Small Scale Briquetting and Carbonisation of Organic Residues for Fuel
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Phone: +49 (0)6196 / 79-4214, Fax: +49 (0)6196 / 79-7352, Email: gate-id@gtz.de, Internet:
File: E019E_briquetting.pdf
Small Scale Briquetting
and Carbonisation of
Organic Residues for Fuel
Dr.-Ing. Heino Vest (2003)
Information & Knowledge Management
Technical Information
Energy / Environment (E)
Water / Sanitation (W)
Agriculture (A)
Foodprocessing (F)
Manufacturing (M)
Thi s module is available in:
English (e)
French (f)
German (g)
Spanish (s)
File: E019E_briquetting.pdf
Deforestation and firewood shortage are
growing problems in many countries of the
South. The energy and fuel shortage in
these countries is not only a problem of
the rural areas but also of the densely
populated poor margins of medium and
large cities. While the traditional types of
fuel (fire wood and charcoal) become
more and more exhausted, modern fuels
(paraffin, coal, mineral oil, electricity) are
not affordable for the majority of the poor.
At the same time, the generation of
organic waste in urban areas poses a
growing challenge to the local waste
management system. Organic waste (30-
50% of the total waste) is not only a
problem because of its large volume but
also because it causes bio-chemical
reactions on landfill sites leading to the
formation of landfill gas (methane) and
leachates that pollute atmosphere and
groundwater. In rural areas, agricultural
residues (straw, rice and coffee husks,
coconut and groundnut shells, bagasse,
coir dust, etc.) are generated in large
volumes and often not utilised at all.
Both urban and rural organic residues and
wastes could be used as alternative
domestic fuel if offered in an acceptable
form and at a reasonable price. Briquetting
and carbonisation are common processes
to transfer the organic waste into
appropriate domestic fuel.
1. Introductory remarks
The fuel crisis in many parts of the
developing world caused by an increasing
shortage of traditional fuel (firewood,
charcoal) creates a need for alternative
sources of domestic fuel. Agricultural and
forestry residues in rural areas and parts
of the organic waste generated in urban
areas (e.g. waste paper) are such
alternative sources of energy.
Nevertheless, organic wastes from
agriculture, forestry and urban dwellings
are generally not directly suitable to be
used as domestic fuel. Low density,
inconvenient shape, high moisture
content, low calorific value, etc. are some
of the hampering factors. Further
processing such as shredding, densifi-
cation (compaction) and shaping (further
on called briquetting), and carbonisation
(pyrolysis) are needed to transform the
various types of organic waste into an
acceptable form of domestic fuel.
There have been numerous attempts in
industrialised and developing countries to
briquette agricultural and forestry residues
for fuel. Not all of them were successful.
Until today, fuel from agricultural and
forestry waste plays only a minor role in
the worldwide supply of energy and heat.
Briquetting and/or carbonisation plants
especially when run on a large scale basis
require a stable supply of raw material