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CLOSE THIS BOOKEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCollaborating organizations
VIEW THE DOCUMENTParticipants and workshop staff
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHow to use this manual
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLack of appetite
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFever
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCoughs and colds
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDiarrhea
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDehydration
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBloat
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConstipation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPoisoning
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLiverflukes
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTick infestation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTScabies (mange)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLice
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFungus infections of the skin
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInfectious diseases
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFoot rot
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEye diseases
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWounds
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBleeding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSnake bite
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSprains
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDifficulty in urinating
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHousing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFeeding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMineral deficiency
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBreeding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPregnancy and birthing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCare of mother animals after birthing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCare of newborn
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUdder infection
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDecreased milk flow

Housing

Housing practices vary widely from place to place. In general, however, stock raisers do the following:

Protection

· People protect their animals from rain, sun, wind, cold, predators and thieves. For example: they may plant thorny bushes around the animal shed to keep predators and thieves away.

· They build a shed, house, barn or other structure to shelter the animals. Or sometimes, if people's homes are raised on stilts, they keep their livestock under the home.

· In many areas, farmers plant certain trees to provide shade near the livestock shed.

· They plant neem, eucalyptus or Ocimum sanctum around the shed to repel insects.

· They light smoky fires near or under the shed to drive away ticks, lice and insects.

· They do not plant mango, curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) or bamboo near the shed, as these species attract snakes and bats. For the same reason, they do not stock large amounts of firewood, hay or straw near the shed.

Space

· Farmers provide enough space for each animal to lie down and stand, turn around and defecate without the dung soiling itself or other animals.

· They avoid overcrowding.

· They provide adequate ventilation and light.

Feed and water

· People provide a container with clean drinking water.
· In certain areas, farmers build a small feeding manger to hold green or dry fodder.

Hygiene

· Traditionally in many areas, farmers slope the floor of the shed so the urine and dung can flow out. This helps keep the shed clean.

· They use straw from rice, wheat and other plants for bedding. They replace this regularly with fresh straw.

· The farmers clean away dung, urine and mud each morning.

· In some countries, they apply a layer of fresh mud on the floor of the shed.

· They may regularly sprinkle dry lime (calcium hydroxide) or powdered limestone on the floor 2-3 times a week as a disinfectant and to repel flies. Once a month, they wash the walls with limestone powder mixed with water.

· In India, farmers mix a handful of dung in a bucket of water and sprinkle this mixture on the floor. Over time, this produces a hard flooring that is easy to keep clean. It also keeps the ground even, so animals will not slip.

· They isolate or quarantine sick animals from other animals.

Some examples of ruminant housing

Housing types vary widely from place to place. Here are a few exemples.

Tribal areas of India

This shelter, built in the village near the owner's home, houses 10-20 animals. The roof is made of dried palmyra tree leaves (which are rainproof) or dried grasses. The posts are of bamboo, palmyra tree wood, teak, rose wood, or other strong wood. The floor is of mud. The animals are kept in the shed during the night and let out to graze in the forest during the day. The shed is cleaned and fresh mud is put on the floor before the animals return. The shed provides protection from the sun and rain, yet allows sufficient light and air to get in. It is very cool inside.


Tribal areas of India

Coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

This area is prone to cyclones and has very heavy rainfall (more than 1800 mm per year). The round, conical shape provides minimum resistance to cyclones and the sloping roof reaching almost to the ground prevents the roof from blowing away. This shelter can house 2-3 animals. It is usually located in the fields. The roof is made of palmyra tree leaves and the frame of palmyra wood. The floor is of mud. The shelter is cool in summer and warm in winter. However, it is dark inside and ventilation is sometimes inadequate. A container of water is placed inside, but there is no manger for fodder.


Coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Deccan (India) and Sri Lanka

This shed is attached to the owner's house and is made of bricks, mud, wood or stone. It houses 1-2 animals. The roof is of dried wild hemp stalks or other grasses. The floor is of mud or brick, and it slopes so mud, dung and urine flow out. A feeding manger and a container for water are built in The shed obviously is well-ventilated and cool.


Deccan (India) and Sri Lanka

Philippines

Many farmers in the Philippines and Laos keep their animals under the house, or in a room next to their own living area. The house is made of slatted bamboo and/or wood. The roof is thatched with local grasses. The animals body heat helps warm the house. Owners can give care to the animals very easily. However, pests and diseases such as mange, leishmaniasis and flies can spread from animals to humans. On the other hand, farmers in the Philippines say that—although the goats they keep under their houses have a strong and unpleasant odor—the smell helps keep mosquitoes away from the home.


Philippines

Gir Forest, Gujarat, Western India

Farmers in the Gir Forest build a circular, thorny fence of Acacia arabica branches. They keep their buffaloes inside during the night to protect them from lions and wolves. During the day, the buffaloes are let out to graze in the forest, where they seek shade under the trees: Farmers throughout India build a thorny fence or plant cacti around their own and their animals' housing to deter predators.


Gir Forest, Gujarat, Western India

Sri Lanka

Farmers build a corral of trees, logs and wire. The animals rest inside the enclosure in a shed made of wood or bamboo, roofed with grass or leaves. This shed is built at the top of the slope, so water and waste materials run out of it.


Sri Lanka

Sometimes, farmers tie their animals under a tree. In Thailand, they use a special bamboo spring on the tether. This prevents the rope from twisting and becoming tangled.


Throughout South and Southeast Asia

Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand

Sheep and goat pens are often built on stilts. The floor is made of slatted wood or bamboo, so that the droppings and urine fall through. In India and Indonesia, there is a pit below to collect these valuable organic materials. The manure can be removed easily from beneath the pen for spreading in the fields. The roof is thatched with grass. The owners or their children cut grass from roadsides and field boundaries and put it in a manger attached to the pen for the animals to eat. Surplus grass can be stored at one end of the shed. This pen protects the animals from thieves and predators. It is clean and hygienic. In Indonesia and Sri Lanka, animals of different ages and sexes may be kept separate using dividers within the house. Pregnant animals and mothers with newborns are also separated from other animals.


Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand

Deccan, India

Semi-migratory shepherds use small branches to make moveable, collapsible fences. They erect these in the field to keep their goats and sheep in at night. The shepherd sleeps in the small shed in the center of the enclosure. During the day, the animals are released from the enclosure and allowed to graze. Outside, only animals that are too young to graze are kept inside the shed during the day with a shepherd who guards and feeds them.

The shepherd moves the enclosure around the field, so that the entire field is manured at night. The farmer pays the shepherd for this manure.


Deccan, India

Throughout India

Farmers build a thorny fence of Acacia arabica or Acacia farnesiana around their goat houses to deter thieves and predators. The house itself is round and made of bamboo, wood and mud. The roof is thatched with palmyra leaf or grass. The floor is of mud. Animals of all ages are housed together. Some farmers clean out the dung; others use the dung as bedding.


Throughout India


Various types of roofing materials


Various types of roofing materials

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