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Go to start Pig Feed Improvement through Enhanced Use of Sweet Potato Roots and Vines in Northern and Central Vietnam
Contents:
INTRODUCTION
PART I -SELECTING AND GROWING SWEET POTATO FOR LIVESTOCK
1 Technology for growing dual-purpose and forage-purpose sweetpotato in the Northern Midlands of Vietnam
2 Technology for growing dual-purpose and forage-purpose sweetpotato in the Red River Delta of Vietnam
3 Technology for growing dual-purpose and forage-purpose sweetpotato in North-Central Vietnam
PART II - SWEETPOTATO ROOT AND VINE PROCESSING AND FEEDING TO PIGS
1 Sweetpotato vine and root ensiling methods and use of silage as pig feed
2 Feed crops and their processing and storage methods
3 Composition of concentrate feed mixtures (basal feed) and the rations for pigs for various weight categories
Technical supplement: Some principles of pig nutrition in the tropics

3 Composition of concentrate feed mixtures (basal feed) and the rations for pigs for various weight categories

 

3.1 Summary of various types of feed

Type

Available feeds

Basal feed composition
(See section 3.2)

Daily feed
ration
(See section 3.3)

SP vine silage
formula
(See section 3.4)

1

Rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal, cassava leaf meal, soybean, fish meal, SP vine and root, chicken manure

Table 1

Table A and B

Formula 2 and 4

2

Rice bran, corn meal, soy­ bean, fish meal, SP vine and root, chicken manure

Table 2

Table A and B

Formula 2 and 4

3

Rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal, soybean, fish meal, SP vine, chicken manure

Table 3

Table C

Formula 2

4

Rice bran, corn meal, SP vine, chicken manure

Table 4

Table C

Formula 2

 

3.2 Composition of four types of basal feed and corresponding rations

3.2.1 Basal feed type 1 and corresponding ration

If the feed available at your location includes rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal, cassava leaf meal, soybean, fish meal, SP vine and root, chicken manure, but no mineral supplements, use the basal feed formulation in Table 1. SP vine and root are to be ensiled according to Formula 2 and 4, respectively.

Table 1. Composition of basal feed type 1.

 

Material

Composition (%)

For pig: 20-30 kg

For pig: 30-60 kg

For pig: >60 kg

Cassava meal

13

18

23

Cassava leaf meal

8

10

12

Rice bran

15

13

10

Com meal

44

39

35

Fish meal

10

10

10

Soybean

10

10

10

CP(%)

15.55

15.32

15.19

ME (kcal/kg)

2,916

2,927

2,947

 

12-15

16-20

18-23

*If the chicken manure is not available, farmers may supplement diet with 2% premix mineral and 1% Dicalcium Phosphate.

When base feed type 1 is used, either the daily feed ration in Table A (feeding fermented SP root with fresh SP vine) or Table B (feeding both SP root and vine silage) can be use to feed pigs.

3.2.2 Basal feed type 2 and corresponding ration

If the locally available feed includes rice bran, corn meal, soybean, fish meal, SP vine and root, chicken manure but no mineral supplements, use the base feed formulation in table 2. SP vine and root are to be ensiled according to Formula 2 and 4, respectively.

When base feed type 2 is used, the daily feed ration in Table A (feeding SP root silage with fresh SP vine) or Table B (feeding both SP root and vine silage) can be used to feed pigs.

 

Table 2. Composition of basal feed type 2

 

Material

Composition (%)

For pig: 20-30 kg

For pig: 30-60 kg

For pig:>60kg

Rice bran

25

26

27

Corn meal

56

56

56

Fish meal

9

9

9

Soybean

10

9

8

CP(%)

15.35

15.09

14.82

ME(kcal/kg)

3,304

3,021

3,009

Weigh gain (kg/month)

12-14

16-17

17-20

* If the chicken manure is not available, farmers may supplement diet with 2% premix mineral 3.2.3 Basal feed type 3 and corresponding ration

If the local available feed materials are rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal, soybean, fish meal, SP vine, chicken manure but no mineral supplements, use the basal feed formulation in Table 3. SP vines are to be ensiled according to Formula 2. When basal feed type 3 is used, use the daily feed ration in Table C.

Table 3. Composition of basal feed type 3

 

Material

Composition (%)

For pig: 20-30 kg

For pig: 30-60 kg

For pig:>60kg

Cassava meal

13

18

25

Rice bran

30

28

25

Corn meal

40

39

36

Fish meal

9

8

7

Soybean

8

7

7

CP(%)

14.45

13.48

12.64

ME(kcal/kg)

3,040

3,046

3,065

Weigh gain (kg/month)

12-15

16-18

17-20

*If the chicken manure is not available, farmers may supplement diet with 2% premix mineral and 1% Dicalcium Phosphate.

 

3.2.4 Basal feed type 4 and corresponding ration

If the locally available feed includes rice bran, corn meal, SP vine, chicken manure but no mineral supplements, use the basal feed formulation in Table 4. SP vines are to be ensiled according to Formula 2.

When basal feed type 4 is used, use the daily feed ration in Table C.

Table 4. Composition of basal feed type 4

 

Material

Composition (%)

For pig: 20-30 kg

For pig: 30-60 kg

For pig:>60kg

Rice bran

35

32

30

Corn meal

65

68

70

CP(%)

10.00

9.94

9.90

ME(kcal/kg)

3,096

3,037

3,051

Weigh gain (kg/month)

10-12

12-15

14- 17

*If the chicken manure is not available, farmers may supplement diet with 2% premix mineral and 1% Dicalcium Phosphate.


3.3 Daily feed ration

Table A. Recommended daily feed ration (feeding SP root silage with fresh SP vine).

 

Feed

Feed amount (kg/head/day)

For pig:
20-30 kg

For pig:
30-40 kg

For pig:
40-50 kg

For pig:
50-60 kg

For pig:
>60kg

Basal feed

1.0-1.4

1.4-1.7

1.7-1.9

1.9-2.2

2.2-3.0

SP root silage

0.7-1.0

1.0-1.2

1.2-1.5

1.2-1.6

1.6-1.8

Fresh SP vine

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

 

Table B. Recommended daily feed ration (feeding both SP root and vine silage).

 

Feed

Feed amount (kg/head/day)

For pig:
20-30 kg

For pig:
30-40 kg

For pig:
40-50 kg

For pig:
50-60 kg

For pig:
>60kg

Basal feed

1.0-1.5

1.5-1.8

1.8-2.0

2.0-2.3

2.3-3.0

SP root silage

0.3-0.5

0.5-0.6

0.6-0.8

0.8-0.9

0.9-1.0

SP vine silage

0.3-0.5

0.5-0.6

0.6-0.8

0.8-0.9

0.9-1.0

 

Table C: Recommended daily feed ration (feeding SP vine silage)

 

Feed

Feed amount (kg/head/day)

For pig: 20-30 kg

For pig: 30-40 kg

For pig: 40-50 kg

For pig: 50-60 kg

For pig: >60kg

Basal feed

1.0-1.5

1.5-1.8

1.8-2.0

2.0-2.3

2.3-3.0

SP vine silage

0.7-1.0

1.0-1.2

1.2-1.5

1.2-1.6

1.6-1.8


3.4 Vine and root sweetpotato silage formulae

  • Formula 1 :

93.5 % pre-wilted SP vine + 0.5 % salt

+ 6 % cassava meal (or 6 % corn meal or 6 % rice bran)

  • Formula 2:

83.5 % pre-wilted SP vine + 0.5 % salt

+ 6 % cassava meal (or 6 % corn meal or 6 % rice bran)

+ 10 % dried and ground chicken manure

  • Formula 3:

79.5 % SP root + 0.5 % salt + 20 % rice bran (or cassava leaf meal)

  • Formula 4:

79.5 % SP root + 0.5 % salt + 20 % dried, ground chicken manure.

 


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