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Preliminary Investigation of the Abuse of Girls in Zimbabwean Junior Secondary Schools - Education Research Paper No. 39, 2000, 100 p.













Table of Contents


EDUCATION RESEARCH

Fiona Leach and Pamela Machakanja With Jennifer Mandoga

Serial No. 39

DFID - Department for International Development

2000

Serial No. 39
ISBN: 1 86192 279 5

Department For International Development

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

EDUCATION PAPERS

This is one of a series of Education Papers issued from time to time by the Education Department of the Department For International Development. Each paper represents a study or piece of commissioned research on some aspect of education and training in developing countries. Most of the studies were undertaken in order to provide informed judgements from which policy decisions could be drawn, but in each case it has become apparent that the material produced would be of interest to a wider audience, particularly those whose work focuses on developing countries.

Each paper is numbered serially, and further copies can be obtained through the DFID's Education Department, 94 Victoria Street, London SW1E 5JL, subject to availability. A full list appears overleaf.

Although these papers are issued by the DFID, the views expressed in them are entirely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the DFID's own policies or views. Any discussion of their content should therefore be addressed to the authors and not to the DFID.

OTHER EDUCATION RESEARCH PAPERS IN THIS SERIES

No. 1

SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH EVIDENCE. D Pennycuick (1993) ISBN: 0 90250 061 9

No. 2

EDUCATIONAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. J Hough (1993) ISBN: 0 90250 062 7

No. 3

REDUCING THE COST OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.
L Gray, M Fletcher, P Foster, M King, A M Warrender (1993) ISBN: 0 90250 063 5

No. 4

REPORT ON READING ENGLISH IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN MALAWI.
E Williams (1993) Out of Print - Available on CD-Rom and DFID website

No. 5

REPORT ON READING ENGLISH IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ZAMBIA.
E Williams (1993) Out of Print - Available on CD-Rom and DFID website

See also No. 24, which updates and synthesises No's 4 and 5.

No. 6

EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT: THE ISSUES AND THE EVIDENCE.
K Lewin (1993) ISBN: 0 90250 066 X

No. 7

PLANNING AND FINANCING SUSTAINABLE EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.
P Penrose (1993) ISBN: 0 90250 067 8

No. 8

Not allocated

No. 9

FACTORS AFFECTING FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION IN SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
C Brock, N Cammish (1991) (revised 1997). ISBN: 1 86192 065 2

No. 10

USING LITERACY: A NEW APPROACH TO POST-LITERACY METHODS.
A Rogers (1994) Out of Print - Available on CD-ROM and DFID website. Updated and reissued on No 29.

No. 11

EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR THE INFORMAL SECTOR.
K King, S McGrath, F Leach, R Carr-Hill (1994) ISBN: 1 86192 090 3

No. 12

MULTI-GRADE TEACHING: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE.
A Little (1995) ISBN: 090250 058 9

No. 13

DISTANCE EDUCATION IN ENGINEERING FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
T Bilham, R Gilmour (1995) Out of Print - Available on CD-ROM and DFID website.

No. 14

HEALTH & HIV/AIDS EDUCATION IN PRIMARY & SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFRICA & ASIA.
E Barnett, K de Koning, V Francis (1995) ISBN: 0 90250 069 4

No. 15

LABOUR MARKET SIGNALS & INDICATORS.
L Gray, AM Warrender, P Davies, G Hurley, C Manton (1995) Out of Print - Available on CD-ROM And DFID website.

No. 16

IN-SERVICE SUPPORT FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH TO SCIENCE EDUCATION.
F Lubben, R Campbell, B DIamini (1995) ISBN: 0 90250 071 6

No. 17

ACTION RESEARCH REPORT ON "REFLECT" METHOD OF TEACHING LITERACY.
D Archer, S Cottingham (1996) ISBN: 0 90250 072 4

No. 18

THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF ARTISANS FOR THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN TANZANIA.
D Kent, P Mushi (1996) ISBN: 0 90250 074 0

No. 19

GENDER, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT - A PARTIALLY ANNOTATED AND SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY.
C Brock, N Cammish (1997) Out of Print-Available on CD-ROM and DFID website.

No. 20

CONTEXTUALISING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS USING AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE.
P Taylor, A Mulhall (Vols 1 & 2) (1997) Vol 1 ISBN: 1 861920 45 8 Vol 2 ISBN: 1 861920504

No. 21

GENDER AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN.
P Kutnick, V Jules, A Layne (1997) ISBN: 1 86192 080 6

No. 22

SCHOOL-BASED UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN FOUR COUNTRIES: A COMMONWEALTH STUDY.
R Bourne, J Gundara, A Dev, N Ratsoma, M Rukanda, A Smith, U Birthistle (1997) ISBN: 1 861920954

No. 23

GIRLS AND BASIC EDUCATION: A CULTURAL ENQUIRY.
D Stephens (1998) ISBN: 186192 036 9

No. 24

INVESTIGATING BILINGUAL LITERACY: EVIDENCE FROM MALAWI AND ZAMBIA.
E Williams (1998) ISBN: 1 86192 041 5

No. 25

PROMOTING GIRLS' EDUCATION IN AFRICA.
N Swainson, S Bendera, R Gordan, E Kadzamira (1998) ISBN: 1 86192 046 6

No. 26

GETTING BOOKS TO SCHOOL PUPILS IN AFRICA.
D Rosenberg, W Amaral, C Odini, T Radebe, A Sidibé (1998) ISBN: 1 86192 051 2

No. 27

COST SHARING IN EDUCATION. P Penrose (1998) ISBN: 1 86192 056 3

No. 28

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN TANZANIA AND ZIMBABWE IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC REFORM.
P Bennell (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 061 X

No. 29

RE-DEFINING POST-LITERACY IN A CHANGING WORLD.
A Rogers, B Maddox, J Millican, K Newell Jones, U Papen, A Robinson-Pant (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 069 5

No. 30

IN SERVICE FOR TEACHER DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.
M Monk (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 074 1

No. 31

PRODUCTION OF LOCALLY GENERATED TRAINING MATERIALS.
I Carter (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 079 2

No. 32

SECTOR WIDE APPROACHES TO EDUCATION.
M Ratcliffe, M Macrae (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 131 4

No. 33

DISTANCE EDUCATION PRACTICE: TRAINING & REWARDING AUTHORS.
H Perraton, C Creed (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 136 5

No. 34

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHER RESOURCE CENTRE STRATEGY.
Ed. G Knamiller, G Fairhurst (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 141 1

No. 35

EVALUATING IMPACTS (OF EDUCATION PROJECTS & PROGRAMMES).
Ed. V McKay, C Treffgarne (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 191 8

No. 36

AFRICAN JOURNALS - A SURVEY OF THEIR USAGE IN AFRICAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES.
A Alemna, V Chifwepa, D Rosenberg (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 157 8

No. 37

MONITORING THE PERFORMANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
R Carr-Hill, M Hopkins, A Riddell, J Lintott (1999) ISBN: 1 86192 224 8

No. 38

TOWARDS RESPONSIVE SCHOOLS - SUPPORTING BETTER SCHOOLING FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN (case studies from Save the Children).
M Molteno, K Ogadhoh, E Cain, B Crumpton (2000) ISBN: to be confirmed

No. 40

THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON WOMEN'S MICRO-ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT
F Leach, S Abdulla, H Appleton, J el-Bushra, N Cardenas, K Kebede, V Lewis, S Sitaram (2000) ISBN: 1 861922841


NOW AVAILABLE - CD-ROM containing full texts of Papers 1-33

OTHER DFID EDUCATION STUDIES ALSO AVAILABLE

REDRESSING GENDER INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION. N Swainson (1995)

FACTORS AFFECTING GIRLS' ACCESS TO SCHOOLING IN NIGER. S Wynd (1995)

EDUCATION FOR RECONSTRUCTION. D Phillips, N Arnhold, J Bekker, N Kersh, E McLeish (1996)

AFRICAN JOURNAL DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMME: EVALUATION OF 1994 PILOT PROJECT. D Rosenberg (1996)

A MODEL OF BEST PRACTICE AT LORETO DAY SCHOOL, SEALDAH, CALCUTTA. T Jessop (1998)

All available free of charge from DFID Education Department, 94 Victoria Street, London SW1E 5JL


Table of Contents


RESEARCH TEAM

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACRONYMS

ABSTRACT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The context
Findings
Causes and consequences
Action

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 The research study
1.2 Definition and scope of abuse in this study

2. THE RESEARCH CONTEXT

2.1 The background to each school
2.2 The school setting
2.3 Sexual activity within the school

3. THE FINDINGS

3.1 Interviews with girls
3.2 Interviews with boys
3.3 Interviews with teachers and head teachers
3.4 Interviews with parents
3.5 Interviews with government officials

4. DISCUSSION

4.1 What is the nature and pattern of the abuse of girls in each of these schools?
4.2 To what extent are the perceptions of abuse held by teachers, pupils and other educational personnel at variance with our definition (as given in section 1.1)?
4.3 Who are the abusers, what are their characteristics and their reasons for abusing girls?
4.4 Who are the abused, their characteristics and the consequences of the abuse?
4.5 What is the relationship between the victim and the abuser?
4.6 In what ways does the school environment condone or encourage abuse?
4.7 In what ways do the schools seek to prevent or address explicitly the incidence of abuse?
4.8 What redress is currently practised by the educational and/or judicial system against acts of abuse?

5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS THE ABUSE OF GIRLS IN SCHOOLS

5.1 Workshop findings
5.2 Strategic actions

Girls can
Teachers can
School management (heads and deputies) can

School culture
Teaching and training
Enforcement of rules
Outside resources
Parental involvement

The Ministry of Education (central and regional) can
Teacher training colleges can

Ministry initiatives

6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: numbers interviewed
Appendix 2: Tables

Table 1: January 1999 enrolments in the four schools
Table 2: Background information on girls
Table 3: If a schoolgirl gets pregnant......girls' and boys' opinions
Table 4: If a schoolgirl gets pregnant................. teachers' opinions
Table 5: If a schoolgirl gets pregnant............ parents' opinions

Appendix 3: Interview data

GIRLS' INTERVIEWS

Abuse by male pupils
Abuse by teachers
Abuse by older men and 'sugar daddies'

BOYS' INTERVIEWS

Appendix 4 : Teachers' definition of abuse
Appendix 5: Pupils' Workshops
Appendix 6: Teachers' Workshops

School A: 8 teachers
School B: 8 teachers
School C: 10 teachers
School D: 12 teachers