or ratchet hoist is not
may be convenient to use a truck winch. The winch cable can be
through a pulley above the engine to be lifted, making a very
hoist. If no winch is available, a hoist can be made by an inventive
an old axle shaft as the drum for the rope and welding a large crank
to the end,
which can be turned by hand.
power is a great asset in a shop, making it possible to use a wide variety
tools. If a generator is to be provided as part of the shop operation, be
sure that it
is near enough to be convenient and far enough away to reduce noise.
convenient arrangement is a generator on a trailer. The trailer can be
outside the shop as a source of electric power, and when power is needed
for work on
the road the trailer can be towed to the site.
A grease pit
is a real necessity in a shop unless there is an overhead hoist for the
such a lift is very rarely found in a small shop, a pit is much more
the pit is located in the side of a hill, with me end open, light will
and access will be simplified. The pit should have concrete sides to
car, but have a dirt bottom to soak up spilled oil and gasoline. The
top of the
pit can be covered with planks set into a recess if the garage space is
no repair work is in progress. If possible the pit should be
since gasoline vapors are heavier than air and will sink to the bottom
of the pit.
To jack up a
car that is parked over the pit, put a sturdy plank across the pit and
use it as a
support for the jack.
a difficult job in a small shop, since the most practical degreasing
gasoline, which creates a high fire hazard and releases fumes that can
be harmful if
inhaled over long periods. One solution is to put a rub of gasoline
in a separate
building. Nonflammable degreasers are available, but they are not
found in frontier areas.
mechanics will have to wash up and their clothing will also have to be
gasoline can be used for this purpose, it is very drying to the skin.
several excellent cleaning compounds that will clean the hands
damaging the skin. Boraxo is perhaps the best of the granular cleaners,
and Dif is an
excellent cream-type cleanser.
type of hand cleaner, such as Dif, is excellent to carry on the road.
changing a tire or making some other roadside repair, you can clean your
waterless cleanser and then wipe the grease and dirt off with a rag.
are surprisingly good.
If there is
no source of water in the shop, and if there is any rainfall in the area,
on the roof and lead them to a drum. An excellent hot water supply
arranged by lacing an old garden hose or black plastic pipe back and forth
roof of a building in a hot climate. Even in moderate sunshine this will
hot water by noon.
In the shop,
a tool cabinet or pegboard will be found more convenient than a
handy arrangement is to put tools on hangers when they are not in
insides of the doors can be used for additional tool storage space. The
be located as near as possible to the work area.
necessity in a shop is a workbench. While some parts will be repaired
vehicle, many smaller units will be removed and put on the bench for
is impractical to service these units on the floor and a bench is a real
doesn't need to be big or fancy; several planks securely fastened
serve the purpose.
must be located separately from the shop for safety reasons.
engines are offered as an alternative to gasoline engines in many 4WD
notably the Land Rover and the Unimog. A diesel engine can be
operate over a far longer period than a gasoline engine; double the
life is a realistic figure. A diesel engine is, therefore, a good
cases where roads are good enough to reduce wear on body parts.
bad roads, the body and running gear will be worn out long before
engine uses the heat of compression to ignite the fuel, and has no
ignition system. The engine cannot be drowned out while wading, and
there are no
points, coil, spark plugs, or distributor to malfunction. Since about
60 percent of
vehicle failures in fleet operation are the result of electrical
use of diesel engines can make a substantial contribution to
useful life of vehicles.
is generally less expensive than gasoline, and the engine will travel
farther on a
given quantity of diesel fuel than a gas engine goes on the same
gasoline. The diesel fuel has a higher ignition temperature, and the
fire is greatly reduced.
of diesel power are the initial cost, the availability of diesel fuel,
somewhat different mechanical training from that used for gasoline
mechanics. Diesels are rarely seen in very cold climates because they are
to start at low temperatures.
Diesel Check List
of this book contains a check list for use with gasoline engines.
are peculiar to the diesel engine, however, and a brief summary
of these is
START. Check that there is sufficient fuel. Be sure the fuel line
blocked by a bubble of air; diesel fuel is thick and the fuel line must be
bled in the
same way as a brake line if the supply is interrupted. Be sure the
of fuel is being used. If these simple remedies do not get the engine
check for poor compression, a defective fuel pump, or blocked nozzles.
If a diesel
engine is hard to start in cold weather, even when it has recently been
fault may be in the glow plugs. Check the tips of the glow plugs for
deposits that do not burn through in the relatively short application
needed for a
slightly warm engine. Also check the relay controlling power to the
glow plugs; the
relay contacts may be burned or pitted, reducing power to the
start in cold weather can also be due to congealed fuel. In some areas
it is common
practice to mix a small amount of more volatile fuel such as
the diesel fuel. Some diesel engines, particularly large ones, have
for introducing propane or butane directly into the intake manifold
cylinders. A similar result can be achieved by dipping a rag in gasoline
it over the engine's air cleaner as a starting aid. Some drivers in very
carry a spray bottle of the type used for window cleaning products
gasoline to be sprayed on the air cleaner. This practice involves
hazard if the bottle leaks or breaks, but it is much less costly than
commercially available spray cans of ether.
RUNNING is caused by two principal factors: insufficient
and poor fuel delivery.
compression can be traced to scored or worn cylinders, worn piston
damaged piston, stuck valve springs, or insufficient valve stem clearance.
compression is indicated by reduced cranking effort and by smoke
coming out of
the crankcase breather.
delivery may be due to a choked injector nozzle, stuck needle valve,
spring incorrectly adjusted, leakage of fuel from the pipe line, malfunctioning
air in the fuel line, a partly blocked fuel filter, broken fuel
poorly adjusted injection timing.
FIRING can be caused by any one of a long list of things:
injection valve; dirt on the injection valve seat; partly choked fuel filter;
between pump and cylinder, sticky injector valve; broken valve
fuel pump plunger; shortage of fuel supply to pump; broken pump
roller; incorrect injection timing; inlet or exhaust valve stuck open;
cracked valve; broken valve spring; air block in the fuel line; fuel
the pump or injection valves; or distorted fuel injection valve.
LOSS OF POWER
in a diesel engine is usually due to trouble in the fuel system
if it comes
suddenly. Check the injectors, fuel lines, fuel pump, and fuel filter.
If loss of
power comes about gradually, check for loss of compression due to
cylinders, pistons, or rings; defective valves; a cracked piston; or leaks at
joints or cylinder head. This problem can also be caused by
injection timing can also cause loss of power. If the engine runs slow,
Loss of power
may also be due to excessive friction in the engine. This could
be the result
of a lubricating system failure, partly seized piston or bearing, bent
crankshaft. A simple check for excessive friction is to open the decompression
crank by hand; on an engine that does not have a
valve, remove the injectors to let the cylinders move without
KNOCKING in a
diesel engine is similar to that in a gasoline engine. It may be
injection timing that is too far advanced; idling speed too low;
the journal big end or small end bearings; incorrect valve timing,
open valves to strike the pistons at the top of their strokes; loose
sloppy pistons, due to excessive cylinder wear; or the use of a poor
Diesel Engine Tests
in the diesel engine can be localized by examinating the exhaust
smoke in the exhaust indicates dirt in the injector. A smoky exhaust
injector trouble or fuel injection that is retarded too much. Black
indicates an over-rich fuel supply, possibly the result of a partly blocked
injection troubles are perhaps the most common form of diesel malfunction.
may be indicated by loss of power, irregular running or
poor acceleration, smoky exhaust, or failure to operate at all. To
defective cylinder, disconnect fuel to each injector in turn; when the
is disconnected there will be no change in operation, but a good
cause the engine to lose power when it is disconnected. When the
cylinder has been found, the cause can usually be traced to a plugged or
injector nozzle, damaged or blocked fuel pipe line, or a blocked filter
can be tested by connecting its fuel supply with the nozzle in the
open air. The
spray should be symmetrical and finely atomized, and the valve
should make a
"grunting" noise. If the stream is irregular or one-sided, the
plugged. Other nozzle troubles include dirt between the nozzle valve
and the seat,
nozzle valve stuck in the guide, a cracked nozzle body, broken
control spring, or incorrect spring compression.
to diesel engines are similar to those for gasoline engines. The
differences are caused by the absence of an electrical ignition system
and the much
higher compression in the diesel engine. Because of the high
piston rings must be examined with some care.
timing the ignition, as is the case with the gasoline engine, the fuel
must be timed on the diesel engine. This should be done carefully in
the shop manual, since advancing the timing as little as one
increases the bearing loading by about 60 pounds/[inch.sup.2] (4.2
materially affect horsepower. Most engines have the fuel injection 5
to 7 degrees
before TDC. Retarding injection timing results in smoky exhaust,
consumption, and encourages carbon deposits in the engine.
As is the
case with a gasoline engine, a diesel engine that has been taken apart
reassembled should be "run in" with an electric motor or some other
of power for
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
is little sense to buying tools that the mechanic does not know how
to use, it is
a lot cheaper to have the right tool for the job than to have to
For these reasons the selection of the right tools for the car and for
the shop is
of considerable importance.
If there is
anything worse than not having the right tool, it is having a poorly
that breaks or bends. Buy only reputable brands of tools. Although
more than cheap ones in the first place, they will outlast the cheap tools
Tools for the Car
Carry a small
collection of good tools in the car in any area where you must be
mechanic. Some 4WD cars come with a factory-supplied tool roll,
most roadside work. Others do not, and you must provide your own
section presents a list of those tools that should be in the car, subject
local needs and problems.
A good pocket
knife is perhaps the first prerequisite, and should be in the pocket
and not in
the tool box.
The rest of
the tools should be carried in a waterproof container such as an
box if there is any problem of rusting, and should include: hand or
operated tire pump; tire pressure gauge; hammer; cold chisel; locking
pick; screwdriver; long-nose pliers; set of wrenches; lug wrench; tire
cables; Phillips-head screwdriver; flashlight; tube patches; fan
wire; pieces of inner tube rubber; a "grampa's box" of assorted nuts,
washers, cotter pins, bits of wire, etc.; sandpaper; rags; some small
clear plastic tubing; a container to carry water for the radiator; and a
mat to lie
items are a block to hold wheels when jacking or if the brakes fail,
sturdy planks to use in mending bridges, making a winch cable anchor,
branches or rocks, and similar purposes.
of tools needed in the shop will depend largely upon the type of
work to be
done. The most valuable tool in any size shop is the vehicle's
manual, which usually costs about US $25-$50, and is worth much
tools should include the following, presented in no particular order:
half-inch drive socket wrench set; 10-and 12-inch(25 and 30 cm)
wrenches; tire irons; propane torch or blowtorch; a drill, electric if
a selection of bits; hand or electric grindstone; drill sharpening jig;
Out" removers for broken bolts; wire cutters; bolt cutters; locking
pliers; half-inch (15mm) reamer; ice pick; jacks and floor stands; a
tackle; fine and coarse files; a hand or power operated wire brush;
iron, either electric or heated by a torch; various hammers; 12-inch (30
wrench; grease gun; metric wrenches if needed; battery hydrometer;
tubing; hacksaw; set of taps and dies; a gear puller set; marking
soft-face body mallet; aircraft shears or tin snips; and a sturdy bench vise.
electricity is available, an electric drill should be considered a necessity.
(6 mm) variety is of little value for heavy work, and 3/8-inch (10
half-inch (12 mm) drills are much better. In addition to drilling, an
drill can operate many accessories such as grinders, wire brushes,
Keep an oily
rag in a closed jar for use as a tool wiper, and clean all tools that
used at the end of the day before putting them away.
Luxury Tools and Equipment
For a shop
that is anticipating engine tuning work, extensive brake system
other specialized jobs, there are additional tools available that will
amount of work needed. Depending on the job, any of the following
gauge; timing light; vacuum gauge; valve setting tool; cylinder
valve lifter; piston ring expander; piston groove cutter and cleaner;
compressor; distributor brush; spark-testing screwdriver with neon
light in the
handle; brake cylinder surfacing hone; valve refacer; valve seat
grinder; clutch aligning tool; hand impact tool; torque wrench;
sets of mallets and forms of various shapes for bumping out dents;
electricity is available, a whole range of tools is opened up. Among the
are a battery charger, drill press, grinder, power hacksaw, impact
compressor, lathe, tire-changing machine, and electric hoist.
also makes it possible to have electric lighting in the shop, which
possible at any time without depending on sunlight.
availability of electricity also makes the use of electric test equipment
Many test instruments are available, although they are beyond the
technology anticipated by this book. Perhaps the most useful are the
for adjusting the ignition system, the voltmeter, and the
Both the voltmeter and the timing light are available in versions
that do not
require outside electric power.
commercially available electricity is provided in the area, a small generator
is usually a
worthwhile investment. These units range from small one-cylinder
powered machines up to huge diesels intended for continuous heavy-duty
For frequent service, a generator powered by a diesel engine will
longer than a gas-powered generator. Diesel-powered generators
obtained in sizes as small as the Lister 3 KW sets. Small generators that
mounted on the engine of a car are also available. Another useful
is a generator that can be used to provide welding power.
Compressed Air in the Shop
compressor is a useful accessory, but not of primary importance in a small
"Engine-Air" type of air pump, which is inserted in the spark plug
hole of an
engine, serves adequately for tire work and is very inexpensive.
compressor should be included in the design of a large shop that will
vehicles. It simplifies tire work and can be used to operate tire
machines and impact wrenches. If there is no electricity, the compressor
powered by a small gasoline or diesel engine of its own. If electricity is
certain times of day, a large tank on the compressor will hold an
supply of air for many jobs when the power is off.
There are two
basic types of welding: gas and electric. These are discussed
The heat for
gas welding is generated by burning acetylene gas with oxygen.
This type of
torch is portable, excellent for cutting metals, and relatively
One problem in some areas is the matter of obtaining the necessary
gases, or the
chemical powder to produce the gases.
Electric Arc Welders
welding is somewhat easier to do than gas welding, although cutting is
readily accomplished. There are three basic types of electric welders:
transformer, and generator.
type is usually cheap and not intended for continuous or heavy-duty
consists of a large resistor that draws current through the arc, and
little more than a coil of Nichrome wire in a series with the welding tool.
transformer type of welder operates where conventional AC power is
either from power lines or a generator. It reduces line voltage,
the available current.
type is driven by a small engine and can be used anywhere. An
welder can be made from a surplus aircraft generator, these units are
to about 600 amperes, far more than will be needed for ordinary
A generator of this type can be powered by a used Volkswagen
engine or a
similar power source.
professional guidance is available for instruction in welding, probably the
is a good book on the subject and a large pile of scrap metal with
Tools to Make
shop must often depend on ingenuity to solve problems where
equipment cannot be procured. Many items can be improvised or
locally, saving money and time on the job for which they are designed. (See
rods used to strengthen concrete structures are an excellent building
many purposes. They can be welded easily and can be used to
rings, hooks, hoops for canvas truck tops, jack stands, and
covers for steering gear or universal joints.
wrench is needed for certain jobs, such as replacing the cylinder head.
One can be
improvised easily if the principle is understood. A torque of 50 foot-pounds,
means a 50-pound pull on the wrench, one foot along the
the nut or bolt It could also be a 25-pound pull at a distance of two
feet, a 12
1/2-pound pull on a four-foot-long wrench, etc. Similar measures
apply for the
the torque wrench, place a spring weight scale on the wrench
on the scale until it registers the correct force for the distance from
the work. If
necessary on large nuts and bolts a piece of pipe can be use to extend
forge can be made with the heater blower from a car. The blower
arranged to blow a charcoal fire, which will heat the metal for bending.
commercial garages have degreasers for parts, but for the small shop this
usually possible. To wash small parts, replace the bottom of a tin can with
screen. Put the parts in the can, and dunk it up and down in a slightly larger
with gasoline or other solvent.
bottles such as those used for dishwashing soap are excellent for
oil, belt dressing, cutting oil, battery water, and other liquids in the
tire-changing rig can be made with a tripod type of bumper jack. Put the jack
on the tire
and put a piece of chain over the jack hook and through the center hole
of the wheel.
Put a crosspiece through the chain loop on the other side of the
when the jack is "raised" it will force the tripod legs down and
the bead of
the tire away from the wheel. (See Figure 14.50b.)
A shop hoist
can be improvised from a pulley in a tree, using a winch or a car for
the source of
power. Alternately, a lifting hoist can be made with two lengths
of steel beam
or heavy timbers hinged at one end, and a hydraulic jack between
the jack is raised, the upper beam will rise, lifting the engine or
from the car.
Homemade Test Equipment
A HEAD GASKET
TESTER can be made by soldering a tire valve into the
bottom of a
spark plug after removing the ceramic part. This can be used to pump
air into a
cylinder to see whether it leaks into the cooling water or out the edge
of the head
EXAMINER consists of a small instrument panel bulb soldered
to wires so
that it can be connected to the car's battery and lowered into the
through the spark plug hole.
apparatus for brake bleeding and other operations will be found in
many ways in which a standard vehicle can be slightly altered to make
useful under certain conditions. In some cases this can be accomplished
accessories available from the manufacturer; in other cases you
can make the
carrier provides useful additional load space, but it must be very sturdy
since it will
probably be beaten by branches, or bent if the car is rolled over. A
should not be overloaded, since it will make the car top-heavy.
has a space under the center seat for a power takeoff. If the space
is not being
used for this purpose, a tool box can be installed.
behind the seat in a pickup truck is excellent for carrying a shotgun,
or shovel. If a gun is to be carried in a dirty place, cover the end of the
keep it clean.
Cleats can be
bolted or welded to the outside of a pickup truck body to attach
the load into the truck. Similarly, rings or cleats can be put inside
the body of a
station wagon or carry all-type vehicle to be used to secure a load.
can be made of a vehicle if pallets are made up for specialized
These might be designed for a generator, welder, water pump, or other
which would be put on or off the truck when needed.
A litter for
a sick or injured person can be conveniently arranged in many station
carryall-type vehicles by placing it across the seats and resting the
front on the
In an area
where vehicles are often stuck and must be pulled free, weld towing
eyes to the
front and rear of each vehicle's chassis rather than overload the spring
other body parts.
may be made by bending a "U" of reinforcing rod and welding both
ends to the
A small lamp
can be arranged under the hood, making engine work on the road
at night much
easier. A portable lamp, with clips to attach it to the battery, is also
having a plug on the clutch housing that must be installed before
water, such as the Land Rover, take the storage bracket off the
bottom of the
car and put it on the dashboard. Then the driver can see if the plug
is in the
bracket or in the clutch housing.
where water lies on the ground and splashes on the car's ignition system,
make a sheet
metal splash guard under the engine to keep water from getting on
If water in
the gas is a frequent problem, fit a small valve to the bottom of the
The water, being heavier, will sink to the bottom and can be drained
If the fuel
supply is unreliable, it may be useful to replace a short section of the
with clear plastic tubing so that the fuel supply can be observed in case
trouble. The tubing must be kept away from hot parts of the engine.
Make an oil
cooler from coils of a discarded refrigerator or air conditioner.
A car's foot
pedals often become very slippery if they are wet. To reduce this
off the rubber pads and use a welder to make a rough bead on the
Alternatively, coat the metal surface with epoxy adhesive and
generous amount of sand on it.
joints are not covered by the manufacturer, covers should be made
for cars used
in sandy or muddy areas. A plastic bag taped in place can be used
as a cover.
PARTS AND SUPPLIES
There is only
a thin line between tools, parts, and supplies in many instances,
general the term "parts and supplies" indicates items that are used
the course of
making repairs and must be replaced.
in the shop should include 16 or 14 gauge galvanized wire, usually
wire; Liquid Steel; pieces of inner tube; sandpaper; steel wool;
hot tire patches; battery water; Liquid Wrench; penetrating oil; tire
rope; U-bolts; fan belts; brake fluid; gear oil; engine oil; antifreeze,
replacement bulbs; tire valve cores; brake linings; spring leaves;
ignition parts; Gumout carburetor cleaner; valve grinding compound;
rivets; gasket cement and gasket paper; plastic bags;
hose clamps; and a vast assortment of nuts, bolts, washers, etc.
carried in the car need not be so extensive but should include a can of
belt, distributor points, cap, condenser, rotor arm, spark plugs,
fuses, bulbs, fuel pump diaphragm, radiator hose, plastic bags, hand
rags, brake fluid, inner tube rubber, baling wire, a can of engine oil, a
filter gasoline, several jacks of various types, as many spare tires as
needed, supplies for fixing flat tires with either hot or cold patches, and
remote areas, take along a few cans of baked beans, Spam
meat), etc., for unexpected nights on the road. In addition, carry a
(20 liter) can of drinkable water.
consumables used in a shop of any size include gasoline or diesel fuel,
water, grease, brake fluid, and gear oil. Each presents its own storage
gear oil are much cheaper if purchased by the drum rather than in
It is then more convenient to put the oil into gallon (4 liter) cans
ready for use
in the shop.
of oil is not a great hazard since it is not likely to burn unless exposed
to an open
the life and explosion hazard, it is best to keep gasoline in a separate
shed. Fuel is usually purchased in 55-gallon (200-liter) steel drums,
and if many
such drums must be handled, it is convenient to get or build a small
them. The gasoline can be pumped directly from the drums or put into
(20-liter) cans for easier portability. Gasoline should not be stored
for great periods
of time since the volatile elements that make engine starting
easy tend to
evaporate. When transferring gasoline from one container to
siphon can be used if there is no pump available. Use clear plastic
that the gas can be seen through the hose, and you don't get gas in your
when buying gasoline or diesel fuel from a stranger, it is advisable
to test the
contents of the drum. Insert a faucet in the bung hole of the drum and
turn the drum
so that the faucet is at the lowest point. Open the faucet and drain
(liter) into a clear glass jar, then inspect the jar for water or dirt.
The parts of
the car that most often are damaged in rough service are the drive
running gear. Preventive maintenance can do a lot to extend the life
parts, and of other parts of the vehicle as well.
service of the car is usually outlined in the shop manual or the owner's
This service is intended to avoid trouble by replacing equipment that
wears out, or
replenishing supplies of oil or grease that are used up in normal
be sure that nothing on this list is overlooked, make a wall chart for
the shop on
which the mechanic can check off each item as it is completed. In
service conditions, use the number of engine hours as a guide to service
the miles traveled. A car stuck in a swamp, for example, may be run
without moving at all. Engine-hour meters based on engine revolutions
or on a
simple clock are available for most vehicles.
The trend on
modern vehicles is away from frequent greasing. Many parts of
some cars are
lubricated for the life of the vehicle and do not need to be greased
at all. Check
to see whether there are grease nipples on universal joints, the
sections of the drive shafts, joints in the clutch or brake-pedal linkage, or
linkage. The shop manual will indicate where grease is necessary.
be done with a cartridge-type grease gun or a conventional grease
gun, or with
a compressed air greaser. A cartridge is very tidy but costs quite
a bit more
than bulk grease. A conventional grease gun is loaded by hand and
is the usual
type found in the small shop. In a big shop it may be economical
to use a
greaser powered by compressed air.
the tool used, force enough new grease into the nipple to push a
of old grease from the joint.
If a car is
used in deep water, it is a good idea to grease it as soon as possible
wheel bearings, remove the small cap at the center of the wheel.
cotter pin and lock nut. Remove the adjusting nut. Pull off both
bearing, protecting the bearing from dirt. Wash in kerosene and
carefully for damage or wear. Pack with grease (see Section 10.10) and
the adjusting nut finger-tight and check that there is no wheel
secure with the lock nut and cotter pin.
have lubrication points in inconvenient or unlikely places.
owner's manual to be sure that none of them are missed, since a dry
bearing will be ruined.
types of oil are needed: engine oil and gear oil. The engine oil, used
in the crankcase,
is usually SAE 30 or 40. Gear oil may be SAE 80, 90, 120, or
viscosities. The higher the SAE number, the thicker the oil.
CRANKCASE is not a difficult job, but it must be done
Run the engine to get the oil hot, or perform this operation right after
the car has
returned from a trip: Stop the engine, hold a pail under the oil-pan
and remove the plug. Oil will pour out; when it stops, put the plug
back in. Some
mechanics like to flush the crankcase with diesel fuel or
do not run the engine for more than a few seconds with this
certain intervals the oil filter must be removed and replaced, and
crankcase should be filled with a new supply of the proper type of oil.
generally added to the crankcase either through a tube on the side of the
engine, or by
removing the breather cap or a solid cap on the rocker arm cover.
Oil level in
the crankcase is measured with a dipstick in a tube entering the
near the crankcase.
FILTER involves the one-piece unit or the housing and
disposable filter, depending on the type used on the particular vehicle.
whole unit is replaced, a new gasket should be used each time, and
the filter should
be turned only by hand to avoid bending its can with excess
weather where the choke is used a lot, change the oil more often than the
indicates, since the excess gas will drain into the crankcase and dilute
Every 1,000 miles (1,500 km) is a good minimum interval.
oil is changed, clean and re-oil the crankcase oil-filter breather
cap, if the
engine has one. This may be necessary more often in dusty or sandy
Service on the air filter will be indicated in the owner's manual.
GEAR OIL must
be replenished at specified intervals, and on occasion the
steering box, knuckle joint housings, differentials, and transfer case
drained and cleaned. Gear oil is thick and it is sometimes difficult to get
it into the
housings. One solution is to use a long piece of clear plastic tubing
with a funnel
in the top. Hold one end in the filler hole and pour the oil into the
letting it run into the gear housing. Fill until oil reaches the bottom of
that need periodic oiling are the distributor, generator, and
motor. Oil should not be put in the door locks since it will gum up the
use fine graphite lubricant instead. Oil can also be applied to door
hinges, tailgates, and other moving parts.
"tune-up" is intended to restore variable adjustments in the engine
to as near
conditions as possible. This will restore lost power and make the engine
run as well
as possible without any major repairs. There is no special interval
at which a
tune-up should be performed; it is judged more by necessity. A good
might be 2,500 miles (4,000 km), if there is no need sooner than that.
inspect the battery, engine oil, radiator water, and fan belt. Clean or
air cleaner and fuel filter.
actual tune-up operation, first adjust the distributor points and lubricate
the cam and
pivot. Check the ignition timing with a timing light if possible.
valve clearance. Test cylinder compression. Check, clean, and gap
plugs. Adjust the carburetor using a vacuum gauge if possible, then
road test the
should be flushed periodically with clean water. In areas where the
water is not clean, this operation should be done every few months;
annual flush will serve.
effective way to flush the cooling system is to disconnect the
hose at the block and let it serve as a drain. Remove the radiator cap
and let water
flow out there, too. Set the heater to "Hot." Connect the water
to the heater inlet connection, which was cleared when the hose was
the first step. Water will flow through the engine block and the
reverse, cleaning the inside passages.
products are available to flush the radiator, and instructions are
the containers of this product.
flushing the radiator and block, add a can of rust-inhibitor to the new
water. An inhibitor is included in most antifreeze solutions, where
required because of low temperatures.
gasoline is of poor quality or stored crudely, the fuel filter cup on the car's
should be cleaned weekly. On cars with fuel filters installed in the
between the fuel pump and carburetor, or as a part of the carburetor, it
necessary to replace the filter element. Such a filter is riot intended
to be cleaned
filter should be cleaned as often as needed. In dusty or sandy conditions
this may be
every day; it should be done at least every 2,000 miles (3,000 km)
On some cars
the air cleaner is in a shallow metal pan on top of the carburetor
of a circular paper-core filter element. This element should be
can be washed in gasoline as a temporary measure until a new one
When replacing the metal container, turn the securing nut only
gently; if it
is pulled too tight the carburetor can be distorted. The second type
cleaner uses an oil bath in a vertical metal can and has no disposable
type should be washed clean in a solvent and new oil added.
same viscosity as the crankcase oil is recommended by the shop
To find items
that will need attention, periodically start at the front of the car and
accessible nut or bolt head for tightness. A check of this type will
which parts are working loose and need attention before major trouble
battery with distilled water if it is available. Sometimes distilled water
obtained from medical institutions where it is used for many purposes.
If it is not
available, use rainwater. The water should reach the ring at the bottom
of the filler
tube in each cell. Most batteries have six cells, producing a total of
can be scrubbed from the front of the car using a solution of two
of baking soda dissolved in a quart (liter) of water.
wiper blades can be cleaned with a rag dampened with household
Cold Weather Operation
does not affect a car as adversely as cold weather does. Starting is
difficult problem in cold weather because the battery is weakened by
the cold and
the engine oil has thickened. Very cold weather can reduce the
capacity to as little as half of the warm weather power.
In very cold
climates it is common to use heaters for the battery, radiator, oil
engine block to make it easier to crank the engine. Diesel engines are
troublesome in very cold weather because the fuel tends to become
waxy and will
not flow through the fuel lines to the engine. In such circumstances
system must be warmed by an external heat source; this can be a risky
because of the danger of setting fire to the vehicle. Many diesel
leave their engines running even though the vehicle is not in use rather
shutting it down and being unable to get it started again.
One way to
keep the engine compartment somewhat warm is by making a kind
of igloo over
the front of the vehicle. First stick several thicknesses of cardboard
under the car below the fire wall to make a kind of wall across the
width of the
vehicle, isolating the engine compartment. Cover the hood with a
tarp and then
shovel snow over the tarp so that perhaps a foot of snow covers the
compartment from the ground up around the sides and over the
engine is now protected from the environment in much the same way
occupants of an igloo. Experience indicates that this system can keep the
at around the freezing temperature, even though the ambient air
be -40[degrees] Celsius (-40[degrees] Fahrenheit). The better the cardboard
less air will be exchanged between the outside and the engine
Even a fully
charged battery at a temperature of -40[degrees] has essentially no power.
turn over a cold engine with such a weak battery will spoil the
points. Keeping the battery warm is perhaps the most important
very cold weather. In an area with access to electricity, a light bulb
can be used
under the battery to keep it warm, and an electric heater can be
the vehicle to warm the engine block. A car battery has tremendous
capacity, and it takes about 24 hours to bring it from -40[degrees] up to room
The best precaution is therefore to keep it as warm as possible and
not let it
get thoroughly cold-soaked.
warming method is to use a kerosene lantern or two under a tarp. The
wall and the tarp extending down to the ground is closed off with a
few stones or
planks or a wall of snow to make an air seal. The lanterns must
be placed on
a piece of board or plywood so they don't melt the snow and tip
Lanterns give off a surprising amount of heat, enough to keep the
thinned out and make starting possible.
can be removed from a vehicle and taken into heated living quarters
to give it
more power to crank the engine. If the battery is above freezing
but the car is thoroughly "cold soaked," with the block and oil at
temperature of, for example, -40[degrees], a small fire can be built under the
oil pan to
warm the crankcase oil. The flames must be kept small so they don't
leaked oil. Twenty minutes or half an hour of flame should warm the
sufficiently for the battery to crank it.
is very tedious work at -40[degrees], the crankcase oil can be drained out of
and heated on a stove or fire and then poured back into the engine.
In any case,
before attempting a battery start, hand crank the engine a number
of times with
the ignition switch off to loosen the residual thick oil enough so
and starter motor can have a chance of turning the engine.
addition to the tool box in very cold climates is a can of starting ether.
pressurized cans, ether is extremely volatile and will ignite before
vapor does under difficult conditions. A two-second blast of ether
the carburetor will start the engine if it has any spark at all.
fashion, a diesel engine can sometimes be started with a more volatile
fuel. If a
vehicle does not have provision for admitting propane or butane to the
try dipping a rag in gasoline and draping it over the air cleaner. The
gasoline will be drawn into the cylinders and ignite more easily
hard in cold weather and often develop flat spots on the bottom
especially if the vehicle is heavily loaded. They will regain their
after a few miles of driving.
should be changed once a year in very cold climates since it absorbs
its viscosity increases in the cold.
Some routine checks
must be performed at certain intervals. If one person is
for these checks, they are more certain to be carried out than if they
are left to
any of several drivers. In cases where many people use the same car,
it is often
useful to provide a short checklist to be filled out at the end of a trip.
include places for the driver's comments on braking efficiency,
engine runs, whether the steering is operating properly, etc.
inspection record should include the date and car identification, the
each spark plug, compression readings for each cylinder, battery
measured with a hydrometer, and any necessary notes on the clutch
crankcase oil level, air cleaner, transmission oil, oil pressure, electrical
belt tension, oil leaks, water leaks, and tire inflation.
are those parts of the car that should be examined periodically to
see how much
service life they have left.
on the generator must be replaced, for example, or they will damage
commutator when they wear out and allow the springs to press against the
joints should be examined and shaken vigorously to find any
bearings or missing needles. Spline joints in the drive shaft should be
tested in the
Jack up the
front wheels periodically and shake each front tire, holding it at top
If it is loose, the front wheel bearings need adjustment.
tie-rod ball joints should be shaken to be sure they fit tightly. Remove
boot covering the joint and be sure there is grease inside. If not,
Check the oil
level in the steering gearbox, in the axle joints for the steering
the front axle, in the differentials, and the transmission gearboxes.
Park the car
on a clean, level concrete pad. Leave it overnight and next day look
for oil spots
indicating leaks. The leak is directly over the spot in most cases,
oil has run down a casing. The same test can be improved by using
wrapping paper on the ground under the car.
shock absorbers (see Section 9.40) and be sure the rubber bushings are
battery terminals for corrosion, and keep the top of the battery dry and
Corrosion limits current flow, resulting in slow cranking; moisture leaks
the battery, discharging it.
plugs should be removed and examined at least every 4,000 miles
and replaced very 12,000 miles (19,000 km)
has been discussed in Section 10.62. In general, there is little
tire rotation on frontier roads. It is best to place the tires with the
least wear on
the front wheels since a blowout on the front end is more difficult
than at the rear. Tires that are in good condition but have been worn
bald can be
retreaded, which can double tire mileage. In most cases on frontier
however, the casing will be damaged before the tire is worn.
should be checked by eye every day and with a pressure gauge if
there is any
reason to suspect low pressure. The frontier road usually does not
have nails or
broken bottles on it to cause a slow leak. Tires are a double-or-nothing
either serviceable or blown.
vehicle is used everyday, certain points should be checked every
before the car is put into service:
engine oil, brake fluid, and radiator water. All three are subject to
rupture, and a broken oil line, brake line, or radiator hose will put
the car out
of operation. Engine oil level is measured with a dipstick into the
Brake fluid level is checked inside the filler cap on top of the
usually located on the master cylinder. Radiator water is checked
radiator filler cap.
underframe for broken shock absorbers or mounts, broken springs,
parts in the steering gear.
fuel filter cup on cars having this type of filter for water or dirt. If there
is water in
the gas, take off the cup and clean it. The cup is usually located under
In a hot
climate, check the battery water daily. (See Section 8.14.)
Be sure that
the vehicle has a spare tire in useable condition. In many areas it
necessary to carry several spare tires. In the author's experience, it was
carry six spare tires, in addition to the four on the vehicle, on certain
Check to see
that the necessary tools and supplies are in the car.
If extra gas
or water cans are provided, be sure that they are full.
SELECTING A VEHICLE
of a new vehicle for use under frontier conditions is usually
dictated by a
major breakdown, collision, or loss due to submerging, theft, or
cause. On occasion a decision may be made to buy a new vehicle
addition to existing facilities or as a replacement for another car.
whether it is economically practical to buy a new vehicle, take the
overhead cost and add the cost of the drop in resale or salvage
the rest of the damaged vehicle's expected life. If the total is greater
operating and fixed charges of a new car, it is economical to buy a new
vehicles are owned or maintained jointly, it is usually preferable to
on a rotating basis, rather than all at once. If the average vehicle
life is three
years, one third of the fleet should be replaced each year. This will
load on the maintenance shop better than if all vehicles are replaced
If one or
more vehicles are of the same manufacture and there is no compelling
change, it is best to buy more cars of the same make. Parts can be
testing or to restore a vehicle to service, and mechanics will not
have to learn
a new car's problems. The great advantage of standardization on
one make of
vehicle is the reduction in the number of spare parts that must be
stock. Where parts facilities are remote, this results in a substantial
what kind of car to get as a first vehicle, look at what is being used
people in the area. If several cars of one type are in use in the area, it
that the experience of other drivers should be followed. An important
is parts availability; even a mediocre vehicle with available parts
than a great vehicle that is down for lack of parts.
organizations such as development agencies, religious missions,
government entities prefer to import vehicles from their own countries to
developing nations where they are working, this is generally not a useful
the case of vehicles made in Japan, for example, those exported to
States are materially different from those exported to West Africa.
made for sale in the United States or Europe will have much more
equipment in the engine compartment to meet emissions and safety
laws; it may
have fuel injection controlled by a computer that cannot be readily
fixed in the
field as a simple carburetor could; it may have an electronic ignition
in a sealed
unit instead of a conventional coil and distributor; it may have
regulation of battery charging instead of a relay-type voltage regulator.
Many of these
refinements improve gas mileage and reduce emissions, but
simplicity of field repairs.
The top photo
(19.00a) shows the relatively empty engine compartment of a
Cruiser as sold in West Africa. The bottom photo (19.00b) shows
a Jeep sold
in North America. The vehicles have similar in-line six-cylinder
the Jeep is loaded with anti-pollution equipment, air conditioning,
steering, vacuum-assisted brakes, and other accessories. The Toyota is
one of the
best frontier vehicles available: It is simple for a novice mechanic to
and maintain, and has few parts to break down. From the standpoint
maintenance, vehicles purchased in areas with complex safety and pollution
are not generally satisfactory for use in developing countries.
considering the initial cost of a vehicle, one made for sale in North America
will generally cost substantially more than one made for a developing
because of the additional equipment needed to meet safety and
standards. In many developing nations the number of vehicles is
small compared to Paris or New York, and emissions and safety
not be as serious a problem.
there may appear to be economic reasons for importing a U.S. or
vehicle that is donated to an agency, or patriotic reasons for using a
car made in
the country that sponsors a particular activity in a Third World
these considerations will usually be of little value compared to the
faced in getting parts, making repairs, and dealing with the complexities
charcoal cannisters, recirculation systems, and other devices.
With the need
for parts in mind, select a vehicle with as few replaceable
parts as possible. An oil-bath air cleaner requires no new paper
element. A cup-type gas filter can be cleaned and reused while an in-line
discarded and replaced. Oversize radiator, clutch, brakes, shock
and other components reduce the need for replacement of mechanical
way to extend the value of a vehicle is with one or more trailers,
in Section 6.80. Another inexpensive alternative is a two-wheel
one person and a small load. Many of these vehicles have very fat
tires that will support the bike on very soft ground or snow.
considering which vehicle to buy, check the availability of fuel suited to each
Don't get a vehicle with a high-compression engine requiring premium
only poor gas is available. The engines of most 4WD vehicles sold
for use in
frontier conditions can be tuned to run without knocking on low-octane
you are considering a diesel-powered vehicle, be sure that suitable
available throughout the area where it will be used. It is not enough to
be able to
buy fuel near the place where the vehicle will be kept; when it is used
on a lengthy
trip, fuel must be available along the way.
considering the advisability of getting a 4WD truck as compared to a two-wheel
will be found that the cost of 4WD is higher. In many parts of
however, it is necessary to pay this premium if the car is to be useful
on the local
vehicle manufacturers do not change models very often. In contrast
to the annual
changes made on many passenger sedans, the Jeep, Toyota Land
British Land Rover, for example, have rarely changed their basic
Depreciation is thus not a serious problem, and the buyer can plan to
vehicle for an extended period without regard to the resale value.
Vehicle Types and Sizes
decisions must be made before buying a new vehicle, although if the
vehicle is a
replacement for an existing one, it may be only a matter of
the same features. First, what type of vehicle would be most useful?
include a passenger car, pickup truck, carryall, dump truck, stake
truck, and a great many more. Second, what capacity is needed?
vehicles range in capacity from about 500pounds (225 kg) upward,
larger two-axle trucks can carry several tons (2,500 kg). The matter of
related to the third decision, that of terrain capability. A conventional
drive car cannot be expected to negotiate terrain that can be traveled
by a 4WD
vehicle. If greater load capacity is needed, perhaps a large truck with
axles and power on all six wheels will be required. If large capacity is
roads are not particularly difficult, a conventional truck with two
axles and an unpowered front axle might serve the need at
vehicles there are four general classes. The first are those
from the U.S. Army Jeep of World War II. This group has grown to
more "civilized" vehicles such as the Blazer, Jimmy, Bronco,
and Land Rover. The second group includes the small Japanese
pickup trucks such as the Toyota, Nissan, Mazda, Isuzu, and small-frame
the GMC, Chrysler, and Ford trucks. The third group is the
pickup trucks and carryalls, available from a wide variety of
such as Chevrolet, Ford, Toyota, Jeep, Dodge, Land Rover,
Volvo, Bedford, and many others. The fourth group consists of
vehicles intended primarily for recreational purposes, including the
Mazda Navajo, Nissan Pathfinder, Toyota Four-Runner, Isuzu
Trooper, and Suzuki Samurai. They are excellent for carrying
light loads at reasonable cost, but despite what the manufacturers
may say, they
are not intended for strenuous service.
PICKUP TRUCKS are generally available in a much wider
engines, gear ratios, and weight capacities than the more specialized
vehicles. The pickup truck manufacturers are prepared to adapt their
vehicles to suit the specific needs of many different purchasers, and in the
virtually "custom build" an excellent truck for frontier roads at
cost. With such builders as Ford and General Motors there are so
available from the factory that it is difficult to get them all into a
need not be limited to the conventional pickup-style body. They
available with stake bodies, which are excellent for carrying relatively
loads. A stake body is entirely above the tires, however, which
the load must be lifted high onto the body, and it makes the vehicle
Stake bodies often suffer damage early in their career as the sides
get bent and
broken by shifting loads.
option worth considering is the double-cab pickup. These are
from most major manufacturers and make it possible to carry six
people in the
cab and still have a large load space at the rear.
built on a pickup truck frame but have a body like a large
wagon. Often overlooked, they offer many advantages as 4WD vehicles.
substantial loads and are easily converted from carrying people to
cargo, or a combination of both. Examples of larger vehicles of this
type are the
Chevrolet Suburban, Toyota Land Cruiser, and the long-wheelbase
The same body style is available in smaller vehicles, including the
Pathfinder, Isuzu Trooper, and Toyota Four-Runner.
looking into the larger weight classes of trucks, be sure that local bridges
can carry them. In frontier areas the larger trucks are often not
practical for the local residents and therefore the roads are not
It may also
be difficult to get parts for a larger truck unless others are in use in
if the roads will support a larger vehicle and funds are available for
and maintenance, it is better to get a truck that is somewhat larger
rather than an undersized one. This will reduce the tendency toward
truck and will provide a reserve of power when stuck. In areas
must be trucked in, for example, a small truck will use most of its
back to home base. A larger truck will use more fuel, but not in
the much greater load capacity. The cargo capacity increases
the gas consumption.
VEHICLES are those with the cab above the engine.
respects they are similar to vans, although generally they have a
stake body. Larger trucks in this configuration are available from
forward-control vehicle is generally somewhat harder to service than a
a conventional hood over the engine. This is especially true with
vehicles, where the engine is difficult to reach; large trucks often have
a hinged cab
which eliminates this problem. There is also a psychological
between driving a forward-control vehicle and a conventional one.
There is no
engine out in front for protection. Although visibility on bridges and
is greatly improved, the driver gets a feeling of greater exposure
manufacturers offer a long list of options, including an oversize radiator,
clutch, oversize springs and shock absorbers, locking front wheel
oversize battery, extra lights, radio, heavy-duty air cleaner, towing hooks,
hitches, and a great many more. Also available on some vehicles are such
power brakes, air conditioners, oversize heaters, and fancy trim for
areas, specific accessories may be considered necessities. These might
front winch, towing hitches, push plate on the front bumper, front-end
off cooler, or oversize radiator and oil cooler. Other useful options
are a locking
rear differential, auxiliary fuel tank, heavy-duty clutch, and helper
Many of these
options are surprisingly inexpensive. Heavy-duty springs and
absorbers, for example, may add only $30 or $40 (U.S.) to the cost of the
locking differential may be about $50 more than the regular equipment.
local conditions, they maybe worth much more than this in actual
accessories are of little value on a frontier road. Air conditioning, for
very comfortable in a tropical climate but presents so many
problems that it is usually out of the question. Perhaps the most
option on a 4WD vehicle is an automatic transmission, which offers the
control over the vehicle.
which options to buy on a new car, remember that many accessories
can be taken
from one vehicle and put on another. Thus their value is not lost
when an old
car is sold or scrapped.
In wooded or
jungle areas, it is best to avoid equipment that projects from the
as mirrors, antennas and extra lights. These will soon be broken
branches and vines. The same is true in areas where vehicles often
options listed for pickup trucks and recreational vehicles by many
is a canvas top. While this type of cover is less expensive than
metal top, it is a poor investment. The canvas is soon ripped, exposing
loads to rain and dust, and the cover is often damaged at high speeds
A rear bumper
will often get snagged on bushes, especially if it curves around
the side of
the vehicle. More useful is the step type of rear bumper available on
trucks, which is set inside the side walls of the body. The front
bumper can be
greatly improved by extending it into a pusher plate, either with
a heavy plank
or steel plate.
another option to be carefully considered. The larger tire sizes provide
clearance under the vehicle, but tires are expensive and they wear
soft ground, wide tires provide a larger traction area, and high-flotation
available that will carry a loaded truck across loose sand. In
log bridges are used, wide tires run less risk of getting wedged
logs than narrow tread tires. In general, tubeless tires are not used
areas at all because they are difficult to repair when punctured or
are intended by the manufacturer to provide protection for the driver
passengers in the event of a collision. In many countries they are not
are not supplied on new vehicles by the manufacturer. Under
conditions there may be no other vehicles with which to collide, but the
seat belt is
still an excellent device. It will keep you from hitting your head
cab roof and lets you devote your attention to driving. Where cab
removed as insurance against drowning, seat belts keep people from
of the cab.
for the front wheels of 4WD cars disconnect the wheels from the
ends of the
axle shafts. This reduces drag because the front differential does not
need to turn
when the car is in two-wheel drive. Without unlocking the hubs,
motion of the vehicle and the resulting turning of the front wheels
the front axle shafts, the differential, and the front propeller shaft,
the 4WD gearbox has been disengaged. If the vehicle is frequently
two-wheel drive, locking hubs may be a worthwhile option; they
mileage, reduce tire wear, and reduce wear on the front-drive train.
similar are the so-called "automatic" front wheel hubs. These
depend on a
ratchet principle and will not engage if the vehicle is in reverse. Like
manual-type locking hubs, they can save a little fuel on a good road but are
intended for continuous difficult service.
drive is frequently needed, locking hubs can be a nuisance or even
problem. When slipping into a swampy area, for example, you don't have
time to get
out, set each of the front hubs to the "locked" position, and get
driver's seat. The delay may cause the vehicle to be seriously mired.
locking hubs can be locked when the you leave the end of the good
enter the difficult section, but in an unfamiliar area you may not be
aware of the
change. In general, the decision on whether to buy locking hubs
based on the type of roads on which the vehicle will be used.
air cleaner is a worthwhile purchase if it is available as an option
instead of a
replaceable paper cleaner. An oil-bath air cleaner works better than
filter and can easily be cleaned in the shop without having to buy any
often needed, there are several formulas that are of occasional
value to the
displacement in cubic inches=
in inches).sup.2] x 0.7854 x engine stroke in inches x number of cylinders
Weight on the
rear axles may be computed using this formula:
R = W
where R is the weight on the rear wheels
W is the weight of the load
WB is the width of vehicle wheelbase
is the distance from the center of the load to the center of the rear axle.
A formula for
pulley ratios: SD = sd
where S is the RPM of the driven pulley
D is the diameter of the driven pulley
s is the RPM of the driving pulley
d is diameter of the driving pulley
formula can also be used with gears or with chain-drive sprockets.
There are so
many measurements in use that a comparison table is often needed
fuel-tank capacities, radiator capacities, etc.
1 U.S. gallon
= 8.33 pounds (of water) = 231 cubic inches = 0.133 cubic feet
gallon = 10.26 pounds (of water) = 2.77 cubic inches = 0.16 cubic feet
gallon = 1.2 U.S. gallons
1 cubic foot
of water = 62.5 pounds = 7.48 U.S. gallons
1 U.S. gallon=
ml or cc
for Nuts and Bolts
diameter Pound inches
Electrolyte Specific Gravity
Celcius and Fahrenheit Scales
This chart is
useful for quick conversion
Celsius (Centigrade) to
Fahrenheit, and vice versa. Although
the chart is
fast and handy, you
must use the
equations below if your
answer has to
be accurate to within one
(Degrees Fahrenheit - 32)
Degrees Celsius) + 32
may help to clarify the
use of the
equals how many degrees Centigrade?
= 5/9 (Degrees F - 32)
= 5/9 (72 - 32)
= 5/9 (40)
= 22.2 [degrees]C
the chart reads 22 [degrees] C,
an error of
about 0.2 [degrees]C.
converts pounds and ounces
and grams, or vice versa.
greater than 10 pounds, or
results, use the tables on
the next page
or the equations below.
On the chart,
notice that there are 16
each pound to represent
are 100 divisions only in
kilogram, and each division
grams. The chart is accurate
to about plus
or minus 20 grams.
1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 pound = 0.4536 kilograms
= 0.03527 ounce
= 2.205 pounds
This chart is
useful for quick conversion
and centimeters to feet and
vice versa. For more accurate
for distances greater than
use the tables on the next
page or the
has metric divisions of one
three meters, and English
inches and feet to 7 feet. It is
about plus-or-minus one
wish to find how many
equal to 66 cm. On the
into Inches" table, look
down the left
column to 60 cm and then
right to the
column headed 6 cm. This
result, 25.984 inches.
= 2.54 cm
= 30.48 cm
= 0.3048 m
= 91.44 cm
= 0.9144 m
= 1.607 km
= 5280 feet
= 0.3937 inches
= 39.37 inches
= 3.28 feet
= 0.6214 miles
= 1000 meters
Kilograms into Pounds
15.43 17.64 19.84
37.48 39.68 41.89
59.53 61.73 63.93
81.57 83.78 85.98
99.21 101.41 103.62 105.82 108.03
50 110.23 112.44 114.64 116.85 119.05 121.25
123.46 125.66 127.87 130.07
60 132.28 134.48 136.69 138.89 141.10 143.30
145.51 147.71 149.91 152.12
70 154.32 156.53 158.73 160.94 163.14 165.35
167.55 169.76 171.96 174.17
80 176.37 178.58 180.78 182.98 185.19 187.39
189.60 191.80 194.01 196.21
90 198.42 200.62 202.83 205.03 207.24 209.44
211.64 213.85 216.05 218.26
9.979 10.433 10.886 11.340 11.793 12.247
30 13.608 14.061 14.515 14.969 15.422 15.876
16.329 16.783 17.237 17.690
40 18.144 18.597 19.051 19.504 19.958 20.412
20.865 21.319 21.772 22.226
50 22.680 23.133 23.587 24.040 24.494 24.948
25.401 12.855 26.308 26.762
60 27.216 27.669 28.123 28.576 29.030 24.484
29.937 30.391 30.844 31.298
70 31.751 32.205 32.659 33.112 33.566 34.019
34.473 34.927 35.380 35.834
80 36.287 36.741 37.195 37.648 38.102 38.555
39.009 39.463 39.916 40.370
90 40.823 41.277 41.730 42.184 42.638 43.091
43.545 43.998 44.452 44.906
This chart is
useful for quick conversion
and centimeters to feet and
vice versa. For more accurate
for distances greater than
use the tables on the next
page or the
has metric divisions of one
three meters, and English
inches and feet to 7 feet. It is
about plus-or-minus one
wish to find how many
equal to 66 cm. On the
into Inches" table, look
down the left
column to 60 cm and then
right to the
column headed 6 cm. This
result, 25.984 inches.
= 2.54 cm
= 30.48 cm
= 0.3048 m
= 91.44 cm
= 0.9144 m
= 1.607 km
= 5280 feet
= 0.3937 inches
= 39.37 inches
= 3.28 feet
= 0.6214 miles
= 1000 meters
101.60 104.14 106.68 109.22 111.76 114.30 116.84 119.38 121.92 124.46
127.00 129.54 132.08 134.62 137.16 139.70 142.24 144.78 147.32 149.86
152.40 154.94 157.48 160.02 162.56 165.10 167.64 170.18 172.72 175.26
177.80 180.34 182.88 185.42 187.96 190.50 193.04 195.58 198.12 200.66
203.20 205.74 208.28 210.82 213.36 215.90 218.44 220.98 223.52 226.06
228.60 231.14 233.68 236.22 238.76 241.30 243.84 246.38 248.92 251.46
0.394 0.787 1.181
3.937 4.331 4.724
7.874 8.268 8.661
9.449 9.843 10.236 10.630 11.024
30 11.811 12.205 12.598 12.992 13.386 13.780
14.173 14.567 14.961 15.354
40 15.748 16.142 16.535 16.929 17.323 17.717
18.110 18.504 18.898 19.291
50 19.685 20.079 20.472 20.866 21.260 21.654
22.047 22.441 22.835 23.228
60 23.622 24.016 24.409 24.803 25.197 25.591
25.984 26.378 26.772 27.165
70 27.559 27.953 28.346 28.740 29.134 29.528
29.921 30.315 30.709 31.102
80 31.496 31.890 32.283 32.677 33.071 33.465
33.858 34.252 34.646 35.039
90 35.433 35.827 36.220 36.614 37.008 37.402
37.795 38.189 38.583 38.976
= 1,760 yards
= 5280 feet
= 1,000 meters =
= 1.607 kilometers
= 0.305 meter
= 3.281 feet
= 39.37 inches
= 2.54 centimeters
= 0.394 inch
Units of Area
mile = 640 acres
= 2.59 sq. km
kilometer = 1 million sq. meters
= 0.386 sq. mile
= 43,560 sq. feet
foot = 144 sq.inches
= 0.093 sq. meter
1 square inch
= 6.452 sq. centimeters
meter = 10.764 sq. feet
centimeter = 0.155 sq. inch
foot = 1,728 cubic inches
= 7.48 U.S. gallons
x 16.387 = cubic centimeters (cc or
meter = 35.314 cubic feet
= 264.2 U.S. gallons
= 1,000 cubic centimeters = 0.264
imperial gallon = 1.2 U.S. gallons
ton = 1,000 kilograms
= 2,204.6 pounds
= 1,000 grams
= 2.2046 pounds
ton = 2,000 pounds
1.0 pound per
square inch = 144 pounds per
1.0 pound per
square inch = 27.7 inches of
1.0 pound per
square inch = 2.31 feet of
1.0 pound per
square inch = 2.042 inches of
atmosphere = 14.7
pounds per square inch (psi)
atmosphere = 33.95 feet of
1.0 foot of
water = 62.35 pounds per square
per square centimeter = 14.223 pounds per square inch
1.0 pound per
square inch = 0.0703 kg per
(*) at 62
degrees Fahrenheit (16.6 degrees Celsius)
horsepower (English) = 746 watts =
(English) = 550 foot pounds per second
horsepower (English) = 33,000 foot pounds per minute
(kw) = 1,000 watts
= 1.34 horsepower (hp) English
horsepower (English) = 1.0139 metric horsepower (cheval-vapeur)
1.0 metric horsepower
= 75 meters x kilograms/second
horsepower = 736 watts
= 0.736 kilowatts
DEFINITIONS AND INDEX
is intended to provide both a brief definition of many automotive
terms and an
index by which they may be located in the text of the book. In
such items as axles, tires, carburetors, and other parts of the vehicle
also covers such driving hazards as mud, snow, and log bridges.
entry, a brief definition follows the name of the item, and specific
follow the definition.
The foot-operated pedal that controls the carburetor and the speed
engine. Stuck, 1.08, 7.90.
Filter on top of the carburetor to remove dirt from air used in the
Changing, 18.14; locating defect, 8.12; maintenance, 18.14; oil-bath
19.20; testing, 9.20.
compressor. Machine to produce air under pressure for inflating tires, etc.
14.32; operates grease gun, 18.10.
See Air cleaner.
wheel. Adjustment of the front wheels for best steering and least
Electric generator to recharge battery, 10.53. Tests, 9.70.
Dashboard gauge indicating battery charge or discharge. After
3.08; for testing generator, 9.70, for testing voltage regulator, 9.70;
ignition system, 9.80.
Alcohol solution used in radiator to prevent freezing. Absence of,
flushing radiator, 18.13; cooling system. See also Radiator.
Moving part of an electrical device; most commonly refers to
of a motor or generator. Starter, 10.56; testing generator, 9.70. See
transmitting power from differential to wheel. Bent, 8.32, 8.35;
crack test, 9.40; finding broken, 10.21; noises, 8.80; removing
testing, 9.40; weight formula, 20.00. See also Differential; Drive
See also Ball bearing; Bearing; Roller bearing; Wheel bearing.
Popping or exploding sounds coming through the carburetor or
system. Causes, 8.61. See also Carburetor; Timing; Valves.
plate. The metal circle behind each wheel on which the brake
mounted. Noises, 8.80. See also Brake system.
Friction-reduction device consisting of two cylinders with balls
used on axles, gearboxes, etc. Assembling, 10.23; greasing,
testing, 9.40; used to repair tubing, 10.10.
Ball-and-socket joint, similar to a human hip joint, in the steering
Field repair, 7.30; inspection, 10.61; greasing, 18.10; periodic inspection,
repairing, 10.61, testing, 9.40.
other noises, 8.80.
plastic box containing lead plates and acid to store
making electricity by chemical action. Basic principle, 2.05; charging,
cleaning terminals, 7.80; corroded terminals, 7.81; daily inspection,
7.81; frozen, to thaw, 7.81; in cold weather, 18.15; jumper cables,
locating defects, 8.14; maintenance, 18.14; periodic inspection, 18.21;
9.70; specific gravity chart, 20. 10; testing, 9.70. See also Electrical
Friction-reducing device to reduce wear on moving parts. Assembling,
greasing, 10.10, 18.10; installing, 10.10; installing on shaft, 10.23;
10.10; replacing engine, 10.93; water pump, 10.71. See also Ball
stop wheel, 3.04.
tackle. Pulleys and rope arranged to multiply pulling force. For
car, 4.00; with winch, 6.44.
engine. The heavy iron casting that forms the basis of the engine,
the cylinder holes in which the power is produced. Cracked, 9.10,
For use with winch, 6.41.
metal shell of the car. Repairs, 11.00.
Fastener consisting of a threaded shank and a head with provision for
wrench, screwdriver, etc. "Borrowing," 6.83; cutting, 10.10; stuck,
To tie, 6.12.
Heavy metal pie-plate-shaped casing mounted on wheel lugs
against which brake linings rub to slow the car. Badly worn, 10.43;
Hydraulic fluid used in the brake system. Bleeding, 10.42;
level, 18.30; daily inspection, 18.30; in cold weather, 18.15; siphoning,
The manual (or occasionally foot-operated) parking brake to
unattended car. Adjusting, 10.44; repairing, 10.44.
Tubing connecting parts of the brake system, through which
fluid flows. Broken, 7.40; leaking, 7.40.
Replaceable fiber cover for the brake shoes that rubs against the
inside of the
brake drum. Oversize, 10.43; replacing, 10.43.
Stopping mechanism for the car. Adjusting, 10.41; bleeding, 10.43;
spinning car, 3.04; dragging, 7.40; efficient operation, 3.00; failure,
10.44; hold spinning wheel, 4.01; locating defect, 8.40; operation
on snow or
mud, 3.04; parking, 10.44; preliminary examination, 2.01; pumping,
rebuilding, 10.43; relining, 10.43; removing rubber pedal pad, 2.03;
10.40; stopping on mud or snow, 3.00; testing, 9.50; trailer, 6.81; while
See Brake linings.
points. Switch inside the distributor that controls electricity flowing
ignition coil. Adjusting, 10.55; testing, 9.80. See also Distributor;
Screen-filled metal cover, usually about 2-3 inches (5-7 cm) in
top of the valve cover. Cleaning, 18.11.
Building with winch, 6.40; convoy operation over, 3.02; crossing,
estimating tire track, 2.01; extrication from, 4.04; log, 3.06; repairing,
winching out of, 6.51.
Rectangular carbon blocks conducting electricity to or from the
a motor or generator. Inspection of generator, 18.21; replacing
Cab. Part of
the vehicle where the driver and passengers ride. Introduction to,
made of wire strands. Anchoring, 6.41; force of broken, 6.42;
snarled on winch, 6.43; winch, 6.34. See also Chain; Rope; Tow
Tipping the vehicle off its wheels, 3.07. Restarting after, 7.10;
Black, granular material sometimes deposited in the cylinder as result
burning of fuel. Compression test for, 9.20; in diesel engine,
Cast metal housing mounted on the intake manifold, where fuel
and air are
mixed. Adjusting with vacuum gauge, 10.30; basic principle, 2.05;
adjustment, 10.31; vacuum test, 9.20.
Definition, 10.61. See also Steering.
Comparison with Fahrenheit, 20.10.
Joining pieces, 6.21; on tow cable, 6.21; repairing, 6.23; storage, 6.22;
trailer safety, 6.81.
Fitting on tire, 3.03; in mud or snow, 4.01; repairing, 6.23; tire,
traction, 3.01; V-bar, 3.03.
battery. Homemade, 10.51.
Metal frame upon which the vehicle is built. Alignment, 11.10; basic
2.05; broken, 11.10; damaged, 8.32; load distribution, 2.02; repairs,
See all of Section 8.00.
Circular metal plate in the air barrel of the carburetor to reduce air flow
the engine. Adjustment, 8.13, 10.31; causes "flooding," 8.12;
defects, 8.13. See also Carburetor.
Foot-operated device for disconnecting power between engine and
Bleeding hydraulic, 10.42; double clutching, 2.04; dragging, 7.20;
inoperative, 7.20; greasing, 18.10; housing plug, 15.20; locating
8.52; operation, 2.04; purpose of, 2.04; removing rubber pedal pad,
slipping, 7.20; testing, 9.30; while fording, 3.08. See also Drive train;
Ring of metal segments around a motor or generator armature,
connected to a coil of the armature windings. Starter, 10.56; testing
9.70. See also Brushes; Generator; Starter.
Squeezing force on fuel vapor exerted when a piston rises in the
the valves are closed. Diesel engine, 13.00, 13.10; low, 8.62;
9.10, 9.20, 18.12. See also Piston; Piston rings.
gauge. Operation, 9.20.
Small metal cylinder in the distributor containing thin foil plates
momentarily absorb the ignition power and reduce distributor pitting.
10.55; testing, 9.80. See also Distributor; Ignition system.
When the engine "just stops." Causes, 8.63; locating cause, 8.60.
Several vehicles traveling together for mutual assistance. Principles,
system. Engine accessories that circulate water through the engine to
heat of burning fuel. Basic principle, 2.05; air in, 9.10; flushing,
10.70; pressure test, 9.10; repairs, 7.70, 10.70; testing, 9.10; water
8.80; water pump repairs, 10.71. See also Fan belt; Hose;
Retaining clip of folded wire to prevent a nut or another part from
operated, 7.81; testing engine, 7.90, 8.11; to start engine, 7.80,
Sheet metal pan under the engine block to contain oil for the
Draining, 18.11; emission controls, 10.81; field repair, 7.90; uses for
old oil, 10.93;
to add oil, 18.11. See also Oil.
breather. See Breather cap.
Hole in the engine block in which the piston moves. Examining light,
testing compression, 9.10; worn, diesel, 13.10.
head. Heavy metal plate bolted over the top of the engine block to
ends of the cylinders. Broken gasket, 8.11, 8.21; cracked, 8.62.;
8.21, 9.10; improvised torque wrench, 14.50; loose, 8.21; removing,
repairs, 10.94; testing, 9.20.
Construction, 6.41. See also Anchor.
engine. Internal combustion engine using heat from compression to
See all of Section 13.00. Fording with, 3.08; hard starting, 13.10;
tests, 13.20; knocking, 13.10; locating problems, 13.10; power generator,
repairs, 13.30; testing, 13.20.
Gears in the middle of the axle housing to transfer power from
to wheels. Damaged, 6.72; dismantling, 10.22; gear ratio, 10.22;
clearance, 2.01; limited slip, 3.01, 4.01, 10.22; location, 2.01; lubrication,
periodic inspection, 18.21; switching front and rear, 10.22; towing car
6.72; Unimog locking, 3.01, 4.01, 19.40.
Rotary electric switch in a black plastic housing to connect
voltage to the spark plugs. Field repair, 7.82; locating defects, 8.12,
lubrication, 18.11; testing, 9.80.
Removal for safety, 2.01, 3.09. See also Body.
clutching. Operation, 2.04. See also Clutch; Gearbox; Transmission.
Process of shifting the transmission gears down to a lower gear.
stop, 1.09; operation, 2.04; to slow vehicle, 3.04. See also
See Propeller shaft.
Repairs, see all of 10.20. See also Differential, Gearbox; Propeller
Transfer case; Transmission.
of, 17.00; supplying fuel from, 17.10. See also Brake drum.
winch. 6.33. See also Winch.
system. Alternator, 10.53; repairs, see all of 10.50; testing, 9.70. See
In the shop, 12.00; tools requiring, 14.20, 14.30.
Diesel, 13.00; installing, 10.92; introduction, 2.05; noises, 8.80;
removing, 10.92; repairs, 10.90; replacing, 10.92; mined by
3.09; "running in," 10.93; testing, 9.20; uses for spare, 10.10;
Fumes emitted from the engine, consisting of unburned fuel components
of combustion. Color, 9.90; color, diesel, 13.20.
system. Manifold too hot, 9.90; repairs, 10.80; testing, 9.90. See also
Comparison with Centigrade, 20.10.
to force air through the radiator to cool the engine. Removing with
10.71; while fording, 3.08.
V-belt driving the fan, and usually the water pump and generator,
from the engine.
Adjustment, 10.70; broken, 7.70; cause of overheating, 8.70;
noises, 8.80,10.70; replacement, 10.70; squeaking, 10.70; substitutes,
fording, 3.08. See also Cooling system.
Set of thin metal blades for measuring size of a small opening
such as the
gap of a spark plug. Adjusting valves, 10.91; to set plugs, 10.55.
expedients. All of Section 7.00.
Filler cap -
Fuel. Testing, 9.50. See also Fuel; Fuel system.
Replacing, 18.11. See also Crankcase; Oil.
Partition between the engine compartment and the cab.
(of spark plugs). To determine, 10.55.
raise submerged car, 5.01.
carburetor. See Carburetor.
the car through deep water, 3.08. Grease after, 18.10; stuck
with diesel engine, 13.00.
control. Definition, 19.10; selecting vehicle, 19.10.
drive. Applying engine power to all four wheels instead of the
two-wheel drive. Principles, 3.01; when to engage, 3.01. See also
up." Inability of an engine to turn because of jamming or wedging
From capsizing, 3.07.
Carrying drums of, 2.02; daily inspection, 18.30; diesel, 13.00; grades,
leaking diesel, 13.10; principles of energy extraction, 2.05; reserve
siphoning, 17.10; spilled, 10.10; storage, 12.00, 17.10; testing
timing diesel injection, 13.30; weight of, 2.02.
Device to remove sand, water, or other impurities from fuel using
screen, porous ceramic, or plastic sponge material. Cleaning, 18.14;
7.50; diesel, 13.10; maintenance, 18.14.
Tubing from fuel tank to pump and carburetor. Bleeding diesel,
broken, 7.50; clogged, 7.50; diesel, 13.10; locating defect, 8.12; priming,
Engine-powered or electric pump to move fuel to the carburetor.
13.10; inoperative, 7.50; testing, 9.50.
Keeping full, 2.01; leaking, 7.50; patching, 10.30; soldering, 10.30;
Electrical safety device that melts to open the circuit when overloaded.
causes of blown, 10.54; location, 7.81; locating blown, 7.81;
7.80, 9.70; substitute for blown, 7.81.
of soft material such as cork or cardboard to seal joint between
Head, to test, 9.20; improvising, 10.10; leaking, 9.10; making,
removing, 10.10; replacing cylinder head, 10.94; tester 14.51.
Housing and gears between clutch and propeller shaft to vary engine-to-wheel
Locating defects, 8.51; lubrication 18.11; noise, 8.80;
inspection, 18.21; towing car with damaged, 6.72. See also Gear shift;
Driver's handle for changing gear ratios. Operation, 2.04. See also
Transfer case; Transmission.
Cylindrical accessory producing electricity, generally driven by
the fan belt.
Alternator, 10.53; basic principle, 2.05; locating defects, 8.14;
18.11; repairing, 10.53; shop power, 12.00, 14.31; testing, 9.70;
cracked, 11.00; replacing window, 11.00.
Operation on, 3.00.
lubricant for bearings, ball joints, etc. Gun, 18.10; packing
10.10; pit in shop, 12.00; removing, 12.00, 14.50.
electrical. Polarity, 9.70.
Straddling, 3.00. See also Ruts.
See Cylinder head gasket.
Lamps on front of vehicle for night driving. Dim, 2.04; failure,
testing battery, 9.70; for testing generator, 9.70; for testing starter,
9.70; mud on,
2.04; protection on gravel roads, 3.00; repairs, 10.54.
to secure, 5.00.
Descending with winch, 6.53; use of brakes on, 3.04; with slippery
Trailer, 6.81; trailer, on front of car, 6.83.
shop, 12.00; making, 14.50. See also Winch.
Hook. For tow
Radiator, mending broken, 7.70.
winch. See Winch.
Tester for battery condition which measures specific gravity of
usually a glass tube with a rubber bulb on the end. Operation, 9.70;
chart of SPG
(specific gravity) readings, 20.10.
coil. Electric device for raising voltage to spark plugs, usually a black
cylinder on the fire wall. Basic principle, 2.05; dropping resistor, 8.12;
10.55; testing, 9.80; wet, 7.82.
system. Electrical system for igniting fuel inside a gasoline engine.
defects, 8.12; principles, 10.55; repairs, 10.55; testing, 9.80; while
3.08. See also Battery; Distributor; Ignition coil; Spark plugs.
timing. Adjustment of the ignition system to time the sparks at the
in the piston rotation cycle. Testing, 9.80.
wiring. "Leaking," 10.55.
Fuel sprayer that forces fuel into diesel engine cylinder. Diesel fuel,
testing diesel, 13.20; timing diesel, 13.10, 13.30.
Black rubber lining bladder of a tire. Locating leak, 10.62;
10.62; removing, 10.62; salvaging rubber, 10.62; to replace spring,
Removing dead, 18.14.
manifold. Metal casting on the engine block to distribute air and fuel
the carburetor to the cylinders. Basic principle, 2.05; vacuum test,
for lifting the car. Lift car off obstacle, 4.03; lift car out of mud
4.02; operation, 7.60; placement, 10.10; substitute, 7.60; to build
to raise car from bridge, 4.04; used over pit, 12.00; using winch as,
6.40; when in
snow or mud, 4.01.
Definition, 6.82; safety hazard, 6.80; to avoid, 6.82.
cables. Heavy wires with clips on the ends for connecting one car's
another's. To use, 7.81.
Rattling noise in engine like loose marbles rolling around, caused
by poor fuel
burning in cylinders. Diesel engine, 13.10; eliminating, 10.93;
join rope, 6.12.
joint. See Steering knuckle.
See Spring (Chassis).
Improvised for work, 7.00; in shop, 14.30; repairs, 10.54; work, 15.20.
differential. See Differential.
carrying sick or injured person, 15.10.
Capacity, 19.10. Causing capsizing, 3.07; height of, 2.01; in trailer, 6.82;
winch, 6.40; loading the vehicle, 2.02; securing to truck, 15.10;
Hand-turned knobs on front wheels to disconnect wheels from
Advantages, 19.20; definition, 19.20.
deadman, 6.41; jammed under car, 6.52; moving with winch, 6.40.
Filling crankbase, 18.11; procedure, 18.11.
Nuts fitting studs to mount brake drums and wheels. "Borrowing,"
tightening, 7.60; see also Brake drum; Rim; Wheel.
Preventive, see all of Section 18.00. Routine schedules, 18.20.
exhaust. See Exhaust system.
cylinder. Foot-operated hydraulic cylinder that forces fluid to the
cylinders to stop the car; usually located on opposite side of fire wall from
See also Brakes.
ignition wires, 7.82.
in, 6.61; extrication from, 4.00, 4.01; hung up in, 4.02;
traction in, 3.04; resistance of, 3.04; winching out of, 6.50.
Metal can containing sound baffles for the exhaust gas, usually
the rear of the car. Clogged, 8.62; noise, 8.80; repairing leaks,
driving. Precautions, 3.00.
Bubbles in radiator, 9.10; unusual, 8.80.
or hexagonal metal fitting with a threaded hole to be screwed on
a bolt or
stud. "Frozen," 7.00; to remove, 10.10.
Hung up on, 4.03; straddling, 3.00.
for leaks, 18.21; checking level, 18.30; consumption, 8.21;
19.20; daily inspection, 18.30; exhaust color checks, 9.90; gear, 18.11;
cooler, 15.20; locating defects, 8.21; loss of pressure, 1.01, 8.20;
inspection, 18.21; refilling crankcase, 18.11; SAE ratings, 18.11;
10.10; storage, 17.00; to free nut, 7.00; water in, 9.20.
Oil drum. As
float, 5.01; load in truck, 2.02.
Screen or porous material to remove particles from engine oil, usually
located in a
can-shaped housing connected to the crankcase. Replacement,
Oil pan. See
Causes, 7.70; locating cause, 8.70; thermostat test, 9.10. See also
brake. See Hand brake.
Availability, 19.00; carried in car, 16.00; interchanging, 19.00; stock in
Number of, 2.03.
10.62; tire, 10.62.
crankcase ventilation, 10.81.
Removing rubber pads, 15.20.
Cylindrical metal block moving up and down in the engine to provide
purpose, 2.05; diesel engine, 13.10.
Metal rings fitted into grooves in the piston to provide a tight seal
cylinder wall. Compression test, 9.20; diesel, 13.10; replacing, 10.93;
Testing cylinder, 9.10.
gauge. To test fuel pump, 9.50.
maintenance. See all of Section 18.00.
shaft. Pipe-like rod transmitting power from gearbox to differential.
noises, 8.80. See also Drive shaft.
calculation, 20.00; with winch, 6.44; see also Block and Tackle.
start engine, 7.81.
Finned tubing set in frame at front of car for cooling the water
through the engine. Adding water, 7.70; air in, 9.10; boiling, 1.04;
7.70; basic principle, 2.05; checking water level, 18.30; daily
18.30; flushing, 18.13; locating defects, 8.70; oil in, 9.10; overheated,
overheating caused by low pressure, 9.10; pressure, 9.10; repairing leaks,
soldering, 10.70; substitute for water, 7.70. See also Cooling
submerged car, 5.01.
Ignition coil, 8.12.
wheel on which the tire and tube (if any) are mounted. Removing
10.62; split, 10.62. See also Tire; Wheel.
Rock. Hung up
on, 4.03; straddling, 3.00.
cover. Metal cover on top of engine block over the ends of the
arms that move the valves. Adjusting valves, 10.91; breather - see
bearing. Friction-reduction device consisting of two cylinders with
between them, used on axles and other parts. Assembling, 10.23;
10.10; testing, 9.40.
tire, 4.00; splicing, 6.10; storage, 6.10; strength of fiber, 6.10;
fibers, 6.11; using vines, 4.00. See also Cable, Winch.
distributor. Black plastic electric switch inside the distributor cap that
connect the center wire of the cap to each of the outer wires in turn. See
running. Locating cause, 8.60; 8.61.
See alignment; Springs; Steering; Tires.
in." Diesel engine, 13.30; gas engine, 10.93.
Extrication from, 4.00; resistance of, 3.04.
Purpose, 19.20; value of 2.03.
See Fuel filter.
Wobbling of front wheels, sometimes making steering difficult.
tires, 10.62; locating cause, 8.35; repairs, 10.61. See also Steering;
absorber. Hydraulic cylinder between axle housing and chassis to
bumps; usually located near each wheel. Basic principle, 2.05;
bushing missing, 8.80; daily inspection, 18.30; periodic inspection,
replacement, 10.64; testing, 9.40.
regain traction, 3.04. Also see Traction.
Capsized in, 6.61; driving in deep, 3.05; extrication from, 4.00,4.01;
hung up in,
4.02; resistance of, 3.04; winching out of, 6.50.
hands, 12.00; to repair fuel tank, 7.50.
Process for joining metals by heating them and flowing on a soft,
"solder" metal which cools and hardens. Fuel tank, 10.30; radiator,
See Ignition coil.
White ceramic and metal terminal of the ignition system where
from the ignition coil causes a spark to ignite the fuel; one is located
at the top of
each cylinder. Basic principle, 2.05; field repair, 7.82; length, 10.55;
defects, 8.12, 8.15; periodic inspection, 18.21; replacing, 10.55; setting
size, 10.55; testing, 9.80; vacuum gauge test, 9.20.
Type of shaft joint in which one section has lengthwise ribs which
similar grooves in the other section; commonly used for propeller
Greasing, 18.10; periodic inspection, 18.21. See also propeller shaft.
Springs or rubber circles used to pull tire chains tight. Use on tire
chassis. Flat leaf or coil springs between the axles and chassis. Basic
2.05; coil type, 10.63; daily inspection, 18.30; dismantling, 10.63;
overloading, 2.02; removing, 10.63; replacing leaf, 10.63.
coil with elasticity to return a part after use, such as to lift the
after it has been depressed. Replace with rubber, 7.00.
Electric motor to turn the engine and start it. Armature, 10.56; bench
10.56; brushes, 9.70; commutator, 9.70; field windings, 10.56; jammed,
locating defect, 8.11, 8.12; lubrication, 18.11; repairs, 9.70,10.56; testing,
switch. To test, 9.70.
Diesel engine, 13.10; locating cause of failure, 8.64.
Broken, 1.05; daily inspection, 18.30; effect of load on, 2.02; field
7.30; greasing, 18.10; grip on wheel, 2.03; locating defects, see all
8.30; parts bent, 1.06; periodic inspection, 18.21; repairs, 10.61;
Housing at the lower end of the steering wheel shaft which
rotary motion of the steering wheel to the lateral force needed to
front wheels. Cause of shimmy, 8.35; checking, 18.21; loose, 10.61;
knuckle. Connection in wheel end of front axle to transit power to
while allowing them to turn for steering. Checking, 18.21;
18.11; testing, 9.40.
drinking water, 5.00.
shop, 17.00; of parts, 12.00; on vehicle, 15.10.
also Bridge; Ford; Submerged; Water.
Threaded cylinder screwed into a hole in an engine part so that part is left
exposed to be
used to hold down another part such as a cover. To remove, 10.10.
up on, 4.03.
3.09; 5.01; field repairs after, 7.10; salvage with winch, 6.62.
Carried in car, 16.00; daily inspection, 18.30; stock in shop, 16.00.
cross, 3.04. See also Mud; Traction.
of transmission that compensates for differences in
speed of the drive gears and wheels to avoid grinding or clashing when
gears. See also Transmission.
Pipe at the end of the exhaust system, from the muffler out the rear
of the car.
See also Exhaust system.
Celsius and Fahrenheit chart, 20.10.
indicator. See Radiator.
Test lamp. To
test fuse, 9.70.
equipment. All of Section 9.00.
Heat-operated opening in the cooling system that opens when the
becomes hot to allow water to flow. To test, 9.10.
Pipe-like connection between two front wheels to make them steer
Adjusting toe-in, 10.61; bent, 1.06; broken, 1.05, 7.30; field repair,
Adjustment to make spark plug fire at proper time in relation to piston
Adjusting, 9.80,10.55; diesel engine, 13.10,13.30; misfiring, 8.61;
breaker points, 10.55; testing, 9.80; tune-up, 18.12.
Test instrument used to adjust ignition timing of the engine.
Balancing, 8.31, 10.61, 10.62; blowout, 1.02; cause of worn, 8.32;
7.60; changing press, 14.50; compressor to inflate, 14.32; daily
18.30; driving on flat, 7.60; effect of size on traction, 3.05; flat, on
6.82; in cold weather, 18.15; inflating tubeless, 10.62; lugs, 10.62;
inspection, 18.21; putting on rim, 10.62; removing from rim, 10.62;
10.62; rotating positions, 10.62, 18.21; selecting, 19.20; spare, 2.01;
bridge, 4.04; track--instance between tires on same axle, 2.01;
10.62; used for towing, 6.70; valve, 10.62; wear due to 4WD, 3.01.
See Chains, Tire.
Adjusting, 10.61; definition, 10.61.
all of Section 14.00. Carried in car, 14.10, daily inspection, 18.30;
14.50; improvised torque wrench, 14.50; in shop, 14.20; specialized,
for bolts, 20.10.
wrench. Calibrated wrench used to apply a specific torque to a nut or
Hook for, 6.21; joining pieces of, 6.12; knots, 6.12; length of, 6.71;
6.71; use of old tire, 6.70.
Improving, 3.01, 4.00; increasing with chains, 3.01; loss of, 3.04;
when winching, 6.60; wheel hook, 4.00; winch not dependent on,
19.00. Brakes, 6.81; crossing bridge, 3.06; crossing ford, 3.08;
6.83; for generator, 12.00; hitches, 6.81; loading, 6.82; maneuvering,
with winch, 6.40; towing, 6.82; towing with tractor, 6.80; uses of,
case. Additional gearbox on 4WD cars to provide front-wheel power
gear ratio for added power. Lubrication, 18.11; operator, 2.04;
inspection, 18.21. See also Drive train; Gearbox; Transmission.
Gear-changing equipment between engine and differentials,
automatic or manual. Automatic, 19.20; locating defects, 8.51; lubrication,
noises, 8.80; on 4WD vehicle, 3.01; periodic inspection, 18.21; towing
damaged, 6.72. See also Gearshift.
See Inner tube.
Bending, 10.10; repairing dented, 10.10; to put oil in housings, 18.11;
Adjustment of ignition timing, valve clearance, and other variables
engine operation. Procedure, 18.12.
joint. Power-transmitting joint for a twisting shaft made of two V-shaped
a four-pointed "spider" between them. Cover, 15.20;
8.33; greasing, 18.10; noises, 8.80; periodic inspection, 18.21;
Engine, to test, 9.20; in fuel tank, 9.50; locating leaks, 9.20.
Meter for measuring vacuum as a test instrument. Adjusting
10.30, 18.12; operation, 9.20; testing timing, 9.80.
engine. Plug that closes cylinder at various points in the engine-operating
located in the cylinder head. Adjusting, 10.91; basic
2.05; checking by exhaust color, 9.90; compression test, 9.20; diesel
13.10; grinding, 10.91; removing, 10.91; sticking, 8.62; testing, 9.20;
tune-up, 18.12; vacuum test, 9.20.
Stopper in the air nipple of a tire or inner tube which lets air into the
tire but not
out. Leaking, 10.62. See also Tire.
Basic designs, 19.10; selecting new, 19.00.
Locating cause, 8.33.
replace rope, 4.00.
"Pressure" of electricity in any electrical system. To raise
14.30. To adjust voltage regulator, 10.53; to test generator, 9.70.
regulator. Electrical controls for the battery charging circuit, usually
two or more small relays under a metal or plastic cover. Adjusting,
locating defects, 8.14; testing, 9.70.
to radiator, 7.70; battery, 18.14; car submerged in, 5.01;
7.70; distilled, 18.14; draining from gas tank, 15.20; driving in, see
the shop, 12.00; heater for shop, 12.00; ignition splash guard,
crankcase, 9.20; in engine, 7.10, 8.11; in exhaust system, 9.90; in fuel,
on ignition wires, 7.82; radiator, 18.13; reserve supply, 2.01; still
producing, 5.00; substitute for radiator, 7.70. See also Submerging.
Centrifugal pump, usually mounted on front of engine with fan,
cooling water through engine and radiator. Leaking air, 9.10; noises
repairs, 10.71. See also Cooling system; Radiator.
Capacity of vehicle. See also Load.
tool for joining metal by heating and melting the joint area.
14.42; gas, 14.41; generator type, 14.42; transformer type, 14.42.
Chain repairs, 6.23; chassis, 11.10.
circle on which the tube and tire are mounted. Bent, to test for,
mounting, 10.62; noises, 8.80. See also Rim.
spinning. See Traction.
bearings. Locating defects, 8.34; to test, 9.40. See also Ball bearings,
Accessory tool usually mounted on front of car for applying force by
winding up a
rope or cable. See all of Section 6.00. Broken cable, 6.42; cable
cable snarled, 6.43; capstan type, 6.31; drive system for, 6.33; drum
economic aspects, 6.30; electric, 6.33; going downhill, 6.53;
6.33; in mud, 6.50; in snow, 6.51; installing, 6.32; operation, 6.40;
submerged car, 5.01; selecting, 6.31; to wind cable, 6.43; used as shop
while fording, 3.08.
wiper. Flat rubber-edged blade that oscillates across windshield
rain drops. Blade maintenance, 18.14.
Ignition, to test, 9.80.
Carrying on vehicle, 6.03; for winch, 6.34; joining sections, 6.02;
6.02; storage, 6.03; strength, 6.01; to form eyes, 6.02. See also Cable;
For shop, 12.00.