COVER

FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPER   3

Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse control

 

 


 

prepared by the
centre for overseas pest research london

with the support of the
united nations development programme

M-20
ISBN 92-5-100183-9

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

PART I REVIEW OF INSECTICIDES AND APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR TSETSE CONTROL

      INSECTICIDES

BACKGROUND

RESISTANCE

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

Search for New Compounds

Susceptibility of Different Species

FIELD TRIALS

FORMULATIONS

GROUND APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION

HYDRAULIC ENERGY EQUIPMENT

Spray Nozzles

Spray Lances

Shut-Off Valve Models

Control Rod Models

HAND OPERATED MACHINES

Pressure Retaining Compression Sprayers

Non-pressure Retaining Sprayers

Pressure Regulators

MOTORIZED MACHINES

GASEOUS ENERGY EQUIPMENT

Motorized Knapsack Mistblowers

CENTRIFUGAL ENERGY EQUIPMENT

SMOKE GENERATORS

Thermal Foggers

AEROSOL DISPENSERS

SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

AERIAL APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

BACKGROUND

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRSPRAYING TECHNIQUES

Non-Residual Spraying Techniques

Residual Spraying Techniques

EQUIPMENT FOR NON-RESIDUAL INSECTICIDE TREATMENTS

Open Pipe

Thermal Exhaust

Rotary Atomizers (air driven)

Hydraulic Spray Nozzles

EQUIPMENT FOR RESIDUAL INSECTICIDAL TREATMENTS

Bi-Flon Apparatus

Boom and Nozzle Equipment

Rotary Atomizers (electrically powered)

TYPES OF AIRCRAFT SUITABLE FOR ANTITSETSE OPERATIONS

NAVIGATION AIDS

 

PART II FUTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR INSECTICIDES AND APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

 INSECTICIDES

RESIDUAL APPLICATIONS TO VEGETATION AT HIGH VOLUME RATES

AERIAL APPLICATION AT ULTRA-LOW VOLUME RATES

 GROUND EQUIPMENT

HYDRAULIC ENERGY EQUIPMENT

Spray Lances

Spray Guns

Pressure Retaining Sprayers

Hand Compression Sprayers

Lever Operated Sprayer

MOTORIZED MACHINES

Motorized Knapsack Mistblowers

Vehicle Mounted Machines

Fogging Machines

Manual Aerosol Producers

 AERIAL EQUIPMENT

REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRSPRAYING EQUIPMENT

 

PART III RESEARCH TO IMPROVE THE TECHNOLOGY OF TSETSE CONTROL

 THE STATUS OF TSETSE CONTROL USING PESTICIDES

ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

      FUTURE RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NEW INSECTICIDES AND FORMULATIONS

FIELD STUDIES OF NEW INSECTICIDES AND TECHNIQUES

Ground Applications of Residual Insecticides

Ground Applications of Non-Residual Insecticides

ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS OF RESIDUAL INSECTICIDES

ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS OF NON-RESIDUAL INSECTICIDES

MEDIUM FIXED WING AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS OF NON-RESIDUAL INSECTICIDES

 

APPENDICES:

I. Properties of New Compounds

II. Ground Applications of Residual Insecticides

III. Ground Applications of Non-Residual Insecticides

IV. Rotary Wing Aircraft Applications of Residual Insecticides

V. Rotary Wing Aircraft Applications of Non-Residual Insecticides

VI. Medium Fixed Wing Aircraft Applications of Non-Residual Insecticides

 

REFERENCES

 

 

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

 

 

The copyright in this book is vested in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, by any method or process, without written permission from the copyright holder. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction desired, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special recognition is due to Dr. A.B. Hadaway, Mr. C.W. Lee, Mr. K.J.R. MacLennan, Mr. J.D. Parker, Mr. F. Barlow and Dr. W.R. Wooff, who provided most of the information for this report. Appreciation is also extended to Dr. A.A. Arata, Mr. D.A.T. Baldry, Dr. J. Ford, Mr. C.F. Hemming, Mr. T. Jones, Dr. A.N. Jordan, Dr. G.A. Matthews, Dr. A.R. Stiles, Dr. M. Vandekar and Mr. W.S. Watts for their advice and assistance and to Dr. P. Finelle, Dr. J. Hamon and Dr. P.T. Haskell for their support and encouragement.

Finally, thanks are due to the staff of many tsetse fly control organizations in Africa (in particular, Mr. C.S. Tarimo, Mr. M.K. Gao, Mr. R. Stjernstedt, Mr. L.D. Semakula and C. de F.E. Sousa), and to the chemical and spraying machinery manufacturers throughout the world whose response to the information survey made a valuable and constructive contribution to this report.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome 1977
FAO


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