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Grain storage techniques
Evolution and trends in developing countries


Table of contents


Edited by D.L. Proctor, FAO Consultant

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 109

GASCA - GROUP FOR ASSISTANCE ON SYSTEMS RELATINGTO GRAIN AFTER HARVEST

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, 1994

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-17
ISBN 92-5-1 03456-7

Copyright

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(c) FAO 1994


Contents


Foreword

Chapter 1 - Economics of grain handling and storage in developing countries

The role of storage in the economy
Costs and incentives to store
Who stores and why?
Improvements in large-scale storage and handling
Improvement to storage on the farm
References

Chapter 2 - The biodeterioration of grain and the risk of mycotoxins

Biodeterioration
Moulds and mycotoxins
The significance of mycotoxins
The interaction of mycotoxins
The control of mycotoxins
Sampling and analysis
Conclusions
References

Chapter 3 - Quality and grading of grain

Introduction
Quality characteristics of grains
Grain standards
Grain trade
Standard grading of grain quality
Sampling, equipment and methods
Quality determination, equipment and methods
The role of standards in local trade
References

Chapter 4 - Grain harvesting, threshing and cleaning

Technical alternatives
Constraints
Evaluation of costs
References

Chapter 5 - Drying methods

Introduction
Drying principles and general considerations
Natural and solar drying
Mechanical dryers
Drying operations
Novel dryers and recent developments
Ancillary equipment
References

Chapter 6 - Storage at farm/village level and in warehouses

Introduction
Traditional farm/village storage methods
'Improved' farm/village storage methods
Alternative storage technology at farm/village level
Traditional private grain trader storage
Modern warehouses
References

Chapter 7 - Bulk storage

Introduction
Factors influencing the choice of bulk store
Sealed stores
Aeration
Costs of bulk storage
References

Chapter 8 - Insect control

Integrated pest management (IPM) in the control of storage insects
Insect pests of stored grains in hot climates
Chemical control techniques
Alternative and supplementary control measures
References

Chapter 9 - Rodent control

The economic importance of rodent pests
Rodent species of post-harvest importance
Control of rodent pests
Designing control programmes
References

Annex 1 (Reference Chapter 1) - Application of cost-benefit analysis to storage projects

Annex 2 (Reference Chapter 5) - Organizations involved in research on biomass residue combustion

Annex 3 (Reference Chapter 4) - Example of calculating the costs of operating processing machinery

Annex 4 (Reference Chapter 6) - Fumigable warehouses

Annex 5 - GASGA Members