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MOMSEN, Janet and KINNAIRD, Vivian (eds) (1993)

Different Places, Different Voices: Gender and Development in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Routledge, London. (Part 3 is South Asia, Part 4 is South East Asia).

Gender and Education

JAYAWEERA, Swarna (1987)

"Gender and Access to Education in Asia" in International Review of Education, 33 (4) 455-466.

MAK, Grace C.L. (ed) (1996)

Women, Education and Development in Asia: cross-national perspectives; Garland, New York and London.

SHAH, Madhuri (1986)

Without Women No Development: Selected Case Studies from Asia of Non-Formal Education for Women, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

UNESCO (1987)

A Framework for Improvement of Educational and Vocational Guidance Services for Girls and Women in Asia and the Pacific; PROAP, Bangkok.

UNESCO (1990)

Functional Literacy and Civic Education among Rural Women, PROAP, Bangkok.

UNESCO (1992)

Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups, PROAP, Bangkok.

UNESCO (1994)

Women's Participation in Higher Education: China, Nepal and the Phillipines, PROAP, Bangkok.


MAK Grace C.L. (1996), Women, Education and Development in Asia: Cross-National Perspectives, Garland Publishing, New York and London.

This book is part of a series within the Garland Reference Library, of Social Science known as 'Reference Books in International Education'. It has a very simple structure. Following the editor's Preface there are three parts: East Asia, South-East Asia and South Asia, after which comes an extensive bibliography, list of contributors and index. Its main value lies in being the most recent presentation on this theme in respect of the countries included, and in its straightforward and informative style and format.

The countries included are: The People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan: Republic of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. As there is very little regional comment, we have decided to include most of the annotations of these chapters under the individual country headings below. We may note, however, a number of interesting omissions which inevitably diminish the capacity of the book to reflect its full title, notably: the whole of South-West Asia and the former Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Mongolia, the entire region of India-China, Thailand and The Phillipines. There are a number of others too, of course.

In the brief preface, the author relates the volume to the international development experience of the last two decades, and especially to the issue of linkage between investment in education and economic development. She links this with Asia's development experience, asking three main questions: 'How do its development strategies affect educational policies and woman's status? In a continent largely patriarchal, how have women responded to the increase in educational opportunities? And how do education and development needs combine to affect women's chances in their subsequent lives? Although the bulk of the book comprises ten case studies, four interrelated aspects of schooling are supposed to be addressed throughout: the development experience and its effect on women's status; the types of opportunity now available to women and their differential take up; has educational opportunity enhanced women's capacity to operate in, and influence, the public sphere? the impact of education and economic participation on women's domestic status. Grace Mak concludes in respect of the ten contributions that: "The variation among us precisely reflects the different social contexts in which we, grew up and the ideological and material conditions in which we live today", but for all concerned: "The struggle must continue at both the macro-social and daily life levels".