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Farm structures in tropical climates


A Textbook for Structural
Engineering and Design
Edited by
Lennart P. Bengtsson
James H. Whitaker

FAO/SIDA COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME. RURAL STRUCTURES IN EAST AND SOUTH-EAST AFRICA
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 1988

Copyright

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is hereby granted without fee and without a formal request provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and full citation on the first page. Copyright for components of this work owned by others than FAO must be honoured. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or fee.

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00100 Rome, Italy,
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Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Presentation technique

Drawing technique
Drawing reproduction
Documentation of a building project
Projections
Model buildings
Further reading

Chapter 2 Surveying

Distances
Angles
Vertical alignment
Levelling
Chain surveying
Setting out building work
Excavation depth control
Volume of earth to be removed
Further reading

Chapter 3 Building materials

Building materials
Wood
Poles and timber
Manufactured building boards
Other wood products
Other organic materials
Natural stone products
Earth as building material
Burnt-clay bricks
Binders
Concrete
Concrete blocks - sand - cement blocks
Mortar
Ferrocement
Fibre - reinforced concrete
Metals
Building hardware
Glass
Plastics
Rubber
Bituminous products
Paints
Further reading

Chapter 4 Structural design

Introduction
Basic principles of statics
Mechanics of materials
Structural elements and loading
Design of members in direct stress
Properties of structural sections
Design of simple beams
Composite beams
Columns
Trusses
Frames
Connections
Stability
Retaining walls
Further reading

Chapter 5 Elements of construction

Loads on building components
Footings and foundations
Concrete foundations
Walls
Floors
Roofs
Doors
Windows
Stairs and ladders
Electrical installations

Chapter 6 Building production

The building production process
Methods of construction
Prefabrication
Dimensional coordination and standardization
Building legislation
Construction costing
Economic feasibility
Organization for small building constructions
Tendering
Contracts
Specifications
Progress chart
Inspection and control
Safety at building sites
Building maintenance
Further reading

Chapter 7 Climate and environmental control

Introduction
Climatic zones
Heat terminology
Heat transfer
Thermal resistance of building components
Rate of overall heat loss or gain from a building
Psychrometry
Moisture transmission
Vapor barriers
Ventilation
Ventilation system design cool climates
Cooling
Solar energy
Sound insulation - noise control
Lightning conductors
Sand and dust
Earthquakes
Further reading

Chapter 8 Functional planning

Rural planning
Economic planning of the farm operation
An approach to building planning
Farmstead planning
Fire protection
Further reading

Chapter 9 Crop handling, conditioning and storage

Introduction
Grain drying
Grain storage
Grain handling equipment
Semi-perishable crops
Perishable crops
Further reading

Chapter 10 Animal housing

Animal behaviour
Animal environmental requirements
Cattle housing
Sheep and goat housing
Rabbit housing
Slaughterslabs and slaughterhouses
Further reading

Chapter 11 Sundry farm buildings

Farm workshop facilities
Machinery and implement storage
Fuel and chemical storage
Greenhouses
Further reading

Chapter 12 Farm dwellings

Space requirements
Family cultural and social requirements
Special requirements of farm dwellings
Categories of farmhouses
Function and communication schemes
Functional requirements for different rooms and spaces
Improvement of existing dwellings
Contemporary farm dwellings
Further reading

Chapter 13 External facilities

Introduction to simple road designs
Erosion of earth roads
Road construction
Minor river crossings
Vehicle access to farmsteads
Fencing
Types of fences
Fencing accessories
Animal handling facilities
Further reading

Chapter 14 Rural water supply and sanitation

Water requirements - quantity and quality
Water storage
Wells
Pumps
Water treatment
Open channel flow
Rural sanitation
Further reading

Appendix

SI units
Conversion tables
Greek alphabet
Requirements for batching ordinary concrete mixes of various grades and of medium workability
Requirements for batching ordinary concrete mixes of various grades and of high workability
Dimensions and properties of steel I beams
Psychrometric chart sea level
Psychrometric chart 750m above sea level
Psychrometric chart 1500m above sea level
Typical properties of cohesionless materials
Typical specific mass of materials
Typical allowable bearing capacities
Typical strength properties and allowable stresses
Number of pens required for pig housing