Home-immediately access 800+ free online publications. Download CD3WD (680 Megabytes) and distribute it to the 3rd World. CD3WD is a 3rd World Development private-sector initiative, mastered by Software Developer Alex Weir and hosted by GNUveau_Networks (From globally distributed organizations, to supercomputers, to a small home server, if it's Linux, we know it.)ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw

CLOSE THIS BOOKSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Soil Conservation - Project Design and Implementation Using Labour Intensive Techniques (ILO - UNDP, 1982, 220 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPREFACE
VIEW THE DOCUMENTINTRODUCTION
CHAPTER A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTA.1. THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF SOIL DEGRADATION
A.2. RAINFALL EROSION
2.1. Factors in rainfall erosion
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.1. Rainfall
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.2. Nature of the soil
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.3. Slope of the land
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.4. Vegetation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.5. Man
2.2. The effects of rainfall erosion
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.1. Mechanical effects
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.2. Chemical effects
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3. Integration of rain water erosion factors
A.3. SOIL EROSION BY WIND
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1. Wind erosion factors
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2. The effects of wind erosion
A.4. OTHER FORMS OF SOIL DEGRADATION
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.1. Excessive humidity
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.2. Excess of toxic salts
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.3. Unsuitable agricultural practices
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.4. Socio-economic aspects of soil degradation
A.5. LAND USE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.1. Land employment
5.2. Land classification
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.1. Classification system developed by the Soil Conservation Service of the US Department of Agriculture
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.2. Other classification systems
CHAPTER B. EROSION PROTECTION TECHNIQUES
B.1. CONSERVATION OF PROTECTED LAND
1.1. Forests
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.1. Role of the forest in soil conservation mechanisms
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.2. Main forest species used in afforestation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.3. Preparing a reafforestation plan
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.4. Ground preparation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.5. Seed preparation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.6. Afforestation using the direct sowing method
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.7. Afforestation by planting
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.8. Maintaining the afforested area
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.9. Plantation conservation
1.2. Pastures
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.1. Role of pastures in soil conservation mechanisms
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.2. Techniques for the creation, conservation and improvement of pastures
B.2. CONSERVATION OF CROP LAND
2.1. Biological procedures
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.1. Cover crops
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.2. Mulching
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.3. Crop rotation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.4. Mixed cropping
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.5. Lea crops
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.6. Rotation field-strip cropping
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.7. Increasing the soil’s organic reserves
2.2. Farming practices
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.1. Contour ploughing
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.2. Contour or slightly inclined ridging
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.3. Subsoiling and chiselling
2.3. Defence networks
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3.1. The role of defence networks and the systems used
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3.2. Main types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3.3. Dimensions
2.4. Bench terraces1
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4.1. Terraces constructed at a single go
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4.2. Terraces constructed progressively
2.5. Drainage works
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.5.1. Characteristics of gully erosion and the role of control works
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.5.2. Determining run-off conditions
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.5.3. Main types of construction
2.6. Bank, channel and gully protection
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.6.1. Stabilising banks with vegetation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.6.2. Protection of banks by construction works
2.7. Correcting the slope of water courses
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.7.1. Role of constructions
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.7.2. Type of work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.7.3. Principles of calculating structure dimensions
B.3. WIND EROSION PROTECTION TECHNIQUES
3.1. Dune stabilisation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1.1. Conventional techniques for stabilising maritime dunes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1.2. Techniques for the stabilisation of continental dunes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1.3. Dune stabilisation by a coating of bituminous products
3.2. Crop land protection
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.1. Windbreaks
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.2. Other techniques
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3. Pasture protection
CHAPTER C. REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES FOR WATERLOGGED SOILS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTC.1. AIMS OF DRAINAGE
C.2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAINAGE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1. Open ditches
2.2. Underdrains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.1. Fascine drains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.2. Stone slab drains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.3. Drains with stone backfill
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.4. Wooden box drains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.5. Peat drains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.6. Earthenware piping drains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.7. Concrete drainpipes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.8. Bituminous fibre drainpipes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2.9. Plastic drainpipes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3. Mole drainage
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4. Subsoiling
C.3. DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRAINAGE NETWORK
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1. Water movement in a drained soil
3.2. Determination of basic data
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.1. Causes of wetness
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.2. Optimal water table level
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.3. Permissible submersion time
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.4. Type of soil - permeability
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.5. Intrinsic flow rate of network
3.3. Calculating the drainage network
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.1. Network design
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.2. Drain depth
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.3. Drain spacing
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.4. Drain diameter and length
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.5. Calculation of collectors
CHAPTER D. METHODOLOGY FOR SETTING UP A SOIL CONSERVATION PROJECT
D.1. PRELIMINARY STUDIES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1. Aims
1.2. Situation analysis
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.1. The physical context
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.2. The socio-economic context
1.3. Assessing the extent of possible measures
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.3.1. Damage assessment
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.3.2. Envisaged investment
D.2. DRAFT PROJECT
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1. Aims
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.2. Analysis of basic data
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.3. Hypothesis of improvements
2.4. Economic analysis
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4.1. The expenditures
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4.2. Income
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.4.3. Balance sheet
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.5. Selection of improvements
D.3. THE PROJECT
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1. Objectives
3.2. Field studies
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.1. Topographic work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.2. Survey borings
3.3. Project documents
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.1. Written documents:
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3.2. Drawings:
CHAPTER E. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION1
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
E.1. GENERAL SITE ORGANISATION
1.1. Survey of local conditions and site reconnaissance
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.1. Natural constraints
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.1.2. Technical and economic constraints
1.2. Project planning
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.1. Objectives of planning
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.2. Forms of planning and their requirements
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.3. Planning procedure
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.4. Bar chart or GANTT chart
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.5. Time and location chart planning
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.2.6. Network or critical path planning
1.3. Setting up the site
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.3.1. Construction of access roads
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.3.2. Construction of site buildings
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.3.3. Plant installation
1.4. Site management
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.4.1. Management technique
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.4.2. Personnel management
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.4.3. Incentive system
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1.4.4. Role of project management
E.2. TOPOGRAPHICAL STUDIES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
2.1. Topographical survey
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.1. Planimetric survey
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.2. Levelling
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2.1.3. Composition of a topographic survey team and survey standards
E.3. MARKING AND STAKING OUT THE STRUCTURE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.1. Preparation of the ground plan
3.2. Preparation on the ground
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.1. Main staking out
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.2. Additional staking
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.3. Staking report
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.2.4. Displaced stakes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3.3. Personnel requirements and work output
E.4. GROUND PREPARATION
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.1. Clearing the land over the area covered by the works
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4.2. Stripping - subsoiling
E.5. EXECUTION OF EARTHWORKS
5.1. General comments on soil type and handling
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.1.1. Land classification
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.1.2. Bank gradients
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.1.3. Bulking - consolidation
5.2. Tools
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.1. Trenching tools
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.2. Tools for loading earth
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.3. Tools for soil haulage
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2.4. Tools for soil compacting
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.3. Manpower
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.4. Labour organisation
5.5. Earth-moving methods and outputs
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5.1. Trench digging and spoil removal
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5.2. Loading and reworking spoil
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5.3. Spoil haulage
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5.4. Unloading, spreading and compacting
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5.5. Bank grading
5.6. Examples of earthworks
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.6.1. Construction of a canal or ditch
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.6.2. Construction of earth dams
E.6. IMPLEMENTATION OF REAFFORESTATION WORK
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.1. Nursery work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.2. Planting
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.3. Construction of forest tracks
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.4. Plantation maintenance
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.5. Examples of a plantation: planting along contour lines
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6.6. Productivity norms
E.7. IMPLEMENTATION OF DRAINAGE WORKS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.1. Installation of a drainage network
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.2. Tracing out total trench width
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.3. Calculating trench depth
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.4. Trench digging
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.5. Trimming the trench bottom
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.6. Drain laying and backfilling the trench
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7.7. Manpower and output in manual drainage work
E.8. CONSTRUCTION OF MASONRY WORK
VIEW THE DOCUMENT8.1. Different types of masonry work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT8.2. Dry-stone masonry work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT8.3. Normal masonry work
VIEW THE DOCUMENT8.4. Gabion masonry work
E.9. CARRYING OUT CONCRETE WORK
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.1. Characteristics of concretes
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.2. Concrete preparation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.3. Shuttering
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.4. Steel reinforcement
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.5. Installing the reinforcement bars
APPENDICES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. STANDARD PLANS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. BIBLIOGRAPHY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBACK COVER
TO NEXT SECTION OF BOOK