close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentLack of appetite
View the documentFever
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentDehydration
View the documentBloat
View the documentConstipation
View the documentPoisoning
View the documentInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
View the documentLiverflukes
View the documentTick infestation
View the documentScabies (mange)
View the documentLice
View the documentFungus infections of the skin
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentFoot rot
View the documentEye diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentBleeding
View the documentSnake bite
View the documentSprains
View the documentDifficulty in urinating
View the documentHousing
View the documentFeeding
View the documentMineral deficiency
View the documentBreeding
View the documentPregnancy and birthing
View the documentCare of mother animals after birthing
View the documentCare of newborn
View the documentUdder infection
View the documentDecreased milk flow

Infectious diseases

Anthrax

Symptoms

· High fever.
· Difficulty in breathing.
· Bleeding from ears, mouth, nose, anus and vagina.
· Blood does not clot.
· Trembling and convulsive movements.
· Animal collapses and dies quickly.

Anthrax is spread by contact with infected materials.

Treatment

No treatment is recommended. Sick animals should be killed because of the danger to humans.

* Warning

Anthrax is highly infectious to people. Do not open up dead animals or use the meat. Burn the carcass or bury it in a deep pit (120 -150 cm).

Blackleg or black quarter

Symptoms

· Fever.
· Lameness.
· Muscles swollen in the affected area. Air bubbles can he felt under the skin in the swollen area.


Blackleg or black quarter

Blackleg affects mostly cattle and water buffaloes. It can also attack sheep and goats. It usually affects well-nourished animals. It often occurs at the change from summer to the rainy season. It spreads by animals eating infected materials in the soil.

Treatment

No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Blue tongue

Symptoms

· Fever.
· Difficulty in breathing.
· Reddening of the muzzle, lips and ears.
· Ulcers and dead flesh inside the mouth.

If no complications occur, the disease takes a week. It often kills young animals.

Cause

A viral disease of sheep, cattle, goats, water buffaloes and wild ruminants. It is spread by biting insects.

Treatment

No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Brucellosis

Symptoms

· Abortion or retained placenta.

Spread by contact with aborted fetuses, placenta and uterine discharges.

* Warning

People can get infected through contact with infected materials such as afterbirth, aborted fetuses and milk. Boil milk before drinking. Make a fire on the place where the abortion occurred.

Prevention

Vaccination.

Treatment No treatment is recommended. Affected animals should be killed because of the danger to humans.

Caprine pleuropneumonia

Symptoms

· Infectious pneumonia in goats.
· Rapid breathing and nasal discharge with fever.
· Cough, weakness and loss of appetite.
· Spread by contact or infected materials in the air.

Treatment

To relieve symptoms, see Coughs and colds (page 8) and Fever (page 4).

Ecthyma

Symptoms

· Scabs around the mouth and on the nose.
· Lack of appetite.
· Lameness.
· Weight loss.
· Skin lesions on the lips, which later may develop into scabs.

Disease occurs only in goats and sheep. Spread by contact with infected animals.


Ecthyma

Prevention

Isolate infected animals from the herd.

Treatment

No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Enterotoxemia

Symptoms

· Foul-smelling diarrhea with blood.

· Abdominal pain.

· Convulsions. Enterotoxemia causes many deaths in calves, kids and lambs. It is spread by contact with infected materials.

Treatment

· No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Ephemeral fever

Symptoms

· Fever.
· Stiffness and lameness.
· Shivering.
· Lack of appetite.
· Tears in the eyes.
· Discharge from the nose.
· Drooling (salivation).
· Difficulty in breathing.

Affects cattle and water buffaloes. The disease is spread by mosquitoes as mechanical carriers. A sick animal usually recovers within a few days.

Treatment

These treatments are for the symptoms only.

· Reduce the fever (see Fever, page 4).
· Complete rest.

Foot-and-mouth disease

Symptoms

· Blister-like sores and ulcers on the udder, teats, feet and inside the mouth, nose and muzzle.
· Drooling and smacking of the lips.
· Fever.
· Lack of appetite, refusal to eat.
· The disease lasts only about a week but can take longer. It often kills young animals.


Foot-and-mouth disease

Cause

A highly contagious, viral infection of animals with cloven hoofs. The disease is spread by air, usually between animals that are close together. People may serve as mechanical carriers.

Treatment

No indigenous treatment to cure the disease is recorded. The remedies below are to treat the symptoms only.

· When the animals start to feel ill, give 12 bananas and 1 kg of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves as feed for 45 days. (India. 1, 2, 4)

· For wound treatment, see Wounds.

Prevention

· Keep infected animals away from other animals.
· Avoid contact with infected animals.
· Clean and disinfect housing. For disinfectants.

Hemorrhagic septicemia

Symptoms

· Swelling of the neck.
· Inability to breath properly.
· In the last stage of the disease, the tongue sticks out because of difficulty in breathing.
· Fever.
· Discharge from the nose.
· Cough.
· Lack of activity.
· Lack of appetite.
· Bloat.

The following can make animals more susceptible to hemorrhagic septicemia: transportation, stress, overwork and a sudden change in the weather.

Prevention

· Good sanitation and hygiene.
· Good nutrition.
· Vaccination

Treatment

See Coughs and colds (page 8), Fever (page 4) and Lack of appetite (page 1). These treatments are for the symptoms only.

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease)

Symptoms

· Gradual loss of weight.
· Recurrent diarrhea.

Can affect cattle, water buffaloes, sheep and goats. Most cases occur in 2-6 year-old cattle. The disease is spread by contact with infected materials.

Prevention

· Clean and disinfect housing.
· Rotate pasture.

Treatment
No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Rabies


Rabies

Symptoms

· Animal becomes aggressive.
· Bellowing.
· Frequent urination.
· Salivation.
· Constipation.
· Animal is viciously aggressive, running at and trying to bite any moving object.
· Convulsions.
· Death. Spread by bites of infected animals.

Prevention

· Vaccination.

Treatment

Treatment is not recommended.

* Warning

Rabies can infect people and usually kills them. Avoid contact with animals that might have rabies. They should be killed immediately. See also section on dog bites in Wounds (page 80).

Rinderpest


Rinderpest

Symptoms

· Very high fever.
· Nasal discharge.
· Foul-smelling, shooting diarrhea that contains blood and mucus.
· Difficulty in breathing.
· Watery eyes. Dehydration.
· Bran-like lesions in the mouth and tongue.
· Animal cannot eat.

Cause

This is the most severe infectious disease in cattle and water buffaloes, but it can also affect other animals. It is spread by direct contact with infected animals. Many animals die.

Prevention

Vaccination is recommended.

Treatment

No indigenous treatment is recorded.

Tuberculosis

Symptoms

· Low, recurrent fever.

· Weakness.

· Lack of appetite.

· Progressive loss of weight despite good nutrition and care.

· Enlarged superficial lymph. You can feel them as swellings behind the ears and in front of the shoulders.

Prevention

· Keep housing clean. Provide sufficient light and ventilation.
· Good nutrition.

Treatment

Treatments are not recommended. Sick animals should be killed because of the danger to humans.

* Warning

People can catch tuberculosis by drinking milk from infected animals. Boil milk before drinking.

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