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Redressing Gender Inequalities in Education - A Review of Constraints and Priorities in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, 1995, 89 p.













Table of Contents


COMMISSIONED BY:
THE BRITISH DEVELOPMENT DIVISION IN CENTRAL AFRICA (BDDCA)
OF THE
OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION (ODA)

BY
DR NICOLA SWAINSON
MAY 1995


Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.2 Structure
1.3 Limitations

CHAPTER 2: THE OVERALL BENEFITS OF FEMALE EDUCATION

2.1 Introduction
2.2 The importance of female participation in education

CHAPTER 3: MANIFESTATIONS OF GENDER INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION: MALAWI. ZAMBIA AND ZIMBABWE.

3.1 Educational expenditure patterns
3.2 Enrolments
3.3 Performance and attainment
3.4. Literacy

CHAPTER 4: FACTORS SHAPING GENDER INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION

4.1 Economic constraints

4.1.1 Women's labour market participation

4.2 Girls' labour contributions
4.3 Family, community and social class

4.3.1 Parental attitudes and influence
4.3.2. Initiation and early marriage
4.3.3. Sexuality and sexual harassment

4.4. School-based factors

4.4.1. Girls and the school environment
4.4.2. Teachers: expectations and attitudes
4.4.3. Single sex schools

CHAPTER 5: POLICY OPTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

5.1. Introduction
5.2 Expanding educational provision
5.3 Type of school provision and organisation
5.4 School inputs

5.4.1. Maths and science

5.5. Community involvement and awareness
5.6. Improving girls' health and nutrition
5.7 Recruiting more female teachers
5.8 Reducing direct costs

5.8.1 Scholarship programmes

5.9 Reducing indirect costs

CHAPTER 6: GENDER AND ADULT EDUCATION: A MISSING PRIORITY

6.1. The role of NGOs
6.2. Adult education and literacy
6.3. Lok Jumbish - Rajistan
6.4. Bundibugyo-Uganda
6.5. Lessons for Southern Africa

CHAPTER 7: GOVERNMENT AND DONOR INTERVENTIONS

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Malawi

7.2.1. The GABLE Project
7.2.2 The Malawi Primary Community Schools Project (ODA)

7.3 Zambia
7.4 Zimbabwe
7.5 Regional and continent wide donor initiatives

7.5.1 UNICEF
7.5.2 The Forum of African Women Educationalists (FAWE)
7.5.3. The Donors to African Education (DAE)

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 8: RESEARCH PRIORITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

8.1 Research Priorities
8.2. Policy Recommendations

8.2.1. School Based:
8.2.2. Community based

REFERENCES

ANNEX 1: PROJECT TERMS OF REFERENCE