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The education and training of artisans for the informal sector in Tanzania - Education Research Paper No. 18, 1996, 143 p.













Table of Contents


EDUCATION RESEARCH

A study funded by the Overseas Development Administration (Education Division)

David W Kent
Centre for Science and mathematics Education
School of Education
University of Leeds

Paul S D Mushi
Department of Curriculum and Teaching
Faculty of Education
University of Dar es Salaam

October 1995

Serial No. 18
ISBN: 0 902500 74 0

Overseas Development Administration


Table of Contents


Overseas development administration - Education papers

The abstract

1. Introduction

1.1 The problem
1.2 The focus and aims of the study
1.3 Definition of terms
1.4 Methodology
1.5 The structure of the report

2. Development in post independence Tanzania

2.1 The early years 1961 - 1967

2.1.1 The first five year development plan (1964 - 69)

2.2 Socialism and education for self-reliance

2.2.1 The second five-year development plan (1970 - 74)
2.2.2 The third five-year development plan (1975 - 80)

2.3 The problems of a burgeoning bureaucracy
2.4 Structural reforms and the return to a free-market economy

2.4.1 Political abjuration
2.4.2 Early measures to arrest economic decline
2.4.3 International assistance to alleviate economic decline

3. Education training and the problems of youth

3.1 Educational provision
3.2 Primary education

3.2.1 Enrolment
3.2.2 Supply-demand side problems

3.2.2.1 Buildings
3.2.2.2 Staffing
3.2.2.3 Resourcing
3.2.2.4 Class size
3.2.2.5 The curriculum
3.2.2.6 New initiatives
3.2.2.7 The administration and management of schools

3.3 Secondary education

3.3.1 Enrolment
3.3.2 Diversified provision
3.3.3 The academic curriculum
3.3.4 The promotion of science and technology

3.4 Pathways to employment
3.5 Training provision

3.5.1 Characteristics of provision

3.6 The problems of youth

3.6.1 Gender issues
3.6.2 Employment and unemployment

3.7 A survey of youth aspirations, expectations and opinions

3.7.1 Primary pupils

3.7.1.2 Primary education
3.7.1.3 Aspirations and reality
3.7.1.4 Employment

3.7.2 Street youth

3.7.2.1 Reasons for migrating
3.7.2.2 Education
3.7.2.3 Aspirations vs. reality
3.7.2.4 Sources of capital
3.7.2.5 Training
3.7.2.6 Working conditions
3.7.2.7 Future needs

3.8 Issues raised from the survey results

4. Mapping the provision of vocational training & assistance to the youth

4.1 Governmental provision
4.2 Non-governmental organisations (NGO's)

5. The informal sector in Tanzania

5.1 Ideological repression
5.2 The wind of change
5.3 Informal sector enterprises

5.3.1 DSM the Gerezani area

5.3.1.1 Dar es Salaam small industries co-operative (DASICO)
5.3.1.2 Marketing
5.3.1.3 Working practices
5.3.1.4 Training policy and practices
5.3.1.5 Recurrent training
5.3.1.6 Observations

5.3.2 Union of motor vehicle mechanics - Gerezani (UMAGE)

5.3.2.1 Marketing
5.3.2.2 Working practices
5.3.2.3 Training policy and practices
5.3.2.4 Observations

5.3.3 Mawenzi auto electric centre (Temeke)

5.3.3.1 Marketing
5.3.3.2 Working practices
5.3.3.3 Training policy and practices
5.3.3.4 Observations

5.3.4 Kisokwe metal workers (Mpwapwa)

5.3.4.1 Marketing
5.3.4.2 Working practices
5.3.4.3 Training policy and practices
5.3.4.4 Observations

5.4 Nguvu Kazi groups

5.4.1 Arusha Nguvu kazi groups

5.4.1.1 Vijana metal group (VIMEGRO)
5.4.1.2 Marketing
5.4.1.3 Working practices
5.4.1.4 Training policy and practices
5.4.1.5 Observations

5.4.2 Pamoja Nguvu - Unga Ltd

5.4.2.1 Marketing
5.4.2.2 Working practices
5.4.2.3 Training policy and practices
5.4.2.4 Observations

5.4.3 Moshi municipal council

5.4.3.1 Marketing
5.4.3.2 Working practices
5.4.3.3 Training policy and practices
5.4.3.4 Recurrent training
5.4.3.5 Observations

5.5 Other Nguvu kazi areas visited
5.6 General conclusions and issues raised by the case studies

6. Training: policies and practices

6.1 National vocational training centres (NVTC's)

6.1.1 Funding
6.1.2 Resourcing
6.1.3 Enrolment
6.1.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.1.5 Links with employers
6.1.6 Self-reliant activities
6.1.7 Qualifications
6.1.8 Employment
6.1.9 Conclusions and issues

6.2 Folk development colleges (FDC's)

6.2.1 Funding
6.2.2 Resourcing
6.2.3 Enrolment
6.2.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.2.5 Links with employers
6.2.6 Self-reliant activities
6.2.7 Qualifications
6.2.8 Employment
6.2.9 Conclusions and issues

6.3 Post primary technical centres (PPTC's)

6.3.1 Funding
6.3.2 Resourcing
6.3.3 Enrolment
6.3.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.3.5 Links with employers
6.3.6 Self-reliant activities
6.3.7 Qualifications
6.3.8 Employment
6.3.9 Conclusions and issues

6.4 Denominational vocational training centres

6.4.1 Funding
6.4.2 Resourcing
6.4.3 Enrolment
6.4.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.4.5 Links with employers
6.4.6 Self-reliant activities
6.4.7 Qualifications
6.4.8 Employment
6.4.9 Conclusions and issues

6.5 Private vocational training centres

6.5.1 Funding
6.5.2 Resourcing
6.5.3 Enrolment
6.5.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.5.5 Links with employers
6.5.6 Self-reliant activities
6.5.7 Qualifications
6.5.8 Employment
6.5.9 Conclusions and issues

7. Conclusions

7.1 Policies and issues
7.2 Education
7.3 The problems of the youth

7.3.1 The problems of co-ordination
7.3.2 Nguvu kazi groups
7.3.3 Gender

7.4 Vocational education and training

7.4.1 Vocational training centres (VTC's)
7.4.2 Folk development colleges (FDC's)
7.4.3 Post primary technical centres (PPTC's)
7.4.4 Private vocational training centres

7.5 The informal sector

Bibliography

Appendices

Appendix 1: List of abbreviations
Appendix 2: Location and types of institutions visited during the study
Appendix 3: Ministries and NGO's semi-structured interview schedule
Appendix 4: VTC semi-structured interview-observation schedule
Appendix 5: IS activities semi-structured interview-observation schedule
Appendix 6: Primary school pupils questionnaire
Appendix 7: Street youth questionnaire

Acknowledgements