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Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean













Table of Contents


UNEP - International Environmental Technology Centre
United Nations Environment Programme

This Source Book will also be issued as a volume in the IETC Technical Publication Series by UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, Osaka/Shiga, Japan, 1997.

Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment
General Secretariat, Organization of American States
Washington, D.C., 1997


Table of Contents


Preface

List of acronyms

Part A. Introduction

1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Organization of the source book
4. How to use the source book
5. Survey methodology
6. Summary of the findings
7. Recommendations

Part B. Technology profiles

1. Freshwater augmentation technologies

1.1 Rainwater harvesting from rooftop catchments
1.2 Rainwater harvesting in situ
1.3 Fog harvesting
1.4 Runoff collection from paved and unpaved roads
1.5 Runoff collection using surface and underground structures
1.6 Flow diversion structures technical description
1.7 Water conveyance by marine vessels
1.8 Water conveyance by pipelines, aqueducts, and water tankers
1.9 Artificial recharge of aquifers
1.10 Pumps powered by non-conventional energy sources

2. Water quality improvement technologies

2.1 Desalination by reverse osmosis
2.2 Desalination by distillation
2.3 Clarification using plants and plant material
2.4 Disinfection by boiling and chlorination
2.5 Filtration systems

3. Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse

3.1 Wastewater treatment technologies
3.2 Wastewater reuse

4. Water conservation

4.1 Raised beds and waru waru cultivation
4.2 Small-scale clay pot and porous capsule irrigation
4.3 Automatic surge flow and gravitational tank irrigation systems
4.4 Dual water distribution
4.5 Other water conservation practices

Part C. Case studies

5.1 Rainwater harvesting in Honduras
5.2 Fog harvesting in Chile
5.3 Underground dams in Brazil
5.4 Seawater/brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis in the British Virgin Islands
5.5 Recycling of industrial effluent in Jamaica
5.6 Treated wastewater reuse scheme in Barbados
5.7 Clay pot and porous capsule irrigation in Brazil

Part D. Annexes

Annex 1. Acknowledgments
Annex 2 List of participants in the Lima and Barbados workshop

A. List of participants in the Lima workshop (19-22 September 1995)
B. List of participants in the Barbados workshop (24-27 October 1995)

Annex 3 Contributions by workshop participants

A. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America
B. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in the Caribbean

Annex 4 Table of conversion factors for metric and english units