3.1. Preparation of the Tools
Mortising and ripping tools in bad condition and with a dull cutting edge cause imperfect quality of the products. Moreover, they require a higher effort. That is why only tools should be applied which are in a proper condition. It is important that haft and blade are firmly connected with each other. In case of loose blades
- exact working is not possible,
- there is the danger of being hurt.
Loose blades will snugly fit again by sticking wooden or textile addings in the haft.
Dull tools must be sharpened.
The sharpening of tools (as done with plane irons) is carried out in two steps:
- grinding the blade by means of a grinding wheel
- honing on a whetstone
Figure 6 Sharpening of the tools
1 grinding the steel blade by means of a grinding wheel, 2 honing on a whetstone
The face of a firmer gouge with hollow blade is honed with a rounded whetstone.
For transport the cutting edges of the tools are to be secured against damage!
Striking tools should be checked for tightly fitting handles.
Loose handles must be wedged firmly and reliably!
3.2. Preparation of the Workpieces
Timbers the working surfaces of which feature growth defects, such as
- larger knots,
- non-uniform grain direction, are unsuitable for mortising and ripping.
In order to ensure a high-quality work the workpieces should be scribed true to size. Before working them, mark out the respective areas of the workpiece.
3.3. Preparation of the Workplace
A carpenters bench or work bench with clamping devices can be used for ripping and mortising smaller workpieces. For making recesses (holes) the workpiece can be clamped in accordance with the position of the respective area to be worked:
- between the bench clamps or
- with screw clamps on the bench plate.
Figure 7 Clamping the workpiece on a carpenters bench
1 between bench clamps, 2 with a screw clamp
In case of ripping the workpiece must be fixed rigidly.
For working larger workpieces horses are suitable where the workpiece is placed on or clamped on with screw clamps. When mortising the trainee can also sit sidewards on the workpiece and weigh it with his body weight.
When mortising thinner, i.e. springy wooden workpieces place them on non-springy supports!
When cutting through workpieces be sure not to penetrate the support!
The mortising and ripping tools as well as the striking tools should be placed so to be at hand. Make sure that the hafts of the tools lie always in the direction of the trainee.
Why should the mortising and ripping tools be put away with the
hafts facing the