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The education and training of artisans for the informal sector in Tanzania - Education Research Paper No. 18, 1996, 143 p.

Table of Contents


A study funded by the Overseas Development Administration (Education Division)

David W Kent
Centre for Science and mathematics Education
School of Education
University of Leeds

Paul S D Mushi
Department of Curriculum and Teaching
Faculty of Education
University of Dar es Salaam

October 1995

Serial No. 18
ISBN: 0 902500 74 0

Overseas Development Administration

Table of Contents

Overseas development administration - Education papers

The abstract

1. Introduction

1.1 The problem
1.2 The focus and aims of the study
1.3 Definition of terms
1.4 Methodology
1.5 The structure of the report

2. Development in post independence Tanzania

2.1 The early years 1961 - 1967

2.1.1 The first five year development plan (1964 - 69)

2.2 Socialism and education for self-reliance

2.2.1 The second five-year development plan (1970 - 74)
2.2.2 The third five-year development plan (1975 - 80)

2.3 The problems of a burgeoning bureaucracy
2.4 Structural reforms and the return to a free-market economy

2.4.1 Political abjuration
2.4.2 Early measures to arrest economic decline
2.4.3 International assistance to alleviate economic decline

3. Education training and the problems of youth

3.1 Educational provision
3.2 Primary education

3.2.1 Enrolment
3.2.2 Supply-demand side problems Buildings Staffing Resourcing Class size The curriculum New initiatives The administration and management of schools

3.3 Secondary education

3.3.1 Enrolment
3.3.2 Diversified provision
3.3.3 The academic curriculum
3.3.4 The promotion of science and technology

3.4 Pathways to employment
3.5 Training provision

3.5.1 Characteristics of provision

3.6 The problems of youth

3.6.1 Gender issues
3.6.2 Employment and unemployment

3.7 A survey of youth aspirations, expectations and opinions

3.7.1 Primary pupils Primary education Aspirations and reality Employment

3.7.2 Street youth Reasons for migrating Education Aspirations vs. reality Sources of capital Training Working conditions Future needs

3.8 Issues raised from the survey results

4. Mapping the provision of vocational training & assistance to the youth

4.1 Governmental provision
4.2 Non-governmental organisations (NGO's)

5. The informal sector in Tanzania

5.1 Ideological repression
5.2 The wind of change
5.3 Informal sector enterprises

5.3.1 DSM the Gerezani area Dar es Salaam small industries co-operative (DASICO) Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Recurrent training Observations

5.3.2 Union of motor vehicle mechanics - Gerezani (UMAGE) Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Observations

5.3.3 Mawenzi auto electric centre (Temeke) Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Observations

5.3.4 Kisokwe metal workers (Mpwapwa) Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Observations

5.4 Nguvu Kazi groups

5.4.1 Arusha Nguvu kazi groups Vijana metal group (VIMEGRO) Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Observations

5.4.2 Pamoja Nguvu - Unga Ltd Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Observations

5.4.3 Moshi municipal council Marketing Working practices Training policy and practices Recurrent training Observations

5.5 Other Nguvu kazi areas visited
5.6 General conclusions and issues raised by the case studies

6. Training: policies and practices

6.1 National vocational training centres (NVTC's)

6.1.1 Funding
6.1.2 Resourcing
6.1.3 Enrolment
6.1.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.1.5 Links with employers
6.1.6 Self-reliant activities
6.1.7 Qualifications
6.1.8 Employment
6.1.9 Conclusions and issues

6.2 Folk development colleges (FDC's)

6.2.1 Funding
6.2.2 Resourcing
6.2.3 Enrolment
6.2.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.2.5 Links with employers
6.2.6 Self-reliant activities
6.2.7 Qualifications
6.2.8 Employment
6.2.9 Conclusions and issues

6.3 Post primary technical centres (PPTC's)

6.3.1 Funding
6.3.2 Resourcing
6.3.3 Enrolment
6.3.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.3.5 Links with employers
6.3.6 Self-reliant activities
6.3.7 Qualifications
6.3.8 Employment
6.3.9 Conclusions and issues

6.4 Denominational vocational training centres

6.4.1 Funding
6.4.2 Resourcing
6.4.3 Enrolment
6.4.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.4.5 Links with employers
6.4.6 Self-reliant activities
6.4.7 Qualifications
6.4.8 Employment
6.4.9 Conclusions and issues

6.5 Private vocational training centres

6.5.1 Funding
6.5.2 Resourcing
6.5.3 Enrolment
6.5.4 Curriculum and pedagogy
6.5.5 Links with employers
6.5.6 Self-reliant activities
6.5.7 Qualifications
6.5.8 Employment
6.5.9 Conclusions and issues

7. Conclusions

7.1 Policies and issues
7.2 Education
7.3 The problems of the youth

7.3.1 The problems of co-ordination
7.3.2 Nguvu kazi groups
7.3.3 Gender

7.4 Vocational education and training

7.4.1 Vocational training centres (VTC's)
7.4.2 Folk development colleges (FDC's)
7.4.3 Post primary technical centres (PPTC's)
7.4.4 Private vocational training centres

7.5 The informal sector



Appendix 1: List of abbreviations
Appendix 2: Location and types of institutions visited during the study
Appendix 3: Ministries and NGO's semi-structured interview schedule
Appendix 4: VTC semi-structured interview-observation schedule
Appendix 5: IS activities semi-structured interview-observation schedule
Appendix 6: Primary school pupils questionnaire
Appendix 7: Street youth questionnaire