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8 Appendix

Questionnaires 1994/1995 · Farm study

Name of enumerator _________

Date _________

District _________

Village _________

Name of farmer _________

Farmer's house _________

1. Information about the farm-household

101. Ethnic background of farmer _________

102. How many people are living on your farm? _________,

specify household composition:

Female _________ Male _________ Age


Female _________Male _________Age

103. Main problems concerning the farm and farm-household.

financial issues _________

health _________

rainfall _________

soil fertility _________

storage problems _________

other, (specify) _________

104. Who is the owner of the farm and farm-land?

Owned freehold land _________
Leased freehold land _________
Leased government land _________
Other, (specify) _________

105 Does your wife/wives have her own fields? Yes _________ No _________

106. What are the main crops farmed on the field of the wife/wives?

wife's field _________ husband's field _________

107. How many acres of arable land do you cultivate in total? _________acres

108. What are the major cash crops this season?

first crop _________second crop _________
third crop _________fourth crop _________

109. What are the major subsistence crops this season?

first crop _________second crop _________
third crop _________fourth crop _________

2. Importance of cassava in the district

201. How important is the production of cassava (kokonte) in your area?

not very important_________
fairly important_________
very important_________

202. How important is the production of cassava for your family?

subsistence crop_________
semi-commercial crop_________
cash crop only_________

203. How many farmers cultivate cassava kokonte in this area?

very few _________ some _________ nearly all

204. How would you describe the consumption of cassava in your district?

very low _________ medium _________ very important

3. Planting of cassava

301. How many cassava fields do you cultivate currently? _________ fields

302. How big is the area cultivated with cassava (in acres or mounds)? _________
(2000 mounds being 1 acre)

303. How many cassava varieties did you plant last season? _________
(indicate the name of the local varieties)

Variety _________ Acreage _________ Yield _________

304. When did you plant and harvest cassava last season?

Variety _________ Date of Planting _________ Date of Harvesting _________

305. What do you do with your cassava roots after harvest?
(Describe the whole post-harvest chain from harvest to storage and selling)

306. What has changed over the years in farming cassava?

Distance to fields _________
Transport means _________
Production techniques _________
Harvesting techniques _________
Processing techniques _________
Storage methods _________
Other, (specify) _________

307. Describe the improvements and disadvantages related to changes in farming of cassava.

Advantages _________ Disadvantages

308. Have you increased the production of cassava over the years? Why or why not?

Yes _________, Reason _________
No _________, Reason _________

309. What is the most tedious work related to cassava?

Uprooting _________ Transporting _________
Peeling _________ Storing _________
Other, (specify) _________

310. Did you buy cassava seedlings last season?

No _________
Yes _________, How many _________ At what cost? _________ Cedis

311. Do you have any expenses concerning ploughing, weeding, mounding and planting of cassava?

No _________
Yes _________ specify _________

312. Do you hire any labour for all activities such as ploughing, weeding, mounding and planting of cassava?

No _________ Yes _________, specify _________

4. Harvest and processing of cassava

401. Who is mainly harvesting/uprooting cassava?

men _________women _________ both

402. Do you leave roots, after maturing, in the ground?

No _________
Yes _________, for how long? _________weeks/months

403. Who is transferring cassava roots from the field to the house?

men _________ women _________ both _________

404. How long is the distance from your main cassava field to the house? _________

405. How do you carry the cassava roots from the field to the house?

headload _________ bicycle _________
push truck _________ car/lorry _________
other means _________

406. What are the means of transport to the farm-house for men and women?

men _________ women _________

407. Do you store mainly fresh or processed cassava? _________

408. How do you process the cassava roots?

peel and slice only the big chips _________
peel and slice all chips _________
peel only the chips without slicing _________

409. Who does mainly the peeling of cassava roots?

only/mainly men _________ only/mainly women _________
both _________

410. What do you do with the main portion of the kokonte?

only for consumption % _________
for sale (%)_________
partly for sale and consumption % _________

411. What happens with the small cassava kokonte?

consumption (in %) _________
sale (in %) _________
sale and consumption (%) _________

412. Why do you store only cassava kokonte and not very small chips or cassava flour?

413. Do you hire any labour for transport and harvest of cassava roots?

5. Drying and storing of chips

501. Where do you dry your chips?

Leenga _________ on the ground _________
both ways _________ other means of drying _________

502. How long do you dry the cassava chips (days/weeks)? _________

503. Who does the drying/spreading of the chips (responsibility)?

men _________women _________ both _________

504. Where do you store the cassava chips?

In sacks _________On the ground _________
Raised platform _________
Floor/Room _________
In storage structures such as _________
· Kanbon _________ · Napogu _________
· Kpachagliga _________ · Kunchun _________
Others, specify _________

505. How many storage structures do you posses and the name of these structure(s)?

Number of structures _________Name of structures types _________

506. Describe the storage and drying structure (sketch or rough draft).

507. Did you erect a new storage or drying structure this season?

No _________ Yes _________ and which structure?

508. What are the estimated costs for constructing a storage or drying structure?

Drying structure

Storing structure

Cost component

Costs in Cedis

Cost component

Costs in Cedis

Poles


Poles


Grass


Grass


Zanamats


Zanamats


Strings


Strings


Labour


Labour


509 How many sacks or pans of cassava kokonte fill you storage structure(s)? (3 pans = 1 sack)

Structure _________ Filling _________ capacity _________

510. Do you store the cassava kokonte somewhere else before you place the chips in your main storage structure?

No _________
Yes _________, and where _________ and for how long? _________

511. Do you hire any labour constructing the storage or drying structures?

No _________ Yes _________

512. What other crops do you dry and store in the so-called cassava structures?

Other crops in drying structure _________
Other crops in storing structure _________

513. What type of wood do you use for the drying and/or storage structures?

Type of wood: drying structure _________ storing structure _________

514 What kind of repairs did you perform on your storage structure last season?

Replacing poles _________
Replacing zanamats and grass _________
Others, specify _________

515 How durable are the drying and/or storage structures? Specify in months or years.

Drying structure _________ Storing structure

516. Who is storing the chips in the structure?

men _________ women _________ both

517. Who controls or is responsible for the storage structure and its content?

men _________ women _________ both _________

518. How do women store their own cassava produce?

Storage structures _________ Sacks _________
Others, specify _________

519. How do women protect their cassava kokonte?

Insecticides _________
Regularly checks of the produce _________
Natural materials (specify) _________
No protection _________

520. How long do you store cassava kokonte?

Days _________ Weeks _________Months _________

521. Who is responsible for the removal of cassava kokonte?

men _________ women

522. How often is cassava kokonte removed from the structure(s)?

daily _________ weekly _________
monthly _________ others, specify _________

523. How much is removed for consumption each time from the storage structure(s)?

Pans _________ Sacks _________
Others, specify _________

6. Checking, controlling of the cassava kokonte during storage and related problems

601. What are the main problems when drying cassava kokonte?

mould _________ insects _________ rodents _________
theft _________ others _________

602. What are the main problems when storing cassava kokonte at the beginning of storage season?

mould _________ insects _________ rodents
theft _________ others _________

603. What are the main problems by the end of the storage season?

mould _________ insects _________ rodents _________
theft _________ others _________

604. Do you check regularly the stored produce? No _________ Yes _________

605. If yes, how many times do you check the stored produce during the storage season?

once in a while _________ every month _________
every week _________
every time when chips are removed _________

606. What do you do if you have serious problems during your storage period?

removing of cassava kokonte for further drying _________
additional buying of cassava kokonte _________
using as animal fodder _________
others, specify _________

607. Do you apply any storage protectants to the stored produce?

No _________ Yes _________, specify:

Insecticides _________
traditional means _________
others _________

608. If you use chemicals - how do you apply it?

dipping _________ spraying _________
dusting _________ others, specify _________

609. How did you protect the cassava kokonte in the past?

Traditional means _________ Insecticides _________
Others, specify _________

610. Do you apply storage protection for kokonte that is sold or also to the portion which is consumed?

Only for chips which are sold _________
Only for the chips which are consumed for both portions _________

611. How do you perceive your storage losses in terms of severeness?

severe _________ moderate _________
negligible _________

612. Are you able to estimate the range of loss in percentage (consider the total amount of stored produce)?

loss in % _________ loss in sacks or pans _________

613. Why are chips getting attacked/infested? (Describe)

614. Which cassava variety is the most difficult to store? (Describe)

615. Do you detect any problems on your wooden structures?

No _________ Yes _________, specify _________

616. What type of wood is more susceptible to infestation? _________

617. Do you have to acquire additional cassava during the storage season?

No _________ Yes _________

618. If yes, what is the reason for additional buying of cassava kokonte?

family size _________ amount of stored to less _________
storage problems _________ others, specify _________

619. How do you prepare your storage structure before the next storage season?

cleaning _________ repairing _________
other methods _________

620. Are any extension messages on storage of cassava kokonte available?

No _________ Yes _________

621. If yes, what kind of advises?

leaflets _________ farmer gatherings _________
farmer meetings _________ field days _________

622. Is there any extension officer who advises you? No _________ Yes _________

623. What do you think you could do to solve the above described problems?

624. How do you think could the MOFA help you solving the described problems?

7. Marketing

701. Are you selling cassava kokonte? No _________ Yes _________

If yes, because of:

Financial problems _________
problems with stored product _________
others, specify _________

702. To whom do you sell your produce?

famers, neighbours _________ marketwomen/men _________
others, specify _________

703. Do you sell regularly cassava kokonte? No _________ Yes _________

704. Which cassava variety fetches the highest price?

705. Who gets the income when selling cassava chips?

706. How do you see the profitability of selling cassava kokonte?

Very good business _________
Future potential is very good _________
Only for subsistence _________
Others, specify _________

707. Do you use cassava kokonte for other purposes than consumption and sale?

No _________ Yes _________, specify _________

708. If your wife sells cassava kokonte, tell us the distance to the closest market places?

709. Why do you sell mainly cassava kokonte and no other cassava produces?

Yes _________No _________, specify _________

710. If you market cassava kokonte, do you hire vehicles? No _________Yes _________

Appendix II

Table A: Exchange rates (1 DM in Cedis) between 1990 and 1995

Month

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

January

-

229

248

339

481

674

February

-

237

242

355

525

690

March

182

224

240

273

534

733

April

186

213

249

379

535

750

May

194

212

253

379

540

780

June

194

206

258

377

555

790

July

204

207

277

384

587

830

August

213

213

306

391

600

835

September

215

219

322

400

612

835

October

223

221

335

413

630

926

November

230

232

320

433

651

970

December

231

244

332

463

667

1000

Source: Barclays Bank, Tamale, Ghana, 1995

Cassava occupies an important position in Ghana's agricultural economy and accounts for a daily calorie intake of about 30%.

 

 

In the North of Ghana the highly perishable cassava root is preserved by peeling and cutting it into pieces before sundrying. After sun-drying the cassava chips (kokonte) are kept in storage structures for 6-8 months. The major cause of loss during storage is infestation by insects. Data on post-harvest loss of cassava are scarce, this is probably related to the fact that cassava is regarded as of low commercial value and no well-established methods exist to assess storage loss.

Loss-assessment studies are an useful tool for appraising the current situation in the post-harvest sector and current effects on food security.

The present study paid particular attention to the comparative analysis of various methodological approaches. The mere quantification of post-harvest loss was put into a wider perspective and important factors such as qualitative loss and other losses within the post-harvest system, perception of farmers and socio-economic relevant data were considered.


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