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Small-scale postharvest handling practices - A manual for horticultural crops - 3rd edition













Table of Contents


POSTHARVEST HORTICULTURE SERIES NO. 8 - March, 1995

Lisa Kitinoja and Adel A. Kader

DEPARTMENT OF POMOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - DAVIS, CALIFORNIA 95616

© 1995 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - DAVIS, CALIFORNIA

The copyright of this publication is vested in the UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - DAVIS, CALIFORNIA. Applications for permissions to reproduce this publication, in whole or in part, by any method or process, should be addressed, with a statement of purpose and extend of the reproduction desired, to UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - DAVIS, CALIFORNIA.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

Introduction the manual

Postharvest handling steps for a typical commodity
Principal causes of postharvest losses and poor quality
Resources for quality assurance and export marketing

Section 1: Harvesting and preparation for market

Maturity standards
Harvesting practices
Harvesting containers
Harvesting tools
Field packing
Transport to the packinghouse

Section 2: Curing root, tuber and bulb crops

Field curing
Curing with heated air
Bulk systems for curing onions
Emergency curing

Section 3: Packinghouse operations

General operations
Dumping
Washing
Waxing
Sorting
Sizing
Fruit packing line

Section 4: Packing and packaging materials

Packing practices
Packing containers
Packaging practices
Labeling
Modularization of containers
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
Unit loads

Section 5: Decay and insect control

Chemical controls
Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments
Heat treatments

Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control

Room cooling
Forced-air cooling
Hydro-cooling
Evaporative cooling
Night air ventilation
Chilling injury
Use of ice
Alternative methods of cooling
Increasing relative humidity

Section 7: Storage of horticultural crops

Recommended storage temperatures
Compatibility groups for storage of fruits, vegetables and floral crops
Storage practices
Storage structures
Dried and bulb crops
Root and tuber crops
Potatoes
Controlled atmosphere (C.A.) storage
Relative perishability and storage life of fresh horticultural crops

Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops

Open vehicles
Refrigerated trailers
Stacking patterns/handstacked
Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads
Bracing the load

Section 9: Handling at destination

Unloading
Storage temperatures
Sorting/repacking
Ripening
Display

Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops

Processing equipment
Preparation for processing
Solar drying
Forced-air dehydrators
Oil-burning dehydrators
Electric dehydrators
Oven drying
Drying flowers
Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants
Canning
Juicing
Other methods of processing

General references

Appendix A: Manufacturers and suppliers of postharvest technology materials and equipment for small-scale horticultural handlers

Appendix B: Addresses, telephone and fax numbers of manufacturers and suppliers