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Organisation: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (http://www.cgiar.org/iita/)
Author: Mpoko Bokanga
Edited by AGSI/FAO: Danilo Mejia (Technical), Beverly Lewis (Language&Style), Carolin Bothe (HTML transfer)

CHAPTER XII CASSAVA: Post-harvest Operations


6.1 Reference Listing

6.2 Additional References


6. References

6.1 Reference Listing
Abe, M.O. and Lindsay R.C. (1978). Evidence of lactic streptococcal role in Nigerian acidic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation. J. Food Protect. 41: 781-784.

Akinrele, I.A. (1964). Fermentation of cassava. J. Sci. Food Agric. 15: 589-594.

Arguedas, P. and Cooke, R.D. (1982). Residual cyanide concentrations during the extraction of cassava starch. J. Food Technol. 17: 251-262.

Auriga, M. and Koj, A. (1975). Protective effect of rhodanese on the respiration of isolated mitochondria intoxicated with cyanide. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. (Biol), Cl I. 23(5): 305-310.

Averre, C.W. (1967). Vascular streaking of stored cassava roots. Proc. 1st Int. Symp. Trop. Root Crops, in Trinidad. 2(4): 31-35.

Bokanga, M. (1989). Microbiology and biochemistry of cassava fermentation. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Bokanga, M., Essers, A.J.A., Poulter, N., Rosling, H. and Tewe, O. (1994). International Workshop on Cassava Safety. Acta Horticulturae. pp. 375.

Bokanga, M. (1994). The cyanogenic potential of cassava. Root Crops and Food Security in Africa. Proceedings of the Fifth Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops-Africa Branch, Kampala, Uganda. Akoroda, M.O., ed. 24-28 November 1992. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Bokanga, M.(1995). Biotechnology and cassava processing in Africa. Food Technology, 49(1): 86-90.

Bolhuis, G.G. (1954). The toxicity of cassava roots. Neth. J. Agric. Sci., 2: 176-185.

Booth, R. (1976). Storage of fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta): I. Post-harvest deterioration and its control. Exptl. Agric., 12: 103-111.

Booth, R.H. and Coursey, D.G. (1974). Storage of cassava roots and related post-harvest problems. Proceedings of an international workshop on Cassava processing and storage. Pattaya, Thailand. International Development Research Centre (IDRC)-031e: 43-49.

Bourdoux, P., Delange, F., Gerard, M., Mafuta, M., Hanson, A. and Ermans, A.M. (1978). Evidence that cassava ingestion increases thiocyanate formation: a possible etiological factor in endemic goiter. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 46: 613-621.

Bourdoux, P., Seghers, P., Mafuta, M., Vanderpas, J., Vanderpas-Rivera, M., Delange, F. and Ermans, A.M. (1983). Traditional cassava detoxification processes and nutrition education in Zaire. Proceedings of a workshop on Cassava toxicity and thyroid: research and public health issues. pp. 138-142. Delange, F. and Ahluwalia, R. eds. Ottawa, Canada, 31 May - 2 June 1982. International Development Research Centre Monogr. IDRC-207e.

Brydon, W.G. (1982). A comparison of the effect of yam, cassava and alfalfa based diets on cholesterol metabolism in the rat. J. Nutr. Soc. 41: 61A.

Chiwona-Karltun. (1995). Reasons for use of "bitter" cassava and mechanised milling: A priority in cassava processing in Malawi. Proceedings of the Sixth Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops - Africa Branch. 22-28 October 1995. Lilongwe, Malawi. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Cliff, J., Lundquist, P., Martensson, J., Rosling, H. and Sorbo, B. (1985). Association of high cyanide and low sulphur intake in cassava-induced spastic paraparesis. Lancet, (2): 1211-1213.

Cliff, J., Lundquist, P., Rosling, H., Sorbo, B. and Wide, L. (1986). Thyroid function in a cassava-eating population affected by spastic paraparesis. Acta Endocrinol. 113: 523-528.

Cock, J.H. (1985). Cassava: New potential for a neglected crop. Boulder, Colorado, USA. Westview Press.

Collard, P. and Levi, S. (1959). A two stage fermentation of cassava. Nature, 183: 620-621.

Cooke, R.D. (1978). Enzymatic assay for total cyanide content of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J. Sci. Food Agric., 29: 345-352.

Cooke, R.D. (1983). Effects of cassava processing on residual cyanide. Proceedings of a workshop on Cassava toxicity and thyroid: research and public health issues. pp. 138-142. Delange, F. and Ahluwalia, R., eds. Ottawa, Canada. 31 May - 2 June 1982. International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Monogr. IDRC-207e.

Cooke, R.D. and Maduagwu, E.N. (1978). The effects of simple processing on the cyanide content of cassava chips. J. Food Technol., 13: 299-306.

Cooke, R.D. and Coursey, D.G. (1981). Cassava: a major cyanide-containing food crop. Cyanide in biology. pp.93-114. Vennesland, B., Conn, E.E., Knowles, C.J., Westley, J. and Wissing, F., eds. New York, NY, USA. Academic Press.

Cooke, R.D., Howland, A.K. and Hahn, S.K. (1978). Screening cassava for low cyanide using an enzymatic assay. Expl. Agric. 14: 367-372.

Coursey, D.G. (1973). Cassava as food: toxicity and technology. Chronic cassava toxicity. Proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop, London, England. pp. 27-36. 29-30 January 1973. International Development Research Centre Monogr. IDRC-010e.

Dang Thanh Ha, Le Cong Tru and Henry, G. (1996). Prospects for cassava starch in Vietnam. Cassava Flour and Starch: Progress in Research and Development. pp. 48-54. Dufour, D., O'Brien, G.M. and Best, R., eds. Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD). Montpellier, France. Centro Internacional de Agriculture Tropical (CIAT). Cali, Colombia.

de Bruijn, G.H. (1971). Etude du caractère cyanogénétique du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz). pp. 140. Veenan and Zonen, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Dossou, A.R.A. (1996). Influence de la période de fabrication et de la taille des cossettes sur la qualité physique et sanitaire des cossettes de manioc dans le sud du Borgou. Annual Report of ESCaPP-Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Dufour, D.L. (1994). Cassava in Amazonia: Lessons in utilization and safety from native people. Acta Hortic. 375: 175-182.

Ermans, A.M., Bourdoux, P., Kinthaert, J., Lagasse, R., Luvivila, K., Mafuta, M., Thilly,C.H. and Delange, F. (1983). Role of cassava in the etiology of endemic goitre and cretinism. Proceedings of a workshop on Cassava toxicity and thyroid: Research and public health issues. pp. 9-16. Ottawa, Canada, 31 May-2 June, 1982. Internat. Develop. Res. Centre Monogr. IDRC-207e.

Essers, A.J.A., Bosveld, M., Van der Grift, R. and Voragen, A.G.J. (1993). Studies on the quantification of specific cyanogens in cassava products and introduction of a new chromogen. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 63: 287-296.

European Commission for Agriculture. (1997). Data provided by Eurostat F-2, BAK II 1656, L-2920 Luxemburg.

FAO. (1996). Food Balance Sheets, 1992-1994. Rome, Italy.

FAO. (1997). Food Outlook. February 1997. Rome, Italy.

FAO/WHO. (1973). Energy and protein requirements. cReport of a joint FAO/WHO ad hoc expert committee. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 522 pp. 19.

FAOSTAT. (1997). FAO on the Web (CD-ROM). Rome, Italy.

Fang, B. (1992). Cassava production and research in Guangdong province of China. Proceedings of Cassava Breeding, agronomy and utilisation research in Asia. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 149-161. Howeler, R.H., ed. CIAT Regional Cassava Programme for Asia.

Favier, J.C., Chevassus-Agnes, S. and Gallon, G. (1971). La technologie traditionnelle du manioc au Cameroon: influence sur la valeur nutritive. Ann. Nutr. Alim. 25: 1-59.

Gomez, G. and Valdivieso, M. (1985). Effects of drying temperature and drying rates on cyanide elimination from cassava whole-root chips. J. Food Technol. 20: 375-382.

Hahn, S.K. and Keyser, J. (1985). CASSAVA : a basic food of Africa. Outlook on Agriculture. Vol 14, No. 2.

Henry, G. and Gottret, V. (1995). Global Cassava Sector Trends: Reassessing the Crop's Future. CIAT Working Document. November 1995.

Hershey and Henry. (1997). Cassava in Latin America and Asia: A regional review. Proceedings of a Meeting on the Global Cassava Development Strategy. 10-11 June 1997. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Rome, Italy.

Howlett, W.P., Brubaker,G.R., Mlingi, N. and Rosling, H. (1990). Konzo an upper motor neurone disease studied in Tanzania. Brain, 113: 223-235.

IITA. (1996). Annual Report, 1996: Plant Health Management Division. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadan, Nigeria.

IITA. (1996). Improving Postharvest Systems: Archival Report, Crop Improvement Division. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadan, Nigeria.

IITA. (1990). Cassava in Tropical Africa: A reference manual. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadan, Nigeria.

IITA. (1974). Evaluation for quality. Root and Tuber Crops Improvement Program. Annual Report. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ingram, J.S. and Humphries, J.R.O. (1972). Cassava storage: A review. Trop. Sci. 14(2): 131-145.

King, N.L.R. and Bradbury, J.H. (199x). Bitterness of cassava: Identification of a new apiosyl glucoside and other compounds that affect its bitter taste. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Koch, B., Nielsen, V.S., Halkier, B.A., Olsen, C.E. and Møller, B.L. (1992). The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in seedlings of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 292(1): 141-150.

Kojima, M., Iwatsuki, N., Data, E.S., Villegas, C.D.V. and Uritani, I. (1983). Changes of cyanide content and linamarase activity in wounded cassava roots. Plant Physiol. 72: 186-189.

Lancaster, P.A., Ingram, J.S., Lim, M.Y. and Coursey, D.G. (1982). Traditional cassava-based foods: Survey of processing techniques. Econ. Bot. 36: 12-45.

Lancaster, P.A. and Brooks, J.E. (1983). Cassava as human food. Econ. Bot. 37: 331-348.

Maduagwu, E.N. and Oben, D.H.E. (1981). Effects of processing of grated cassava roots by the 'screw press' and by the traditional fermentation methods on the cyanide content of gari. J. Food Technol. 16(3): 299-302.

Maneepun, S. (1997). Perspectives and limitations of the cassava sector in the world. Proceedings.

Marriott, J., Been, B.D. and Perkins, C. (1979). The aetiology of vascular discoloration in cassava roots after harvest: Development of endogenous resistance in stored roots. Physiol. Plant, 54: 51-56.

Montaldo, A. (1973). Vascular streaking of cassava root tubers. Trop. Sci. 15: 39-46.

Morales, E. and Graham, G.G. (1987). Digestibility of boiled and oven-dried cassava in infants and small children. J. Nutr. 117: 129-132.

Mozambique Ministry of Health. (1984). Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. Bull WHO. 62(3): 477-492.

Mkpong, O.E., Yan, H., Chism, G. and Sayre, R.T. (1990). Purification, characterisation, and localisation of linamarase in cassava. Plant Physiol. 93: 176-181.

Ngaba, J.R. and Lee, J.S. (1979). Fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J. Food Sci. 44(5): 1570-1571.

Nwankwo, D., Anadu, E. and Usoro, R. (1989). Cassava fermenting organisms. MIRCEN. J. 5: 169-179.

Nweke, F. (1996). Cassava : A cash crop in Africa. COSCA Working Paper No.14. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Nweke, F. (1994). Processing potential for cassava production growth in sub-Saharan Africa. COSCA working Paper No. 11. Collaborative study of cassava in Africa. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

O'Brien, G.M., Taylor, A.J. and Poulter, N.H. (1991). Improved enzymic assay for cyanogens in fresh and processed cassava. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 56: 277-289.

Okafor, N., Ijioma, B. and Oyolu, C. (1984). Studies on the microbiology of cassava retting for foo-foo production. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 56(1): 1-13.

Osuntokun, B.O. (1972). Chronic cyanide neurotoxicity and neuropathy in Nigerians. Qual. Plant. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2: 215-266.

Pereira, J.F., Seigler, D.S. and Splittstoesser, W.E. (1981). Cyanogenesis in sweet and bitter cultivars of cassava. Hortscience 16(6): 776-777.

Pieris, N. and Jansz, E.R (1975). Cyanogenic glucoside content of manioc: III. Fate of bound cyanide on processing and cooking. J. Nat. Sci. Council Sri Lanka, 3(1): 41-50.

Rajaguru, A.S.B. (1973). Elimination of hydrocyanic acid from processed manioc chips. J. Nat. Agric. Soc. Ceylon, 9: 53-62.

Rickard, J.E. and Coursey, D.G. (1981). Cassava storage. I. Storage of fresh cassava roots. Trop. Sci. 23(1): 1-32.

Saizonou, S. (1996). Insectes associées aux cossettes de manioc. Annual Report of ESCaPP-Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Shu-Ren, J. (1996). Cassava products for food and industries: China. pp. 48-54. D. Dufour, O'Brien, G.M. and Best, R., eds. Cassava Flour and Starch: Progress in Research and Development. Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France, and Centro Internacional de Agriculture Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

Titawatanakun, B. (1996). Thai cassava starch industry: Its current status and potential future. pp. 55-70. D. Dufour, O'Brien, G.M. and Best, R., eds. Cassava Flour and Starch: Progress in Research and Development. Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France, and Centro Internacional de Agriculture Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

Ugwu, B.O. and Ay, P. (1992). Seasonality of cassava processing in Africa and tests of hypotheses. COSCA Working Paper No. 6. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria.

Watson, J.D. (1976). Ascorbic acid content of plant foods in Ghana and the effects of cooking and storage on vitamin content. Ecol. Food Nut. 4: 207-213.

West, C.E., Pepping, F. and Temalilwa, C.R. (1988). The composition of foods commonly eaten in East Africa. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Westby, A. (1991). Importance of fermentation in cassava processing. Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. October 20-26. Accra, Ghana.

Wheatley, C.C. and Schwabe, W.W. (1985). Scopoletin involvement in post-harvest physiological deterioration of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J. Exptl. Bot. 36(166): 783-791

6.2 Additional References

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria

c/o Lambourn & Co.

26 Dingwall Road

Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom

Tel.: (234-2) 241 2626

Fax.: (234-2) 241 2221

E-mail: IITA@cgnet.com

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)

Apartado Aereo 6713

Cali, Colombia

Tel.: (57-2) 445 0000

Fax.: (57-2) 445 0073

E-mail: CIAT@cgnet.com

Natural Resources Institute (NRI)

Central Avenue, Chatam Maritime

Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom

Tel.: (44-0634) 88 00 88

Fax.: (44-0634) 88 00 66/77

E-mail: Andrew.Westby@nri.org

Centre de coopération internationale en recherché agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD)

Département des systèmes agroalimentaires et ruraux

73, rue J.-F. Breton

BP 5035

34032 Montpellier, Cedex 1, France

Tel.: (33) 4 67 61 57 53

Fax.: (33) 4 67 61 40 15

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI)

Trivandrum, Kerala, India

E-mail: ctcri@x400.nicgw.nic.in

Centro de Raizes Tropicais

Caixa Postal 237

CEP 1860 Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Tel.: (55-14) 821 38 83 ext. 158

Fax.: (55-14) 821 34 38

E-mail: UEBTL@FAPQ.FAPESP.BR or CEREDA@LASER.COM.BR

EMBRAPA-CNPMF

Caixa Postal 007

44.380 Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil

Tel.: (55-75) 721 2120

Fax.: (55-75) 721 1118

E-mail: porto@cnpmf.embrapa.br

Bogor Research Institute for Root Crops

Jl. Tentara Pelajar 3A

Bogor 16111, Indonesia

Tel.: (62-251) 328 820 or (62-251) 327 985

Fax.: (62-251) 321 718

Federal Institute for Industrial Research at Oshodi

PMB 21023 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

Tel.: (234-1) 452 2905 or (234-1) 523 260

Fax.: (234-1) 452 5880

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