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I. Individual monographs

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Allanblackia

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME OF THE OIL

Allanblackia

BOTANICAL NAME

Allanblackia stuhlmannii, A.floribunda

FAMILY

Guttiferae

OTHER NAMES OF THE OIL

Mkanyi fat, Kagne butter,

HABITAT

Tropical

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

E. Africa, Congo, Cameroons

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

Trees of the genus bear large fruits, up to 12 inches long which may contain 40-50 seeds. The seed kernels amount to 60-80% of the whole seed weight. A hard white fat can be extracted from the kernels. Allanblackia fats are unusual in that they consist almost entirely of stearic and oleic acids, and even more unusual in that the stearic acid proportion is very high, above 50%. Allanblackia has thus had considerable attention, based on its unusual fat composition, rather than its commercial importance (Ecky).

In 1958 E.Tanganyika was reported to have produced 68 tons of Kagne butter (Tang).

MAIN USES

The use of the fat in soap has been suggested (Foma). The timber is suitable for use under damp conditions and finds use in Ghana for bridge piers and pit props. The pounded bark is used for medicinal purposes, in Ghana for example as a pain reliever, for tooth ache, and to treat diarrhoea (Abbiw).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

No information identified

HARVESTING PERIOD

No information identified

HARVESTING METHODS

No information identified

 

III. POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

No information identified

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

No information identified

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

Palmitic acid 2-3%

Stearic acid 52-58%

Oleic acid 39-45%

(Hilditch)

EQUIPMENT

No information identified

NOMENCLATURE OF PRODUCTS

No information identified

There is a lack of identifiable information for the following areas: GENERAL, production, uses: AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS, cultivation, harvesting periods and methods; PROCESSING, primary processing, oil extraction, by products.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABBIW. D.K., "Useful Plants of Ghana", Intermediate Technology Publication & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1990.1.

ECKEY, E.W. Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1954. p 687

FOMA, M.; ABDALA, T.; "Kernel oils of seven plant species of Zaire", Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 1985, Vol 62, No.:5, pp 910-911.

HILDITCH, Chemical Contribution of Natural Fats. pp 264-5 TANG. Tr. Bull., 1958, Part I, p.13

Almond

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME OF THE OIL

Almond Oil

BOTANICAL NAME

Prunus communis, P. americana P. . amygdalus

FAMILY

Rosaceae

OTHER NAMES OF THE OIL

Amandier, Mandelbaum, Almendro, Mandorlo HABITAT Temperate, Mediterranean

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

Italy, Spain, Morocco, France ,Greece, Iran

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

The Almond tree grows to a height of 10-25ft. and bears a peach like fruit. The outer pulpy portion of the fruit is thin and inedible. The fruit becomes tough and leathery and splits open when ripe. Many varieties of almonds are grown but they can broadly be divided into two types, Bitter and Sweet.

Sweet almonds do not contain amygdalin and are widely used as nuts and food ingredients. Bitter almonds contain amygdalin and an enzyme which causes its hydrolysis to glucose, benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid.

When ground, moistened bitter almond kernels are subjected to steam distillation a volatile oil is obtained. This is Oil of Bitter Almond and mainly consists of benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. It should not be confused with the fixed oil, Sweet Almond Oil.

The fixed oil is known as Sweet Almond Oil to distinguish it from the steam volatile Bitter Almond Oil. This does not imply however that sweet almond oil is made from sweet almonds, in fact most is extracted from bitter almonds as sweet almonds are too valuable for oil extraction. Bitter almonds are thus used for both fixed and volatile oil extraction (Ecky). The oil content of dried sweet almond kernels is 50-60%. That of bitter almonds is lower, 40-45%, and sometimes as low as 20% (Ecky).

Almonds are also grouped by shell type in hard shell, soft shell and paper shell types.

MAIN USES

Sweet hard shell almonds are sold as shelled nuts while the soft and paper shell types may be sold with or without the removal of the shell. Shelled almonds are sold both blanched and unblanched. Blanching removes the very thin skin around the inner kernel. Sweet Almonds find use in a wide range of food products.

Sweet Almond oil is used in many cosmetic products. Due to its high value Sweet Almond Oil is subject to adulteration, particularly by the far cheaper peach oil which has very similar fatty acid characteristics. In one survey in Brazil it was found that 77% of almond oil samples had been adulterated (Badolato). Much research has been carried out on analytical methods to detect such adulteration (Salvo).

The cake of sweet almond remaining after oil extraction contains 39-47% protein and 10-18% oil. It is used in animal feed and also ground to a fine powder which finds use in some toilet preparations. Bitter almond press cake, due to its toxic components cannot be used for feed (Mensier).

The Indian Almond, Terminalia catappa, find wide use amongst tribals. The kernel is eaten and the tree provides medicines and dyes. The wood is used for construction (Sen).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

The commercial cultivation of almond is covered in the appropriate literature.

HARVESTING PERIOD

Varies depending on country

HARVESTING METHODS

The fruits are either picked from, or knocked down from, the trees.

 

III. POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

After removing the hulls from harvested fruit the nuts are dried. If the nuts are to be sold whole they are sometimes treated with sulphur dioxide to bleach them (Ecky).

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

Bitter almonds are pressed at a low temperature, generally about 30C to prevent destruction of the hydrolytic enzyme, generally about 30C. The press cake is then used for the production of bitter almond oil (Ecky).

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

Palmitic acid 7.5%

Stearic acid 1.8%

Oleic acid 66.4%

Linoleic acid 23.5%

(Garcia Olmedo)

EQUIPMENT

Presses, filters

NOMENCLATURE OF PRODUCTS

Almond nuts, Bitter oil of Almond, Sweet almond oil. There is alack of identifiable information on oil extraction methods, refining and uses.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BADOLATO,E.S.G.; MAIO, F.D. de; LAMARDO, L.C.A.; ZENEBON, O.; "Natural Oils: verification of their quality by gas liquid chromatography", Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Vol 47, No.:1/2, p 87-95.

ECKEY, E.W. Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1954 pp 455-458

GARCIA OLMEDO, R.; MARCOS GARCIA, M.A. Anales de Bromatologia, Vol 23, No.:3, p.233-57.

MENSIER. P.H.,"Dictionnaire de Huiles Vegetates", Editions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

SALVO, F.; DUGO, G.; STAGNO D'ALCONTRES, I.; COTRONEO, A.; "Composition of almond oil. II. Distinction of sweet almond oil from blends with peach and apricot seed oil", Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, Vol 57, No.:1, p. 24-26.

R.SEN, A.C. HALDER, D.C. PAL., " Botany and Ethnobotany of Indian Almond" ., J. Econ. Tax. Bot. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1987, p 239-240.

Chaulmoogra

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME OF THE OIL

Chaulmoogra oil

BOTANICAL NAME

True Chaulmoogra oil comes from Taraktogenos kurzli. Other closely related species include Hydnocarpus wightiana, Oncoba echinata; native to West Africa and Carpotroche brasiliensis; Brazil (Ecky).

FAMILY

Flacourtiaceae

OTHER NAMES OF THE OIL

Maroti, Hydnocarpus oils, Gorli seed oil (Ecky).

HABITAT

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Uganda.

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

Trees of the species that yield Chaulmoogra oil grow to a height of 12-15 m. and in India bear fruits in August and September. The fruits are ovoid some 10 cm in diameter with a thick woody rind. Internally they contain 10-16 black seeds embedded in the fruit pulp. The seeds account for some 20% of the fruit weight. A typical tree produces 20 kg of seed/annum. The kernels make up 60-70% of the seed weight and contain 63% of pale yellow oil (mukherjee). The oil is unusual in not being made up of straight chain fatty acids but acids with a cyclic group at the end of the chain.

MAIN USES

Chaulmoogra oil has traditionally been used for thousands of years in the treatment of leprosy. Its use has now however been largely replaced by modern drugs. The expeller cake is a useful manure and is reported to ward off ants and other insect pests. It cannot be used for animal feed due to its toxicity.

The oil has been shown to be highly active against fungal plant pathogens including aspergillus niger and rhizopus nigricans (Mukherjee).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

No information identified

HARVESTING PERIOD

In India August to September.

HARVESTING METHODS

No information identified

 

III. POST HARVEST PRETREATMENT. PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

The seeds require decortication prior to oil extraction. This is reported to be a simple process (Bring)).

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

The oil is extracted from the kernels using traditional ghanis and small expellers (Bring)).

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

No information identified

EQUIPMENT

Ghanis, expellers

There is a lack of identifiable information on most areas of current production, extraction methods and uses.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BRINGI, N.V.; "Non-Traditional Oilseeds and Oils in India", Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. Ltd. 1987. ISBN 81-204-0190-5. pp 231-235

ECKEY, E.W., Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1954. pp 695-6

MUKHERJEE, N.; "Antifungal activities of some oils and detergents. I.Action on spore germination, growth and sporulation of some plant pathogenic fungi" Zeitschrift Fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. Vol 81, No.:8, p.468-471

Cuphea spp.

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Cuphea spp

BOTANICAL NAME

C. carthagenensis. C. painter)

FAMILY

Lythraceae

OTHER NAMES OF THE OIL

HABITAT

Temperate and sub tropical

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

Occurs naturally in Central and South America. Has been grown in trials in Germany and USA

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

The genus Cuphea comprises some 260 herbaceous or perennial species. The seeds of Cuphea sp. weigh about 2 mg. They have been reviewed by Graham. Yields of one ton/acre of seed is estimated.

MAIN USES

Industry has always made use of short chain fatty acids and C8, C10 and C12 saturated acids are mainly produced from coconut and palm kernel oils. C8 and C10 acids are only found at levels of 6-10% in these commodities. Recent price rises have caused interest in alternative sources of short chain fatty acids, of which various members of the genus Cuphea have been shown to contain high levels. The seeds of Cuphea studied contain 30-36% oil (Kaliangilee).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

Propagated from seeds or vegetatively by cuttings.

HARVESTING PERIOD

No information identified

HARVESTING METHODS

Indeterminate flowering and seed shattering are wild type character istics that cause difficulties (Princen).

 

III. POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

No information identified

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

No information identified

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

C. carthagenensis   C. painteri C. ignea C. llavea
C8   73% 3%  
C10 18% 24% 87% 83-86%
C12 57%      

There is a lack of identifiable information for most aspects of Cuphea cultivation, processing, production and market potential.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

GRAHAM, S.A., "Cuphea: a new plant source of medium chain fatty acids", CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1989, Vol 28, (2), p 139-173

KALIANGILEE, I.,GRABE, D.F., "Seed maturation in Cuphea", J.Seed Technology, 1988,Vol 12, (2), p 107-113.

PRINCEN, L.H., "New Crop Developments for Industrial Oils", J.of the American Oil Chemists Society, Vol 56, (9), 1979, p.845-849

THOMPSON, A.E. "An oilseed crop with promise", Oil Mill Gazetteer, 1986, Vol 90, (10), p 12-13.

THOMPSON,A.E, "Cuphea- a potential new crop", Hort. Science, 1984, Vol 19, (3), p 352353.

Jatropa curgas

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Pourghere

BOTANICAL NAME

Jatropha curgas

FAMILY

Euphorbiaceac

OTHER NAMES

Barbados nut, Physic nut, Tuba, Taua taua, Saboo dam, Jarak butte, Awla.

HABITAT

Hot dry tropical

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

The Physic nut originated in S. America and is now find worldwide in tropical countries. It grows wild in many tropical regions, especially W. Africa. Grown commercially in Cape Verde Islands and Malagasy Republic.

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

The tree grows to a height of 8m. and can survive long dry periods by shedding its leaves. It begins to yield at 4-5 months and can live for up to 50 years (Godin).

The tree bears round fruits with a soft brownish skin, 1.5-3 cm in diameter that weigh 1.5-3 g. The fruits contain up to 3 black/ yellow striated oval seeds. One litre of seed weighs 450-500 g.

The seeds contain about 33% oil, the kernels 50%. The oil is pale yellow to brown in colour. The oil contains a toxic substance, curcasin, which has a strong purging effect, a few drops of the oil being equivalent to a large spoonful of castor oil.

MAIN USER

It has been strongly recommended that J.curgas is cultivated as a drought resistant plant in marginal areas to prevent soil erosion.

The seeds yield a semi-drying oil that has been commercially used for lighting oil, lacquer, soap and as a textile lubricant. It is also used for medicinal purposes for its strong purging effect; from which the name purging nut stems. The sap has blood clotting properties and the leaves find use in the treatment of malaria (Henning).

Products useful as plasticizer, hide softeners and hydraulic fluid have been obtained after halogenation (Godin). Dye extraction has been proposed (Aide) (Gonzales). The wood is used for fuel.

The cake, after oil extraction, cannot be used for animal feed due to its toxicity but is a good organic fertilizer. In Mali it is widely used for hedging, it is estimated that there are 1500 kms and that the yield is 2 kg of seed/km (Henning). In Madagascar the plant is used as a support for Vanilla (Ecky).

The wood is very flexible if thinly split and is used for basket making. A water extract of the whole plant has molluscicide effects against various types of snail, and has insecticidal properties (Ecky).

Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of the oil in small diesel engines. Vegetable oils can only be directly utilized in pre-chamber engines (such adapted engines are commercially available or existing motors may be easily adapted). Jatropha oil may however be modified by transesterification; heating with alcohol and a catalyst; after which it can be directly substituted for diesel fuel. Zaske summarises vegetable oil/ engine technology thinking. In the Cape Verde Islands this is at the limit of commercial viability, Jatropha oil being 138 CFA franc/litre against diesel at 142 CFA francs. It is suggested Jatropha oil could be economically viable in Mali with diesel costing 210 CFA francs/litre and up to 400 CFA francs in remote areas (Henning). A recent survey in Mali indicates that the potential of 3000 t. Of seeds/annum represents a monetary value of 55 million CFA francs and that equally importantly the purchase of seed would inject substantial amounts of money into lower income families' budgets (Henning).

J. curgas has also been the subject of investigation in Thailand for powering single cylinder country diesel engines. (Betang).

The integrated use of C. curgas has been surveyed recently by GTZ, Germany. (Hunch).

 

II AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

May be grown from seeds or cuttings

HARVESTING PERIOD

In Cape Verde there are two harvests, June/July and October/November. In Mali from August to September.

HARVESTING METHODS

Generally fruits are allowed to ripen and fall to ground although sometimes trees are climbed to harvest them.

 

III POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

The seeds are cleaned, decorticated, ground and heated prior to pressing or expelling.

 

IV PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

Traditionally, in Thailand, the ground seeds are boiled with water and the oil floated off. In Mali the oil is trad itionally extracted in manual and hydraulic presses which are also used for the extraction of Shea butter.

Small expellers, with a capacity of 30-70 litres oil/hr. can also be used powered by electricity or diesel engines running on Jatropha oil (Henning).

The crude oil may be semi-refined by degumming and alkali treatment.

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

Myristic acid 0-0.5%

Palmitic acid 12-17%

Stearic acid 5-6%

Oleic acid 37-63%

Linoleic acid 19-40%

(Ecky)

EQUIPMENT

Mills, pestles and mortars, heating pans, driers, presses, expellers, filters.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ALDE, M.R., AGCAOILI, F., COCHICO, R.J.," Jatropha Curgas (Tuba) as a Source of Natural Dye"., Phillipine Journal of Science, Vol. 77, p 55-60

BARANG, M., "Power in a nutshell", South, 1983, NO. 30, P 66-67

ECKEY, E.W., Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing Corp, 1954, p. 583

GONZALES, L.L., " Dyes from Trees", Canopy., Vol.4 (11), p. 10

GODIN, N.J., SPENSLEY, P.C. Oils and Oilseeds, Crop and Product Digests No.1., Tropical Products Institute.

HENNING, R. "Production of Jatropha oil and its utilization as a substitute for diesel oil", Programme Special Energie Mali, Bamako, 1989. (available from GTZ, Germany).

MUNCH, E., "Die Purgiernub (Jatropha curgas) Mehrzweckpflanze als Kraftstoffquelle der Zukunft ?", Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Germany, 1989

ZASKE, J.," International Symposium on new Technologies of Vegetable Proteins, Oils and Starch Processing", Beijing, China, 1987.

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