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CLOSE THIS BOOKVetiver Grass: A Thin Green Line against Erosion (BOSTID, 1993, 157 p.)
Appendixes
VIEW THE DOCUMENTA Great Challenges, Great Opportunities
VIEW THE DOCUMENTB Other Potential Vetivers
VIEW THE DOCUMENTC Selected Readings
VIEW THE DOCUMENTD Research Contacts
VIEW THE DOCUMENTE Biographical Sketches

Vetiver Grass: A Thin Green Line against Erosion (BOSTID, 1993, 157 p.)

Appendixes

A Great Challenges, Great Opportunities

This appendix highlights some environmental horrors and points to the role vetiver might play in alleviating them. The examples are presented to stimulate exploratory trials in those parts of the world where such devastating problems exist. Whether vetiver will work in sites like these is far from certain. In some, the plant will meet its greatest difficulties in just surviving. In a few, it may survive but fail to be effective. Nonetheless, it is a testimony to the potential inherent in vetiver that a single species could even be considered for such an array of challenging situations. Also, it is a testimony to the potential inherent in their green lines of grass that solutions to so many seemingly intractable problems can even be envisioned. Where vetiver fails, alternative species that make dense hedges should be sought.

B Other Potential Vetivers

To rely on a single species for hedges to control erosion throughout an area as large as the tropics is so unwise that a search for alternatives should be started quickly. This appendix identifies plants that might be employed either along with vetiver or as "safety-nets" in the event that vetiver develops problems in widespread practice. It should be understood that none of these species, as far as we know, has all of vetiver's properties. It should be understood also that additional species (those we haven't thought of) might be as good or even better.

With 10,000 different species of grasses worldwide, it seems logical to assume that vetiver is not the only one with the exact combination of properties required for erosion-control hedgerows. In the main, the grasses mentioned below are tall, vigorous perennials, adapted to many soils and site conditions.

It is important to realize that the most readily available strains of these grasses may be the least valuable in erosion control. They are likely, for example, to have been selected for features such as palatability to animals, high seed yield, or soft stems. The types best for erosion control, on the other hand, may be the rough, tough, "unproductive" and highly unpalatable types that were previously rejected at first glance.

Also, it is worth remembering that related grass species can often be hybridized. This can produce seedless hybrids that previously may have been considered worthless. But in erosion-halting hedges, such a reproductive flaw would be an asset.

VETIVER'S CLOSE RELATIVES

Perhaps the most promising alternatives to vetiver will be found among its own wild relatives. As has been noted already, vetiver has a dozen or so close relatives (see sidebar, page 116). These species belong to the same genus, but so far none has been explored for its erosion-controlling capabilities. Nothing suggests that any of them can match (let alone surpass) vetiver itself, but they deserve research attention nonetheless.

All these vetiver relatives are wild plants. Presumably, they are all fertile and spread by seed. However, none is known to be a weed or nuisance of any moment.

These plants are widely scattered. Four are native to Queensland, Australia, and some of those can also be found in the neighboring areas of New South Wales and Northern Territory, as well as in New Guinea. One is native to India-not to the northern plains and swamps like vetiver itself, but to the southwestern region in Karnataka. One is native to the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. And two are native to the African continent.

The fact that these grasses mostly occur in riverine basins and other wet areas would seem to argue against their usefulness on hill slopes. However, vetiver itself also comes from a soggy background. By and large, they are robust plants with stout root stock and erect stems. Such features might make them good for erosion control, but the roots on at least one are said to grow horizontally, which would pose problems in hedges running across farms or forests.

VETIVER'S DISTANT RELATIVES

Lemongrass

Apart from vetiver itself, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) has probably been used in hedges against erosion more than any other grass species. It is planted on bunds for soil conservation as well as on hillsides and road cuts in Central America and elsewhere in the tropics.

It has a number of vetiver's vital features. For example, its large and strong stems can hold back soil, even when it is planted in a single line. It has wide adaptability and the capacity to survive where terrain is difficult and conditions terrible. It tillers strongly, forming large tussocks. Because it seldom flowers, it does not spread by seedlings.

All of these are features favorable for erosion-control hedges, of course. But in practice, lemongrass does not seem to work as well as vetiver. In Costa Rica, for instance, farmers who use both are slowly abandoning lemongrass. They say that compared with vetiver, it requires more labor. They have to replant their lemongrass hedges every four years or so, and separating the planting materials from the clumps is difficult. The hedges also are less dense, less resistant to stem borers, and more unruly. Whereas vetiver rows are regular, compact, and erect, lemongrass rows are irregular, patchy, and often extremely unkempt, with leaves hanging in all directions.

Like vetiver, lemongrass is widely distributed throughout the tropics. Its oil is one of the most important perfumery ingredients, widely used for scenting soaps, detergents, and other consumer products. People throughout Southeast and South Asia flavor popular drinks, soups, curries, and other foods with its leaves.

It seems possible that amongst the germplasm of this well-known grass, forms will be discovered that are well suited for use as hedges against erosion.

Citronella

Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) is another vetiver relative that has some of the vital properties for a barrier hedge. It, too, is a robust perennial. It, too, is cultivated for its essential oil and has thus been widely distributed throughout the tropics. And it, too, is sterile.

For all that, however, citronella grass has not been used for erosion control-as far as we know. Now it should be tried. The type that is cultivated, the so-called "Java type," may not be the best for the purpose. A "Sri Lanka type" that had been rejected because its oil is inferior is possibly more suitable. It is exceptionally robust and resilient.

Other members of the lemongrass and citronella genus might also work in erosion control. Indeed, about 60 Cymbopogon species are found in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Asia. In general, they are coarse perennials, with aromatic leaves. None has been seriously assessed for erosion-hedge purposes, but in Senegal, C. schoenanthus is used more widely than vetiver for erosion control.

Vetiver's Close Relatives

Perhaps the most promising alternatives to vetiver will be found among its own wild relatives, discussed below.

Vetiveria elongate

This Australian grass is found around (and even within) freshwater lagoons, damp depressions, and rivers in the Northern Territory and Queensland. It also occurs in New Guinea.

Vetiveria filipes

Another Australian species, this plant is found in Queensland and New South Wales. It is characteristic of the vegetation often growing on riverbanks, sandbanks, riverine plains, high ground near creeks, Melaleuca swamps, dry creek beds, and depressions in open forests. It is said to be eaten freely by cattle.

This species is of special botanical interest because its morphology is intermediate between vetiver and lemongrass (see page 114). One accession was found to have a chromosome number (2n=40) twice that normally found in the genus.

Vetiveria intermedia

Yet another Queensland species, this one also likes the sandy banks of channels, growing either in the open or in partial shade.

Vetiveria pauciflora

This, the fourth Australian species, is found in the Northern Territory and Queensland. It, too, occurs on sandbanks and riverbanks.

Vetiveria rigida

This Australian species has only recently been described.

Vetiveria lawsoni

Like vetiver itself, this species is from India. However, it is native to the southwestern region. It is, for example, common in the district around Dharwar in Karnataka State. The root stock is stout; the stem is erect, simple, and slender; and the internodes are very long. Such features might make the plant good for erosion control, but the root is said to grow horizontally, which would compete with nearby crops or trees.

Vetiveria arguta

This little-known species apparently occurs only in Mauritius and the neighboring island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean.

Vetiveria fulvibarbis

A West African member of the genus, this grass is found from Senegal to Cameroon, including Ghana, Togo, Mali, and Nigeria. It occurs mainly on flood plains and is a robust perennial that grows up to 2 m tall. Almost nothing has been reported about the plant, but it can be quite common. For instance, in Ghana it can be found on the plains between Accra and the Volta River.

Its roots and stems are (apparently) scented. People in Mali use the roots to perfume drinking water and the stems to weave mat-like wall panels called "seccos." Both roots and stems can be bought in the markets of Bamako, for example.

Vetiveria nigritana

This grass is the main African species. It is found in most sub-Saharan areas from Senegal to Mozambique. It is a tufted perennial, as tall as 2.5 m. It flourishes on wet soils and grows in water or at least in wet, usually swampy, ground. It occurs, for example, on alluvial floodplains in Ghana, extending along seasonal streams and channels in areas of marsh grass and tree savanna. It also remains as a relict in the low, wet spots left unused in heavily farmed areas. It is said to tolerate slightly saline soils.

Although native to tropical Africa, this species apparently also occurs in scattered locations in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines.

Gamba Grass

Yet a fourth distant relative of vetiver, gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus), is planted on bunds as an anti-erosion measure in parts of Africa. Farmers in Niger also use grassy hedges of this species for windbreaks.

An erect tufted perennial up to 2 m high, gamba grass is native to tropical Africa and has been introduced into other tropical areas, such as Brazil, India, and Queensland, Australia. It is adapted to many types of soil, can tolerate a long dry season, and has produced good results in northern regions of Nigeria and Ghana. It persists well under grazing but becomes unpalatable after it flowers.

Those are virtues for a vetiverlike hedge, but gamba grass has severe limitations. It is "clumpy," and gaps tend to form between the plants. Also, the individual clumps tend to die in the center. In addition, the plant spreads from seed and has shallow, horizontal roots.

There are about 100 other members of the genus Andropogon, and some of those may prove better than gamba grass as erosion-hedge plants. They tend to be big and brawny. Some are severe weeds, but sterile forms might be found or created by hybridization.

Sugarcane Relatives

In parts of India grasses are commonly used for erosion control- not in the single-line hedge like vetiver but in blocks or bands on bunds and berms. Among the various species employed is Saccharum moonja. This weedy sugarcane relative is extensively used along the bunds and in gullies to check wind and water erosion in northern India. It is unpalatable to animals and is very hardy. This and other Saccharum species might be useful as eventual back-ups for vetiver.

Maize Relatives

The 12 known Tripsacum species all have stout stalks that might make them useful in hedges. Two are already showing promise.

Guatemala grass (T. laxum) is used to form bench terraces in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu, India. It is said to check erosion on steep slopes very effectively.

In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is testing game grass (T. dactyloides) as a vegetative contour strip for field agriculture. This native, cold-tolerant species is already widely planted as a forage, and many different genotypes have been collected. These are now under evaluation for use in erosion hedges. Plants with upright habit and other desirable characteristics (notably, disease resistance) are being examined. An especially interesting possibility is the use of game grass as a perennial grain. Even the unimproved cultivars have yielded about 25 percent as much as wheat, without the annual costs of replanting or the erosion caused by tilling bare ground.

Sorghum and Its Relatives

Certain little-known types of sorghum have such strong stems that they are used as building materials and as living stakes to support climbing crops. They are so strong that West African farmers employ them to hold up even the massive weight of yam plants. Also, these sorghums are very resistant to rot-even when dead. For months after setting seed, they continue holding up heavy yam plants, despite the heat and humidity beneath the tentlike curtain of yam foliage.

The sorghums used this way today are annuals, but perennial sorghums are known, and to combine the strong stalks and perennial habit seems well within the realm of possibility.

TROPICAL GRASSES UNRELATED TO VETIVER

Napier Grass

As noted in earlier chapters, skeptics commonly criticize vetiver on the grounds that it is not "useful" enough for farmers to want to plant it. Usually, these skeptics claim that farmers will only plant a species that could feed animals. Often, they propose napier grass as a better alternative.

Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) is native to tropical Africa but is now available throughout the tropics. It is a tall, clumped perennial that in some places is planted on bunds as a windbreak and to conserve the soil. Although the dry stems or canes are used for fencing and for house walls and ceilings, it is primarily grown for fodder.

Despite the fact that it is useful for erosion control, napier grass (also known as elephant grass) cannot be used in a single line like vetiver.
Its stalks are too weak and the gaps between them too wide for it to stem the onrush of soil and water after tropical deluges. Moreover, its shallow, spreading roots compete with any nearby crops.

It is likely, however, that certain genotypes (possibly those rejected by the forage developers because of coarseness, woodiness, and lack of palatability) might prove to be good erosion-hedge species. Also, there is a sterile dwarf form that might prove applicable.

Napier grass has been crossed with a wild relative (P. typhoides) to give a sterile triploid. This is said to be produce more fodder than its parents, but it might be even more useful as a hedge for erosion control.

Other Pennisetum Grasses

Even if napier grass never works out, perhaps some of the other 80 species in the genus Pennisetum might have the right combination of properties. These tend to be particularly well suited for the tropics and are already in use as food, fodder, and papermaking crops. A few have been used for erosion control (for example, moya grass, P. hohenackeri, which is used for controlling erosion in parts of India).

Rhodes Grass

Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) is sometimes proposed as a vetiver substitute. This native of southern Africa is widely cultivated for fodder. It comes in many forms, some of which withstand fires well. However, it spreads by stolons and by seed and can become a weed. It may be useful as a sod-forming species to cover and "clamp down" eroding sites, but as an erosion hedge it is unlikely to match vetiver.

Tropical Panic Grasses

In Kenya, a panic grass (Panicum sp.) called "kisosi" is successfully used as an erosion hedge on gentle slopes. The stalks are laid out flat in shallow ditches dug on the contour lines and covered with soil. The internodes (spaced 10 cm apart along the stalks) produce roots and shoots. Farmers regularly cut back the shoots for fodder, and this stimulates tittering and produces a living hedge sufficiently strong to hold back an accumulation of soil about 25 cm high. In this sense, the plant operates like vetiver. However, it is killed by fire and can be used only where burning is never practiced.

Calamagrostis Species

Calamagrostis argentea is being compared to vetiver in field tests near Grenoble, France. A related species, C. festuca, was used as an erosion-control grass by the Incas. They planted bands of it above their terraces, not only to protect soil but to spread out the runoff so it would trickle evenly down the often massive terrace systems.

TEMPERATE-ZONE SPECIES

Erosion is not confined to the tropics, of course. But, as we have noted earlier, vetiver is. In terms of the worldwide erosion problem, therefore, one of the greatest discoveries would be a temperate-zone counterpart to vetiver. Several possibilities are discussed below.

Switch Grass

The U.S. Department of Agriculture is paying special attention to switch grass, Panicum virgatum. This native, warm-season grass is already widely planted in the eastern half of the United States as a fodder and revegetation plant, and many selected genotypes have been characterized in detail. Of particular interest is a variety called "Shelter," so-called because it was selected to enhance wildlife habitat during winter. Somewhat like vetiver in form, Shelter has stiff, erect culms that remain upright under the weight of snow and ice.

Wheatgrasses

A "vetiver for the cool zones" might be found among the wheatgrasses (Agropyron and Elymus spp.). One possibility is stream-bank wheatgrass (A. riparium). This tall turf-type grass is relatively low-growing, but in Montana and other parts of the United States single or double rows of it are planted across fields to reduce soil erosion. These hedges capture the blowing snow and greatly increase crop yields. Farmers employ it mainly in semiarid areas where they want the winter snow to accumulate to build up enough soil moisture for the subsequent spring and summer crops. Another species used in the same way is A. elongatum, a clump-type grass that can grow to over a meter high. It also retains its stems throughout the cold Montana winters.

Strips of these and of some of the other 15 wheatgrasses have also been established across expanses of rangeland to conserve snowfall and soil as well as to provide cover and food for wildlife. They work well, but if not spaced properly, they may funnel the wind, worsen the erosion, and cause the crops to ripen unevenly across the fields.

Pampas Grass

Pampas grass (Cortaderia argentea) is a temperate-zone species from the southern cone of South America. It looks for all the world like vetiver. It may also function in the same way. However, it is fertile, tends to spread, and has become a serious weed in some areas.

Several related species, commonly called "toe toe," are native to New Zealand. Attractive ornamentals, they are often used to beautify homes both in New Zealand and in parts of the Northern Hemisphere (the San Francisco Bay area, for instance). However, these plants are fertile and seem likely to spread slowly in fields. Perhaps sterile hybrids could be found within, or created between, these various species.

Feather Grasses

The genus Stipa comprises 300 species, some of which might make useful hedge species. Native to either temperate or tropical areas, they tend to be long-lived perennials whose clumps can survive two decades or more. They tolerate burning and grazing and often grow in dry areas. Their stems are so woody and strong that they have been used for making paper, ropes, sails, and mats. They are not considered weedy or aggressive, although they can spread by seed. Generally, they are considered to be free of pests and diseases.

Some examples follow:

· Esparto grass (S. tenacissima). Mediterranean. Used locally and exported to make fine paper; also used to make cordage, sails, and mats.
· Ichu grass (S. ichu). South America to Mexico. A good fodder grass in arid areas.
· Black oat grass (S. avenacea). North America.
· Needle-and-thread grass (S. comata). North American prairies. An important pasture species, it is also used for revegetating mine spoils in arid parts of Wyoming.
· Porcupine grass (S. vaseyi). Western United States and Mexico. Stems of this species are so strong they are used to make brushes.

Jiji-Sao

This grass (Achnatherum splendens) is native to Siberia and Central Asia, notably Inner Mongolia. It is a long-lived perennial reaching 2 m in height and surviving in a clump for up to 20 years. Although its native habitat is wet saline marshlands, it thrives in well-drained upland soils. However, it always seems to be confined to neutral or alkaline (pH 7-9.5) sites.

So far, this species has been used primarily as a fodder; however, it has been used in erosion control. Its flowering stems are so stiff and strong that brooms are made from them. Like vetiver, it has a long, tough, and fibrous rooting system, more vertical than lateral. Amazingly resilient, it is resistant to fire, drought, extreme cold (for instance, below -30°C), and even livestock. In addition to all that, it does not seem to spread (except by seed in marshlands) and is not invasive.

Of all the species for creating vetiver-like hedges in the cooler parts of the world, this seems the most promising at present.

Miscanthus

Currently, Miscanthus sinensis is being tested by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a temperate-zone counterpart to vetiver. This tall species, native to Japan and other parts of the Far East, is an attractive and increasingly popular ornamental. It looks much like vetiver and forms similar types of clumps, although they are neither as dense nor as strong. It appears to be sterile; however, the clumps spread slowly outwards, and this species is considered a pesky weed in parts of Japan.

Bamboos

It seems likely that among the 1,250 species of the woody grasses known as bamboos, good hedge species can be found or bred for both temperate and tropical regions. One species (Bambusa oldhamii) is already used in New Zealand. A local nurseryman, Dick Endt, points out that it performs impressively both in wind protection and erosion control. He writes: "One year in Kerikeri, I saw river-flooded land covered in silt and uprooted trees, yet the bamboo held. Not only that, but silt built up behind it, and did not kill it."

Giant Reed (Spanish Cane)

The "reed" of the Bible, Arundo donax, has been used for 5,000 years to make the vibrating tongues that give clarinets, organs, and other pipe instruments their voice. Its stems are so strong and fibrous that they are also used for walking sticks and fishing rods as well as for making rayon and paper. The plant has been used in erosion control in the United States and Guatemala. It would appear to have wider applicability as well. It is a perennial with stout stems mostly 2-6 m tall, growing from thick knotty rhizomes. It often occurs in dense colonies but makes poor forage and is only sparingly grazed or browsed, especially when anything else is available. Apparently, it produces some fertile seed.

Throughout much of Texas, this species is used in plantings along highways, culverts, stream banks, and ditches. It is considered extremely valuable for retarding erosion, and it also provides cover for wild birds and small animals.

Despite its qualities, great care must be taken when testing this species on new sites. Recently in California, it has become a severe weed that is almost impossible to control.

Ribbon Grass

Phalaris arundinacea is used to shelter sheep in Australia. It is a clump grass that is reported to form hedges. A native of temperate Europe and Asia, it is unpalatable to livestock. Sheep, for example, will not graze it out.

SHRUBS AND TREES

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, the concept of using trees as hedges against erosion has been treated in an excellent book. However, here we present a few little-known favorites of our own.

Sea Buckthorn

Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a small tree or shrub of sandy coasts and shingle banks in mountains from Europe to northern China. It is very adaptable, fast growing, and can take abuse. It is readily propagated both vegetatively (from cuttings) and from seed. Although not a legume, it is a nitrogen-fixer, and there are several reports that it is good for "restoring fertility" to degraded lands.

In southeastern Russia it has successfully stabilized gullies and ravines, for example. In Inner Mongolia it is used on soils containing carbonates, in loess, and in sand. In the Danube Delta it has also been used to stabilize dunes and to reclaim open-cast mining sites where the soils are heavy clays lacking organic matter. It is also excellent as a hedge to corral or control livestock.

Russians have been studying this plant for at least 50 years and have selected and developed more that 1,000 accessions-they have even hybridized it. In large measure, this has been for uses beyond erosion control. Almost everywhere, its berries are made into jellies; in France they are stewed into a sauce for meat and fish; whereas in Central Asia they are eaten with cheese and milk. The fruits are high in carotenes and vitamins, especially vitamin C. Annual production from good cultivars can run up to about 30 tons of fruit per hectare.

The prunings from the shrubs are a much appreciated fuel. They occur in abundance and have a high calorific value.

Alders

New Zealand foresters are using European alder (Aldus viridis) and some South American alders (A. jorullensis and A. acuminata) as hedges against erosion. These hardy, resilient, soil-improving trees have shown good growth on some dreadful sites-down to bare subsoil in several cases and on bare rock in others. This has been observed especially in the Craigieburn Range on the South Island, where the alders form healthy hedges that stabilize mountain screes (cascades of stones and rocky debris). These trees, too, fix nitrogen. Others among the 35 Alnus species are likely to be equally good for appropriate sites.

Leucaena

A companion volume already describes the value of this fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree. Its use in hedgerows is increasingly common in tropical areas. Indeed, many people hearing about vetiver often claim that leucaena is better. However, we think that each species has its own place, and that on many sites they will perform exceptionally well together-the vetiver in the front blocking soil loss down-slope and the leucaena behind benefiting from the accumulated moisture and soil.

A Promising Alternative

J.J.P. van Wyk thinks he has a plant for erosion control that is even better than vetiver. It is an African grass called weeping lovegrass. This is not a big, rough-and-tough species like vetiver. It does not form thick, dense hedges that stand like sentinels across the slopes, blocking the passage of soil. Instead, weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) covers slopes with a perennial carpet of vegetation that acts en masse to protect the ground from rain and wind.

Weeping lovegrass is quite well known as a forage (in the dry Southwest of the United States, for instance), but van Wyk has searched through every nook and cranny of South Africa (the plant's native habitat) seeking out special genotypes with qualities for erosion control. The types he has found are truly remarkable- as amazing in their way as vetiver. They are, he says, "plants that don't know what good topsoil is. . tin fact, they don't know the difference between topsoil and no soil!"

Van Wyk has identified about 20 types that are proving excellent for reclamation. The South African government has adopted them for protecting roads, spoil dumps, and other eroding sites. The departments of Health, Water Affairs, Minerals. and Energy, and Agriculture all have initiated trials or field projects. The mining industry also got involved, and these love grasses are now stabilizing gold-mine spoil-material from a mile or more underground that is basically more sterile than the Sahara.

These are mat-forming grasses. They reduce runoff, increase infiltration, cool the land, and reduce temperature fluctuations. Some are cold tolerant and can withstand temperatures down to -10°F without getting frostbitten. Most are dwarf, erect, high seed-yielding types. Van Wyk has found types for use in the entire range of environments from 200 mm to 2,000 mm annual rainfall, from sea level to 3,000 m elevation, and from temperate to tropical areas, including both winter and summer rainfall patterns.

To keep up with the demand, van Wyk has established seven research farms and seven seed-producing farms. Weeping lovegrass stays in place and does its job for years, he says, but it is slow to establish. Van Wyk therefore uses tef (Eragrotis tef), an annual that is a close relative, to quickly generate grass cover. Tef acts as a mother crop for weeping lovegrass.

In some locations leucaena seems to have matched vetiver's soil-stopping abilities, but the shrubs had to be constantly cut back and maintained in the form of a thick, dense, contiguous hedge. In one trial in India where both were left almost untouched, soil losses through thick leucaena hedges were 15-16 tons per hectare, whereas the loss through (young) vetiver hedges was only 6 tons per hectare.

Asparagus

A decade ago, Thean Soo Tee began cultivating asparagus in the Mt. Kinabalu area of Sabah in his native Malaysia. He planted this Eurasian "shrub" some 1,200 m above sea level in hedges along the contours. The asparagus grew well and quickly on this irrigated land, maturing nine months after sowing. The plant's enormous root system held back the soil and saved the sloping fields from erosion.

Tee initiated this pioneering work years before the World Bank resuscitated the then moribund vetiver idea. His concern was to protect vegetable farms from erosion. With cabbage, peas, carrots, and other crops, the earth must be turned over after each harvest, exposing it to wind and water. Sabah's vegetable areas were turning into stone-strewn wastelands.

Tee recognized that because asparagus fetches a high price in the marketplace its cultivation would boost the income of local farmers. For his originality and endeavor, he earned a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 1984.

Siberian Pea Shrub (Caragana)

This rugged, dense, leguminous shrub (Caragana arborenscens) is used in low shelterbelts and for erosion control in some of the coldest, driest, and most desolate areas of the American Great Plains. A nitrogen-fixing species from Siberia, it grows almost anywhere, but is best adapted to sandy soils. It can be successfully grown where annual precipitation is no more than 350 mm and where winter temperatures plunge to -40°C.

C Selected Readings

NEWSLETTER

Since 1989, the Asia Technical Department Agriculture Division of the World Bank has published the Vetiver Newsletter. This newsletter provides a forum for information exchange among the members of their Vetiver Information Network. Copies are available from the Asia Technical Department, Agriculture Division, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA.

HANDBOOK

In 1990, the World Bank published its third edition of a handbook intended primarily for fieldworkers and farmers in developing countries. This 88-page booklet, Vetiver Grass: The Hedge Against Erosion, is available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese from the Asia Technical Department, Agriculture Division, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA. Other organizations have translated the book into Chinese, Tagalog,
Cebuano, Ilongo, Lao, Thai, Gujarati, Kannada, French, and Pidgin (Papua New Guinea).

REVIEWS
Greenfield, J.C. 1989. Novel grass provides hedge against erosion. VITA News July:14-15
Greenfield, J.C. 1989. Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria spp.): The Ideal Plant for Vegetative Soil and Moisture Conservation. Asia Technical Department, Agriculture Division, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Grimshaw, R.B. 1989. New approaches to soil conservation. Rainfed Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific 1(1):67-75.
Magrath, W.B. 1990. Economic analysis of off-farm soil conservation structures. Pages in 71-96 in Watershed Development in Asia. Technical paper no. 27, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Smyle, J.W. and W.B. Magrath. 1990. Vetiver grass-a hedge against erosion. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, October 2, 1990, San Antonio, Texas.

TECHNICAL REFERENCES

Andersen, N.H. 1970. Biogenetic implications of the antipodal sesquiterpenes of vetiver oil. Phytochemistry 9:145-151.
Bhatwadekar, S.V., P.R. Pednekar, and K.K. Chakravarti. 1982. A survey of sesquiterpenoids of vetiver oil. Pages 412-426 in C.K. Atal and B.M. Kapur, eds., Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Jammu-Tawi, India.
Celarier, R.P. 1959. Cytotaxonomy of the Andropogoneae IV. Subtribe Sorgheae. Cytologia 24:285-303.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). 1976. Vetiveria. Pages 451-457 in The Wealth of India (volume 10). Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.
Gottlieb, O.R. and A. Iachan. 1951. O vetiver do Brasil. Anais Associacao Brasileiro de Quimica 10:403-415.
Kammathy, R.V. 1968. Anatomy of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 10(3&4):283-285.
Kirtany, J.K. and S.K. Paknikan. 1971. North Indian vetiver oils: comments on chemical composition and botanical origin. Science and Culture 37(August):395-396.
Marinho de Moura, R., E.M. de Oliveira Regis, and A. Marinho de Moura. 1990. Reacoes de dez especies de plantas, algumas produtoras de oleos essenciais, em relacao ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raca 1 e M. javanica, em populacao mista. Nematologia Brasileira 14:39-44
Nair, E.V.G., N.P. Channamma, and R.P. Kumari. 1982. Review of the work done on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Linn.) at the Lemongrass Research Station, Odakkali. Pages 427-430 in C.K. Atal and B.M. Kapur, eds., Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Jammu-Tawi, India.
Parham, J.W. 1955. The Grasses of Fiji. Fiji Government Press, Suva.
Ramanujam, S. and S. Kumar. 1963a. Correlation studies in two populations of Vetiveria. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 23(1)(March):82-89
Ramanujam, S. and S. Kumar. 1963b. Multiple criteria selection in vetiver. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 23(July):176-184.
Ramanujam, S. and S. Kumar. 1963c. Irregular meiosis associated with pollen sterility in Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash. Cytologia 28:242-247.
Raponda-Walker, A. and R. Sillans. 1961. Les Plantes Utiles du Gabon. Editions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
Robbins, S.R.J. 1982. Selected Markets for the Essential Oils of Patchouli and Vetiver. G167, Tropical Products Institute, London.
Sethi, K.L. and R. Gupta. 1980. Breeding for high essential oil content in khas (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. Indian Perfumer 24(2):72-78.
Sobti, S.N. and B.L. Rao. 1977. Cultivation and scope of improvement in vetiver. Pages 319-323 in C.K. Atal and B.M. Kapur, eds., Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Jammu-Tawi, India.
Subramanya, S. and K.N.R. Sastry. 1989. Indigenous Knowledge about the Use of "Vetiveria zizanioides" for Conserving Soil and Moisture. Unpublished paper, State Watershed Development (SWDC), Podium Block, Visveswaraiah Centre, Bangalore 560 001, India.
Subramanya, S. and K.N.R. Sastry. 1990. Indian peasants have long used vetiver grass. ILEIA Newsletter March:26.
Trochain, J. 1940. Contribution a l'etude de la vegetation du Senegal. Memoires de l'Institut Francais d'Afrique Noir.
Yoon, P.K. 1991. "A Look-See at Vetiver Grass in Malaysia: First Progress Report." Unpublished report available from author, see Research Contacts.

D Research Contacts

In this appendix we list people who are familiar with vetiver and, in some cases, have planting materials available. We hope this will help readers to obtain specific advice and to locate the plant within their own country. It seems likely that nonseedy vetiver can be found in practically every tropical nation, although some inquiring and exploring may be necessary to find it.

It is important that people wishing to try vetiver locate planting materials in their own regions (rather than importing seed). As has been said earlier, seed will likely lead to seedy plants, and that in turn could produce badly behaved vetivers that do not stay where they are put. One of vetiver's outstanding qualities would therefore be subverted.

Further, importing living vetiver plants is a very real threat to sugarcane, maize, sorghum, and other crops. Vegetative grass material can carry any of at least 100 pests and plagues. To avoid introducing new pathogens to agricultural crops, all vetiver cuttings or rhizomes must be brought in through your national plant quarantine system.

The World Bank publishes a list of people who receive the Vetiver Newsletter. This is a good source of up-to-date addresses of vetiver contacts. In addition, individuals have organized local "vetiver networks" in China at the Mountain Erosion Division, Institute of Mountain Disaster and Environment, Chengdu, Sichuan (Zhang Xinbao, Vetiver Network Coordinator) as well as in Thailand at the Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Phaholyothin Road, Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900 (Weerachai Nanakorn, Vetiver Network Coordinator). The members of these networks share ideas, experiences, planting materials, and enthusiasm on a continuing basis. It is an approach that lends itself ideally to this grass-roots form of erosion control and could very well benefit many more nations.

The following contacts are taken largely from the Vetiver Newletter recipient list of mid-1992. Most of the people listed here have agreed to help readers of this report who contact them.

Argentina

Enrique L. Marmillon, Estancias del Coniara S.A., Casilla de Correo 451, 5800 Rio Cuarto (germplasm; tissue culture)
Jorge Carlos Permicone, Benito Permicone S.A., Avenida Roque S. Pena 15074, 2740 Arrecifes, Buenos Aires
Felipe R. Rivelli, Programa de Geologia Ambiental, Escuela de Geologia (Universidad) Las Tipas 697, 4400 Salta, Salta
Daniel A. Torregiani, Calle 28, No. 579, Department 30F, Mercedes 6600, Buenos Aires

Australia

H. Trevor Clifford, Department of Botany, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067
Deryk G. Cooksley, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 20, South Johnstone, Queensland (germplasm)
John William Copland, Australian Council on Industrial and Agricultural Research (ACIAR)/AIDAB, Locked Bag No. 40, Jakarta, Queen Victoria Terrace, Canberra, A.C.T. (trials)
Ian Garrard, Peter Houghton, and R.S. Junor, New South Wales Soil Conservation Service, PO Box 198, Chatswood, New South Wales 2067
Peter George Harrison, Berrimah Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, PO Box 79, Berrimah 0828, Darwin, Northern Territory (germplasm and trials)
David Mather, Division of Extension and Regional Operations, Department of Agriculture, PO Box 19, Kununurra, Western Australia 6743 (germplasm)
Tony O'Brien, Sharnae Research Center, PO Box 171, Kempsey, New South Wales 2440 (germ plasm)
Kenneth C. Reynolds, Soil Conservation Service, Department of Conservation and Land Management, PO Box 283, Scone, New South Wales 2337 (germplasm and trials)
Brian Roberts, School of Applied Science, Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education, PO Darling Heights, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350
B.K. Simon, Queensland Herbarium, Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (other vetivers)
Pat Thurbon, Dairy Husbandry and Animal Breeding Branch, Department of Primary Industries, 80 Ann Street, PO Box 46, Brisbane, Queensland 4001
Paul Truong, Soil Conservation Research Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, Queensland 4068 (physiology; salt and mineral tolerances; germplasm and trials)
Leslie Watson, Taxonomy Laboratory, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, PO Box 475, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601 (grass database)
Donald Yule, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 6014, Brisbane, Queensland 4702 (germplasm)

Bangladesh

Nazmul Alam, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farm Gate, Dhaka 1215
Edward Brand, CARE-Bangladesh, House No. 63, Road 7/A, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka
Zafrullah Chowdhury, Gono Shasthaya Kendra, PO Nayarhat, via Dhamrai, Dhaka 1350
Bruce Curry, Winrock International, PO Box 6083, Gulshan, Dhaka
Qazi Faruque Ahmad, Proshika-Manabik Unnayan Kendra, 5/2, Iqbal Road, Mohammadpur, Block A, Dhaka 1207
Jeffrey Pareria, Caritas Bangladesh, 2 Outer Circular Road, Dhaka 1217

Barbados

Calvin Howell, Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St. Michael

Belgium

Marie-Anne Van Der Biest, Flemisch Aid and Development Organization (FADO), Gebr. Van Eyckstraat 27, 9000 Ghent
Mano Demeure, Socfinco, Place du Champ De Mars 2, 1050 Brussels
Pierre Galland, OXFAM-Belgique, Rue de Conseil 39, 1050 Brussels

Belize

Thomas Post, Christian Reformed World Relief Committee, PO Box 109, Corozal Town (germplasm)

Benin

Alabi Isaac Adje, Department of Agronomy, Oil Palm Research Station, PO Box 01, Pobe, Oueme
Benin Research Station, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), BP 062523, Cotonou
Ramanahadray Fils, Amenagement Bassins Versants Lutte Contre Les Feux Brousse BP 74, Natitingou (germplasm)
Deng Shangshi, Department of Rural Water Conservation and Soil Conservation, Cotonou

Bhutan

Dhanapati Dhungyel, Essential Oils Program, Department of Agriculture, Mongar, Eastern Bhutan (Indian germplasm and trials)
K. Upadhyay, Forest Management and Conservation Project, c/o FAO/UNDP, PO Box 162, Thimpu

Bolivia

Alfredo Ballerstaedt G., Subproyecto Chimore-Yapacani, Avenida Camacho, La Paz
Jorge Luis S. Ferrufino, Programa Agroquimico, Corporacion de Desarrollo de Cochabamba (CORDECO), Universidad Mayor de San Simon, Casilla 992, Cochabamba
Paulino Huanapaco Cahuaya, Centro de Capacitacion Campesina, Avenida Busch 1590, La Paz
Hernan Z. Hurtado, Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios (MACA), La Paz
Mathieu A.J. Kuipers, S.E.A., Casilla 7265, La Paz (germplasm and trials)

Botswana

Bruce J. Hargreaves, National Herbarium, National Museum, PB 00114, Gaborone

Brazil

Elvira Maria de Oliveria Regis, Department of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Ruia Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/p Recife 52-079
J.M. Spain, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), CPAC Planaltina, Brazilia
Michael Thung, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), c/o CNPAF/ EMBRAPA, CP 179, Goiania, Goias 74000 (germplasm and trials)
Brother Urbano, PATAC, CP 282, Campina Grande, Paraiba (germplasm and trials)

Burkina Faso

Mahamadou Kone, Oxfam, BP 489, Ouagadougou (germplasm)
Matthieu Oeudraogo, Oxfam, BP 489, Ouagadougou
Issoufou Oubda, Project Avv-Fara Poura, 01 BP 524, Ouagadougou 01 (germplasm and trials)

Burma (Myanmar)

U Tin Hla, Forest Department, Hsaywa Setyon Street, West Gyogone, Insein, Yangon Myo Kywe, Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agriculture, Yezin University, Pyinmana

Burundi

Bernard L. Deline, Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi (ISABU), BP 1540, Bujumbura, (germplasm and trials)
Nkurunziza Francois, Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi (ISABU), BP 795, Bujumbura

Cameroon

Enoch N. Tanyi, IRA/ICRAF Agroforestry Project, BP 4230, Yaounde (germplasm)

Canada

Malcolm Black, Conservation Service-Canada, Motherwell Building, 19001 Victoria Avenue, Regina, Saskatchewan S4P OR5
John Caraberis, PO Box 370, Pugwash, Nova Scotia, BOK lLO
Timothy J. Johnson, Institute for Study and Application of Integrated Development (ISAID), 132 Allan Street, Suite 5, Oakville, Ontario L6J 3N5
Colin and Susan McLoughlin, Aquilex Development Inc., 1135 Connaught Drive, Vancouver, British Colombia V6H 2G9 (germplasm and trials; cold tolerance)

Cape Verde

Frances Harris, HDRA/INIA Project, Instituto Nacional De Investigao Agraria (INIA), CP 84, Praia (germplasm and trials)

Chile

D. Gabriel Banfi D., Fundo El Gardal, Puchuncavi, Casilla 8130-2, Vina del Mar, Chile (germplasm and trials)
Carlos A. Irarrazabal, Don Carlos 3171-B, Los Condes, Santiago (germplasm)
Guillermo A. N. Rueda, Programa Nacional Manejo De Cuencas, Avenida Bulnes 259, Departamento 506, Santiago (germplasm)
Alejandro M. Yutronic, Empresa Construcion. Fernando Mimica Sambuk, La Lengua 01440, Punta Arenas

China

Ding Guanming, 4 Qiaoting Shangjiaojing, Fuzhou, Fujian (germplasm and trials)
Ding Zemin, Department of Rural Water Conservation and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, PO Box 2905, Beijing
Jiang Ping, General Forestry Station, Guizhou Forestry Department, No. 48 Yanan Zhou Lu, Guiyang 550001, Guizhou (germplasm and trials)
Trevor King, Australian Council on Industrial and Agricultural Research (ACIAR), c/o Australian Embassy, Fourth Floor, Office Building, East Lakes Complex, 35 Dongzhimenwai Dajie, Beijing
Chun-Yen Kuy, Department of Plant Physiology, Testing Station, Wu Hwa County, South China Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Guangdong Province (germplasm and trials)
Liao Baowen, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Longdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong (germplasm and trials)
Qin Fengzhu, Ministry of Forestry, Hepingli, Beijing
Qiu Jiye, Agriculture Bureau of Zhejiang Province, 63 Hua Jia Chi, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (germplasm)
Wang Xiuhao, Jiangxi Agricultural Development Corporation, No. 75, Hongdu Street, Nanchang, Jiangxi (germplasm and trials)
Xue-ming Wang, Jiangxi Province Bureau of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fisheries, Beijing Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi (germplasm and trials)
Wang Yaozhong, Water and Soil Conservation, Sichuan Provincial Department of Water Conservation, 7 Bingshang Street, Chengdu, Sichuan
Wang Zi Song, Agricultural Foreign Capital Office, Huang Hua Shan, Tanchen, Jianyang, Fujian (germplasm and trials)
Xiang Yuzhang, Division of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, PO Box 2905, Beijing (germplasm and trials)
Xu Daiping, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Longdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong (germplasm and trials)
Feng-yu Zhang, Jiangxi Provincial People's Government, Beijing Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi (germplasm and trials)
Zhang Daquan, Bureau of Soil and Water Conservation, 151, Western Road One, Xian, Shaanxi (germplasm and trials)
Zhang Guang-ming, China Red Soils Development Project Joint Office, 7 Building Bei Li-Baijia Zhuang, Beijing (germplasm and trials)
Zhang Xinbao, Mountain Erosion Division, Institute of Mountain Disaster and Environment, Chengdu, Sichuan (China Vetiver Network Coordinator)
Zheng Dezhang, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Longdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong (germplasm and trials)
Zheng Songfa, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Longdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong (germplasm and trials)

Colombia

Douglas Laing, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), AA67-13, Valle, Cali (germplasm and trials)
Werner Moosbrugger, Checua Project, German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ/ CAR, AA 100409, Bogota 10 (germplasm and trials)
Karl Mueller-Saemann, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), AA 6713, Cali, Valle (germplasm and trials)

Comoros Islands

Lafrechoux Didier, Training and Extension Unit, VANNA Project, CARE Anjouan, BP 303, Mutsamudu
Francesco Piccolo, Project Nord-Est Anjouan, BP 346, Mutsamudu

Costa Rica

Pedro J. Argel and L. Harlan Davis, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA)/Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Apartado 55-2200, Coronado, San Jose (germplasm and trials)
C. Buford Briscoe, La Suiza, 7151 Turrialba (germplasm and trials)
Gerardo Budowski, University for Peace, Apartado 199-1250, Escazu
Jorge Leon, Apartado 480, San Pedro, Monte de Oca, San Jose
Rafael A. Ocampo, Centro Agronomica Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE), Casilla 99, Turrialba 7170

Cote d'Ivoire

Jeannine Bugain, Comite internacionale des fesses Africaines pour le developpement, 01 BP 5147, Abidjan 01
Peter Matron, West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), 01 BP 2551, Bouake
Paul Perrault, Winrock International, 08 BP 1603, Abidjan 08
Eugene Terry, West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), 01 BP 2551, Bouake

Cyprus

Luigi Guarino International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, formerly IBPGR), c/o Agricultural Research Institute, PO Box 2016, Nicosia

Denmark

Thure Dupont, Svanemollevej 54, 2100 Copenhagen (germplasm)
Ole Hans Christian Olsen, Danagro Adviser A/S, Granskoven 8, 2600 Glostrup (germplasm and trials)

Dominica

Michael Didier, Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation, PO Box 24, Charles Avenue, Goodwill

Dominican Republic

Jorge L. Armenta-Soto, Caribbean Rice Improvement Network (CRIN), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), c/o Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA) Apartado 711, Santo Domingo
Joachim Boehnert, Proyecto SEA/DED de Conservacion de Suelos Sistemas Agroforestales, Apartado 34, Mao, Valverde
Eduardo Latorre, Fundacion Dominicana de Desarrollo, Apartado 857, Santo Domingo
Lionel Robineau, ENDA-Caribe, Apartado 21000, Huacal, Santo Domingo

Ecuador

Ciro G. Cazar Noboa, Centro de Estudios y Accion Social (CEAS), Apartado 242, Riobamba, Chimborazo (germplasm)
Michael Hermann, Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), Moreno Bellido 127 y Amazonas, Casilla 17-16-129-CEQ, Quito
Miguel A. Jaramillo, La Pradera, KMT 32 Via A La Costa, Guayaquil
Carlos C. Nieto, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Estacion Experimental Santa Catalina, CP 340, Quito (germplasm)
Osvaldo Paladines, Fundacion Para El Desarrollo Agropecuario Fundagro, Casilla 1716-219, Quito

Egypt

Abdhul El-Aziz Saad, Department of Soil Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo

El Salvador

Cecilio Antonio Cortez, Final Avenida FCO Menedez, 54R #1-2, Ahuachapan
Rodolfo Antonio Olivares M., PRODAGRO, Calle Gabriela Mistral Pje. Colon, No. 13 San Salvador

England

Geoffrey P. Chapman, Wye College, University of London, Wye, Near Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH
Seamus Cleary, Catholic Fund for Overseas Development (CAFOD), 2 Garden Close, Stockwell Road, London SW9 9TY
P.J.C. Harris, Henry Doubleday Research Association, National Centre for Organic Gardening, Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Coventry CV8 3LG
R.M. Jarrold, MASDAR (UK) Ltd., 141 Nine Mile Ride, Finchampstead, Wokingham, Berkshire RG11 4HY (tissue culture germplasm)
R.P.C. Morgan, Silsoe College, Silsoe, Bedford MK4 5DT
Steve A. Renvoize, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB(taxonomy)
Gill Shepard, Social Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS
Brian Sims, Latin American Section, Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS

Ethiopia

Bebeka Project, Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, PO Box 6, Gimira, Keffa (germplasm and trials)
Debela Dinka, Arsi Regional Agricultural Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 388, Asella, Arsi (germplasm and trials)
Graham Garrod, Shewa PADEP VI Project, PO Box 267, Addis Ababa
Goma One Coffee Farm, Limu Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, PO Box 87, Ilubabor, Limu/Agaro (germplasm and trials)
Goma Two Coffee Farm, Limu Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, PO Box 238, Ilubabor, Limu/Agaro (germplasm and trials)
Gumer Coffee Farm, Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, PO Box 47, Kossa/ Genet (germplasm)
Kossa Coffee Farm, Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, Kossa/Genet (germplasm)
Suntu Coffee Farm, Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise, PO Box 18, Kossa/Genet (germplasm)
P. Ramanagowda, Institute of Agricultural Research, Sinoma Research Centre, PO Box 208, Bale, Robe
John Walsh, International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA), PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa
Meseret Wondimu, Office of Adaptive Research, PCDPID, Ministry of Coffee and Tea Development, Addis Ababa

Fiji

Jale Baba, c/o-Fiji Pine Commission, PO Box 521, Lautoka (germplasm and trials)
Peter Drysdale, 25 Phlugerr, Lautoka (germplasm and trials)
Jai Gawander and Leon Sugrim, Fiji Sugar Corporation Limited, PO Box 3560, Lautoka (germplasm and trials)
Wieland Kunzel, Fiji-German Forestry Project, Box 14041, Suva (germplasm)
Buresova Nemani, c/o M.P.I., PO Box 358, Suva (germplasm and trials)

Finland

Seppo Hamalainen, Silvestria, Lapinlahdenkatu 14 B. 00180 Helsinki
Heikki Rissanen, FINNIDA, Mannerheimintie 15 C, 00260 Helsinki

France

Jacques Barrau, Laboratoire d'Ethnobotanique-Biogeographie, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris 75231
Francoise Dinger, Centre national du machinisme agricole du genie rural des eaux et des forets (CEMAGREF), Grenoble Regional Centre Dom. Universitaire, 2 rue de la Papeterie BP 76, Cedex St. Martin-d'Heres 38402 (germplasm)
Philippe Girard, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT), 45 bis avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent sur Marne
Francois V. Rognon, Departement du Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), 42-Rue Schaeffer 75116, Paris
Bertrand Schneider, The Club of Rome, 17 rue Camille Pelletan, 92290 Chatenay Malabry

Gambia

John Fye and Kabir S. Sonko, Soil and Water Conservation Unit, Department of Agricultural Services, Yundum Agricultural Station, Yundum

Germany

Wolfram Fischer, Division 404, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1-2, 6236 Eschborn
Bernward Geier, IFOAM General Secretariat, c/o Okozentrum Imsback, 6695 Tholey-Theley
GITEC Consult GMBH, Bongardstrasse 3, PO Box 320446, 4000 Dusseldorf 30 Ernst Klimm, Klimm & Partner, Forststrasse 7, 5020 Frechen 4 Klaus Schmitt, Society for the Promotion of Agriculture and Environmental Conservation (SPAEC), Langgasse 24/H, 6200 Wiesbaden-l

Ghana

Nana Konadu Agyeman-Rawlings, 31st December Women's Movement, PO Box 065 Osu, Accra
S. Yaovi Dotse, Department of Crop Services, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 14,Tamale (germplasm)
A.K. Nantwi, Oil Palm Research Institute, PO Box 74, Kusi-Kade
D.Y. Owusu, Ghana Rural Reconstruction Movement-Yensi Centre, PO Box 14,
Mampong, Akwapim

Guatemala

Mark A. Wilson, Asociacion Share, 5a. Avenida 8-07, Edificio Real Reforma 13B, zone 10, Guatemala City (germplasm and trials)

Haiti

Clifford Bellande, CARE-Haiti, BP 773, Port-au-Prince
IICA/CRIN, c/o Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA), lere Impasse Lavaud, No. 14, Port-au-Prince
Victor A. Wynne, Haiti Seed Store, Wynne Farm, BP 15146, Petionville (germplasm)

Honduras

Jaime E. Rios, Gnomos Farm, AP 46, Sigvatepeque
Carlos Valderrama, Winrock International, AP 1764, San Pedro Sula Cortes

Hong Kong

Ronald D. Hill, Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong (germplasm and trials)

India

I.P. Abrol, Department of Soils, Agronomy, and Agroforestry, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhawan,110001 New Delhi (germplasm and trials)
Agricultural Research Station, Banswara, Rajasthan
Agricultural Research Station, Fathepur, Rajasthan
Agricultural Research Station, Jalore, Rajasthan
Agricultural Research Station, Kota, Rajasthan
Agricultural Research Station, Navagaon, Alwar, Rajasthan
Agricultural Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Bhatinda, Punjab
Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan
Jim Alexander and Oktay Yenal, World Bank Resident Mission, PO Box 416, 110011 New Delhi (germplasm and trials)
P.W. Amin, Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishinagar, Akola, 444104 Maharashtra
S. Ananda, Department of Technology Transfer, Karnataka Welfare Society, PO Box 28, Chikballapu, 562101 Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
M. Aravindakshan, Kerala Agricultural University, District Trichur, Vellanikkara, 680654 Kerala
A.K. Aron, Kandi Watershed and Area Development, Covernment of Punjab, SCO No. 2449-50, Sector 22-C, Chandigarh, 160022 Punjab
Govind Marotrao Bharad, Department of Agronomy and Watershed Development, Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth (PKV) Agricultural University, Krishinagar, Akola, 444104 Maharashtra (germplasm and trials)
D.D. Bharamagoudra, Yelavatti, Taluk Shirabatti, District Dharwad, 582117 Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
Ashok Bhatia, Gujarat State Land Development Corporation Ltd., 78, Pankaj Society, Vasana, Ahmedabad, 380007 Gujarat
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 Uttar Pradesh (vetiver ecology)
Patrick Carey, CARE-India, B-28 Greater Kailash-I, 110048 New Delhi
S.S. Chakraborty, Ramakrishna Mission Lokasiksha Parishad, PO Narendrapur, District 240 Parganas (South), 743508 West Bengal
Robert Chambers, Administrative Staff College of India, Bella Vista, Hyderabad, 500049 Andhra Pradesh
S.S. Chitwadgi, Bharat Forestry Consultancy, 156/A Indrapuri, Bhopal, 462021, Madhya Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
P.N. Chowdary, Watershed Development Team, Department of Agriculture, 2-2-1130/ 19-5, Sivan Road, New Nallakunta, Hyderabad, 500044 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
A.L. Cogle, Soil Division, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru PO, 502324 Andhra Pradesh
Sham Pa Daitota, Sadashaya Prakashana, Panaje, 574259 Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
R.P. Dange and H.S. Lohan, Kandi Project, I.W.D.P. Hills, Office of Forestry Department of Agriculture, S.C.O. No. 95-97 Sector 17-D, Chandigarh, Haryana (germplasm and trials)
S.N. Das, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, 751003 Orissa
S.N. Desai, Mahatama Phule Agricultural University, District Ahmednaagar, 413722 Gujarat
P.A. Deshmukh, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, 431401 Maharashtra
P.C. Doloi, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, 785013 Assam
Johannes M.M. Engels, Regional Office for South and Southeast Asia, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, formerly IBPGR), c/o Pusa Campus, 110012 New Delhi
A.L. Fonseca, Delhi Jesuit Society, St. Xavier's, 4 Raj Nivas Marg, New Delhi 110054 (germplasm and trials)
Konaje Gopalakrishna, Department of Agriculture, 1666 9th Main Road, Wal III Stage, Bangalore, 560008 Karnataka, (germplasm and trials)
Bharama, Devendra, and Dyamana Gouda, Dharitri Farm, Yelavatti, Chirahatti, Dharwad, 582117 Karnataka (germplasm and organic trials)
Rajendra Gupta, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (M&AP), National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBGR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Pusa Campus, 110012 New Delhi (germplasm and breeding)
T.K. Gupta, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, PO Box Kalyani, Mohanpur District Nadia, 741252 West Bengal
Shinde Subhash Hanumantrao, Department of Agronomy, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV) University, Rahuri, 413722 Maharashtra
B.R. Hegde, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560065 Karnataka
Narayan Ganapa Hegde, Agroforestry Division, BAIF Development Research Foundation, 'Kamdhenu', Senapati Bapat Road, Pune, Maharashtra (germplasm and trials)
R.K. Hegde, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
M.A. Hussain, Andhra Seeds Corporation, PO Box 135, Hyderabad, 500001 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
Bhaskar Bandu Jadhar, Department of Agroforestry, Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra (germplasm and trials)
Mohammed Abdul Jaleel, Office of Soil Conservation, Department of Agriculture, Mahbubnagar, 509001 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
P.N. Jha, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa-Samastipur, 848125 Bihar
V.K. Kachroo, Directorate of Agriculture, Srinagar, Kashmir
P. Kandaswamy, Water Technology Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Lawley Road, Coimbatore, 641003 Tamil Nadu (germplasm)
S.P.S. Karwasara, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, 123001 Haryana
A.A. Khan, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, 834006 Bihar
M.R. Khajuria, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Department of Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rajouri, 185131 Jammu and Kashmir (germplasm and trials)
T.N. Khoshoo, Tata Energy Research Institute, 7 Jor Bagh, 110003 New Delhi
K. Krishnamurthy, University of Agricultural Sciences, BP No.2477, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560065 Karnataka (germplasm)
Janaky Krishnan, Department of Botany, Sarah Tucker College, Palayamkottai, V.O.C. District, Tamil Nadu
A.M. Krishnappa, Operational Research Project, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560065 Karnataka, (germplasm)
Jha. Mihir Kumar, Pradip Smriti Sansthan, L-40 Road No. 20, Srikrishna Nagar, Patna, 800001 Bihar (germplasm and trials)
M.G. Lande, Watershed Development and Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Krishi Bhawan Road No. 247-B, New Delhi (germplasm and trials)
Lemongrass Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Odakkali, Ernakulan District, Kerala (germplasm collection and oil research)
David L. Madden, U.S. Embassy, Chankyapuri, 110021 New Delhi
S.V. Majgaonkar, Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, District Ratnagiri, Dapoli, 415712 Maharashtra
M.M.A. Mashady, Office of Forestry, Masheshwaram Project, Vidyanagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
S.C. Modgal, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, District Nainital, 263145 Uttar Pradesh
P.G. Moghe, Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishinagar, Akola, 444104 Maharashtra
David Mosse, OX/FAM-South India (Trust), 3, Chelvaroya Mudaliar Road, PB 541, Frazer Town, 560005 Bangalore
H. Nagaraj, At Post Bedasgaon, Taluk Mundagod, 581346 Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
Tara Nagesh, MAMEOS, Soumya-Soudha, Tirthahally Tq. Shimogadt, Devangi Post, 577415 Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
G.C. Naik, Water Works Road, District Puri, Orissa (germplasm and trials)
K.S. Nanpuri, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004 Punjab
Paladi Laxmi Narayana, Maheshwaram Watershed Development Project, Department of Agriculture, PO Box Tukkuguda Viamankhal, Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
National Agricultural Research Programme, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004 Punjab
National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001 Uttar Pradesh
D.P. Nema, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, 482004 Madhya Pradesh
I.C. Patel, Gujarat Agricultural University, Shahibagh, Ahmedabad, 380004 Gujarat
R.S. Patil, 'Dharitri,' Shiva, behind Prasad Lodge, Gadag, Karnataka (germplasm and trials)
V.G. Patil, Rainfed Watershed Project, Manoli Watershed, Government of Maharashtra, Opp. Bank of Baharashtra, Jattar Peth, Akola, 444005 Maharashtra (germplasm and trials)
V.H. Patil, Agriculture University Regional Agricultural Research Station, PO Karjat, Raigad, 410201 Karjat
Winin Pereira, 79 Carter Road, Bandra, Bombay, 400050 Maharashtra (germplasm and trials)
Bala Prasad, H. No. 24-84/56 Indiranagar Colony Lothmunta, Tirumalgiri-Secundarabad, 500015 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
A.G. Raddi, Forestry Project Coordination Cell, New PMT Building, Swargate, Pune, 411042 Maharashtra
A.K. Rai, Indira Vikas Samity, Indira Path, Hindo 834002 Bihar (germplasm and trials)
G.S. Rajendra, Rajya Raitha Sangha, Tirthahalli Jaluk Branch, Shimoga Dt., Komandur, 577422 Tamil Nadu
Rajendra Agricultural University, NE Alluvial Plain Zone Regional Research Station, Agwanpur, Bihar
Rajendra Agricultural University, NW Alluvial Plain Zone Regional Research Station, Madhopur, West Champarun, Bihar
Rajendra Agricultural University, South Bihar Alluvial Plain Zone Regional Research Station, Sabour, Bihar
A. Padma Raju, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Department of Soil Science, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Karimnagar, Jagtial, 505327 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
R.S. Rana, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, Near NSC Beej Bhawan, 110012 New Delhi
Adusumilli Narayana Rao, Andhra Pradesh State Council of Science and Technology, 38 Nagarjuna Hills, Punjagutia, Hyderabad, 500482 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
C.S. Rao and N.S. Rao, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station, 1-1/103 Jammigadda, Jagtial, 505327 An&ra Pradesh
M. Singa Rao, Soil Physical Conditions Improvement Project, Agricultural Research Institute, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, 500030 Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
Amulya K.N. Reddy, Department of Chemistry, India Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 Karnataka
Narasa N. Reddy, Canara Bank, Agricultural Consulting Service, 51, Thaper House, 1st Cross, J.C. Road, Bangalore, 560027 Karnataka (germplasm and teals)
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Gassaigaon, Assam
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jawaharlal Nehru Krisbi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Morena, Madhya Pradesh
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam (Guntur), Andhra Pradesh
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh
Regional Agricultural Research Station, North Lakhimpur, 737001 Assam
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, Andhra Pradesh
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Shillongani, PB 33, Navgaon, 782001 Assam
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vridhachalam, Tamil Nadu
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Upper Brahamputra Valley Zone, Titabar, Assam
Regional Research Station, Basuli (Gorakhpur), Uttar Pradesh
Regional Research Station, Bymore Plateau and Satpura Hill Zone, Iwa, Madhya Pradesh
Regional Research Station, Eastern Ghat High Land Zone, Semiliguda, Orissa
Regional Research Station, Eastern Zone, Haryana Agricultural University, Karnal, Haryana
Regional Research Station, Nadurai Road, Aruppukottai, Tamil Nadu
Regional Research Station, Hukumchand Basia's Building-Nard No. 13, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh
Regional Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Mahisapat, Orissa
Regional Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
Regional Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Post Ranital, Orissa
Regional Research Station, Punhabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth, Punjab Agricultural University, Gurdasiur, Punjab
Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Kandi, District Gurdaspur, Punjab
Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur, Tamil Nadu
Anna Runeborg, Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), c/o Swedish Embassy, Nyaya Marg, Chanakyapuri, 110021 New Delhi (germplasm and trials)
G.S. Sachdev, Ministry of Agriculture, Vindhyachal Bhavan, Bhopal, 462003 Madhya Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
J.S. Samra, Research Centre, Central Soil and Water Conseration Research and Training Institute, Block 3-A, Sector 27-A, Madhya Marg, Chandigarh, Union Territory
R.N. Saran, R.A.K. College of Agriculture, Sehore, 466001 Madhya Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
K.N. Ranganatha Sastry, State Watershed Development Commission, Podium Block, 3rd Floor, Visvesvarya Centre, Government of Karnataka, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Bangalore, 560001 Karnataka (indigenous knowledege)
S.N. Saxena, Agricultural Experiment Station Durgapura, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Jaipur, 822562 Rajasthan
David N. Sen, Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Jodhpur, 342001 Rajasthan (saline agriculture; oils)
Sohan Lac Seth, Watershed Development Council, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Rajendra Prasad Road, New Delhi
Parmesh Shah, Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, Choice Premises, Swastik Cross Road, Navrangpura, Ahrnedabad, 380009 Gujarat
R.C. Sharma, Department of Agriculture, Land Development Corporation Limited, Hangallya Complex Nr. Vasna, Ahmedabad, Gujrat (germplasm and trials)
A. Shastri, Watershed Development Project, 2-3-1130119-5 Vidyonagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (germplasm and trials)
Gurmel Singh, Central Soil and Water Conservation, Research and Training Institute, 218 Kanlagarl Road, Dehra Dun, 248195 Uttar Pradesh
H.C. Singh, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, 45-B, Gandhinagar-Jammu, Shalimar Bag, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
R.K. Singh, Narendra Development University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kamarganj, Faizabad, 224001 Uttar Pradesh
Ranjit Singh, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Palampur, 176062 Himachal Pradesh
Samar Singh, National Wastelands Development Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhavan, B Block-C.G.O. Complex, 110003 New Delhi
M.V.K. Sivamohan, Administrative Staff College of India, Bella Vista, Hyderabad, 500049 Andhra Pradesh
George Smith, Land and Water Engineering, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Pantancheru PO, 504324 Andhra Pradesh
K.L. Srivastava, Farming Systems Research Program, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru PO, 502324 Andhra Pradesh
S. Subramanian, Regional Research Station, Aruppukkottai, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641033 Tamil Nadu
S. Subramanian, Soil and Water Management Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kattuthottam, Thanjavur, 613501 Tamil Nadu
S. Subramanya, Watershed Development Programme, III Floor Podium Block, Visvesvarya Centre, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Bangalore, 560001 Karnataka
S.C. Trivedi, Himalayan Watershed Project, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Pauri, Uttar Pradesh
D.K. Uppal, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, 173230 Himachal Pradesh
V.P.S. Verma, 151 Vasant Vihar-Indiranagar Forest Colony, Dehra Dun, 248006 Uttar Pradesh (germplasm and trials)

Indonesia

Amin Aziz, Pusat Pangembangan Agribisnis (PPA), Jalan Tebet Raya 57, Jakarta 12820 Chris Eijeumans, Vetiver Extension Programme, PPW/LTA-77 Development Project, Tromol Pos No. 3, Takengon 24514, Aceh Tengah (germplasm and trials)
Bambang Ismawan, Yayasan Bina Swadaya, PO Box 1456, Jakarta 10610
Pusat Pengembangan Kopi, Department of Agroresearch, c/o Section/Soils, The Coffee Development Centre of Aceh Tengah, Lta 77, Jr. Usman, Oekso/Tanah/Acru, Takengon 24582, Aceh Tengah (germplasm and trials)
Kedar N. Mutreja, ECI-Medan Urban Development Project, Jalan Babura Lama No. 8, Medan, North Sumatra (germplasm and trials)
Anton Soedjarwo, Yayasan Dian Desa, Jalan Kaliurang km 7, Jurugsari IV, Yogyakarta
Carol Stoney, Ford Foundation, PO Box 2030, Jakarta
Bambung Sukartiko, Office of Soil Conservation, Forestry Building, Manggala Wanabakti, Jalan Jend Gatot Subroto, Senayan, Jakarta Pusat
Dwiatmo Siswomartono, Directorate of Soil Conservation, Ministry of Forestry, Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jakarta 10270
Sidarto Wardoyo, Research Institute for Estate Crops, Taman Kencana 1, Bogor

Ireland

Gregory Dillon, 30 Collins Park, Abbeyfeale, County Limerick

Israel

Gerard N. Amzallag, Department of Botany and Applied Plant Physiology, Hebrew University, Guivat Ram 91904, Jerusalem 94551
Jiftah Ben-Asher, Centre for Desert Agrobiology, Ben Gurion University of Negev, PO Box 653, Beersheva
Ezra Henkin, Ministry of Agriculture, Soil Conservation and Drainage Division, Hakirya, Tel Aviv 61070

Italy

Volker Branscheid, Investment Center, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome (germplasm)
R. Brinkman, Soil Resources, Management and Conservation Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome
Geoffry Hawtin, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Sette Chiese 142, 00145 Rome
Gerhard Meier, Caritas Internationalis, Palazzo San Calisto, 120, Vatican City

Jamaica

Algernon V. Chin, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA), PO Box 349, Kingston 6
Joseph R.R. Suah, Hillside Agriculture Project, Ministry of Agriculture, Hope Gardens, Kingston 6

Japan

Yuji Fujisawa, International Research Division, Research Council Secretariat, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 100
Shiro Yoshida, Research and Development Division, Institute of International Cooperation, Japan International Cooperation Agency, International Cooperation Center, 105 Ichigaya Honmura-Cho, Shin Juku-Ku, Tokyo 162

Kenya

Rambaldi Giacomo, Lodagri Nairobi Branch, PO Box 67878, Nairobi (germplasm and trials)
Vernon Gibberd, E.M.I. Soil and Water Conservation Project, Ministry of Agriculture Provincial Agricultural Headquarters, Eastern Province, PO Box 1199, Embu (germplasm and trials)
Enoch K. Kandie, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 30028, Nairobi
Simon Muchiru, African NGOs Environment Network (ANEN), PO Box 53844, Nairobi
C. Ndiritu, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, PO Box 14733 Nairobi
Caleb O. Othieno, Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, PO Box 820 Kericho (germplasm and trials)
Hilda Munyua, Meka Rao, and Pedro Sanchez, International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), PO Box 30677, Nairobi (germplasm and trials)
Jeffrey R. Simpson, Australia-Funded Dryland Project, PO Box 41567, Nairobi

Kuwait

Ibrahim M. Hadi, Environment Protection Council, PO Box 24395, Safat

Laos

Jean Paul Boulanger, Micro Projects-Luang Prabang, PO Box 3705, Vientiane
Chanthaviphone Inthavong, Department of Forestry, PO Box 1034, Vientiane
Walter Roder, LAO-IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) Project, PO Box 600, Luang Prabang
John M. Schiller, Lao-lRRJ Project, PO Box 4195, Vientiane (germplasm)

Lebanon

International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Dalia Building, 2nd Floor, Rue Bashir El-Kassar, Beirut

Lesotho

Klaus Feldner, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), PO Box 988, Maseru 100
Richard Holden, Soil and Water Conservation and Agroforestry Programme, PO Box 24, Maseru 100

Madagascar

Tom Bredero, c/o World Bank, BP 4140, Antananarivo (germplasm and trials)

Malawi

Malcolm J. Blackie, Agricultural Sciences, Rockefellar Foundation, PO Box 30721, Lilongwe 3 (germplasm and trials)
Stephen J. Carr, Christian Services Committee of Malawi, Private Bag 5, Zomba (germplasm and trials)
Francis W. M'Buka, World Bank Resident Mission, PO Box 30557, Capital City, Lilongwe (germplasm and trials)

Malaysia

K.F. Kon, CIBA-GEIGY Agricultural Experiment Station, Locked Bag, Rembau, Negri Sembican 71309 (germplasm and trials)
Azeez Abdul Ravoop, Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 59100 (germplasm and trials)
Zulkifli Haji Shamsuddin, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400
Cheng Hai Teoh and Khairudin bin Hashim, Golden Hope Plantations Berhad, Prang Besar Research Station, Kajang, Selangor 43009 (germplasm and trials)
Cheriachangel Mathews, North Labis Estate, Labis, Johore 85300 (germplasm and trials)
Koh Tai Tong, Estate Department, Asia Oil Palm Sdn Bhd, Suite 120 Johor Tower, 15, Jln Geraja, Johor Bahru 80100 (germplasm and trials)
Ng Thai Tsiung, Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Agriculture, PO Box 977 Semongok, Kuching, Sarawak 93720 (germplasm and trials)
P.K. Yoon, Plant Science Division, Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, Experiment Station, Sungei Buloh, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47000 (germplasm and trials)

Mali

West Africa Sorghum Improvement Program, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), BP 320, Bamako

Mauritius

Jean-Claude Autrey, Plant Pathology Division, Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Reduit (germplasm)
A. Kisto, National Federated Young Farmer's Club, Royal Road, Phoenix
T.L. Lamport, Essaims et Essences, Ltd., PO Box 47, Curepipe
Azad M. Osman, School of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit

Mexico

Salvador Gonzalez R., Collegon Trujillo #18, Atotomilco el alto, CP 47750, Jalisco
Arturo M. Moran, FIRCO, Zaragoza No. 58, Yurecuaro, Michoacan
Antonio Turrent Ferdinandez, Collegio del Valle, Insurgentes Sur 694-1000, Mexico 03100 D.F. (germplasm)
Johnathan Woolley, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), PO Box 6-641, Mexico 06600 D.F.

Morocco

International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), BP 6299, Rabat Institute, Rabat

Nepal

Thomas Arens, World Neighbors, PO Box 916, Kathmandu (germplasm and trials)
Suresh Raj Chalise and Tej Partap, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu
R.N. Deo, Bhairawa Lumbini Groundwater Project, Amchalpur, Bhairawa, Lumbini Zone (germplasm and trials)
Benedikt Dolf, Helvetas, PO Box 113, Ekanta Kuna, Jawalakhel
Thakur Giri, Redd Barna-Nepal, PO Box 11, Tansen, Palpa (germplasm and trials)
Shesh Kanta Kafle, Farm Forestry Project, Institute of Forestry, PO Box 43, Kaski District, Gandaki Zone
Ram Mishra, Nigel Roberts, and Shambur Kumar Shrestha, World Bank Resident Mission, Kantipath, Kathmandu (germplasm and trials)
Gerold Muller, Bagmati Watershed Project-IDC, Ekanta Kuna, Jawalakhel, PO Box 730, Kathmandu (germplasm and trials)
Badri Nath Kayastha, No-Frills Development Consultants (NFDC), Manbhawan, Lalitpur, PO Box 3445, Kathmandu
S.B. Panday, Central Animal Nutrition Division, Khumaltar, Nepal (chemical analysis)
Krishna Sharma, Bhairawa Lumbini Groundwater Project, Amchalpur, Taulihawa, Lumbini Zone (germplasm and trials)
Shambhu Kumar Shrestha, Department of Agriculture, Harihar Bhavan, Pulchowk, Kathmandu (germplasm and trials)
Franz Thun, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), PO Box 1457, Kathmandu
Saryug Pd. Yadav, Community Welfare and Development Society (CWDS), PO Box 5463, Kathmandu (germplasm and trials)

Netherlands

H.K. Jain, International Service for National Agricultural Research, PO Box 93375, The Hague 2509 AJ
Wim Spaan, Department of Land and Water Use, Wageningen Agriculture University, Nieuwe Kanaal II, Wageningen 6709 PA
Jan Diek van Mansvelt, Department of Ecological Agriculture, Haarweg 333, Wageningen 6709 RZ
L.J. van Veen, Internationaal Agrarisch Centrum, Lawickse Allee 11, PO Box 88, Wageningen 6700 AB (economics of vetiver oil)

Netherlands Antilles

Edward J.M.H. Berben, Department of Agriculture, Eilandgebied Bonaire, PO Box 43 Kralendijk, Bonaire

New Zealand

Grant B. Douglas, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Private Bag, Palmerston, North
John C. Greenfield, 21 Reinga Road, Kerikeri, Northland (germplasm)
Donald E.K. Miller, Miller Environmental Consultants, 77 Shelley Street, Gisborne Zealand (germplasm and trials)

Niger

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) BP 12404, Niamey (hedge technology)

Nigeria

I. Okezie Akboundu, Division of Weed Science, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan
Kwesi Atta-Krah, Alley Farming Network for Tropical Africa (AFNETA), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan
Charles C. Ibe, Gully Erosion Afforestation Project, Experimental Research Station, PMB 7011, Umuahia, Abia State (germplasm and trials)
CIAT/IITA Cassava Program, c/o International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan
T.E. Ekpenyong, Department of Animal Science, Alley Farming Network for Tropical Africa (AFNETA), University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Sister Elizabeth Fallon, Daughters of Charity St. Vincent De Paul, Reg. House, PO Box 123 Nchia, Eleme, Rivers State
Federal Agricultural Coordinating Unit, PMB 2277, Kanuna, Kaduna State (germplasm)
Jacob Ibrahim, Sokoto Agricultural Development Project, PMB 2245, Sokoto, Northwestern State
Osuagwu E. Iyke, Agro-Service Center, PO Box Umunama, Ezinihitte Mbaise, Imo
B. Kang, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan (germplasm and trials)
Lawal M. Marafa, Department of Forestry and Agricultural Land Resources, Department of Forestry, Wuse, Zone 1, PMB 135, Abuja, East Central State (germplasm and trials)
Bernard Nwadialo, Department of Social Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Anambra State (germplasm and trials)
Soneye Alabi S. Okanlawon, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos (germplasm and trials)
Heanyl Okonkwo, Box 48 Oraifite, Nnewi LGA Anambra State
Ladance B. Sunday, Ladson Farm, PO Box 954, Osogbo, Osun State (germplasm and trials)
Elisha D. Yakubu, Land Development Office, Kaduna Agricultural Development Project, PMB 1000, Garaje-Agban, Kagoro, Kaduna State (germplasm and trials)

Pakistan

Akhlaq Ali Khan, Hi-Tech Equipment (Private) Ltd., 3/49-AI-Yusuf Cham., Shahrah Liaquat, Karachi
Jim Campbell, Barani-Agricultural Research and Development, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Lab Wing, PO Box 1785, Islamabad
International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Arid Zone Research Institute, Brewery Road, Box 362, Quetta

Panama

Ricardo Gavidia, Grounds Branch, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa

Papua New Guinea

Joe Yalgol Degemba, Simbu Agricultural Extension Support Project, PO Box 568, Kundiawa, Simbu Province
Friends of the Earth, PO Box 4028, Boroko
Anton Kaile, South Simbu Rural Development Project (SSRDP), PO Box 192, Kundiawa, Simbu Province
Ricky Kumung and Vaughan Redfern, Land Utilization Section, Department of Agriculture and Livestock, PO Box 1863, Boroko (germplasm and trials)
Mark Rosato Mandala, Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, PO Box 297, Madang
Peter Metcalfe, c/o PNG Estates Ltd., PO Box 1131, Rabaul
John B. Mills, The Anisa Foundation, PO Box 26, Rabaul

Peru

Andean Bean Research Project, CIAT/IICA, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas, AP 14-0185, Lima 14
Ernesto Diaz Falconi, Centro de Desarrollo Rural de Chincha, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiron Luis Massaro Gatnau 197, Chincha, Ica
INIAA/VITA/CIAT Pasture Research Program-Humid Tropics, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agraria y Agroindustrial, AP 558 Pucallpa
Robert Rhoades, International Potato Center (CIP), Apartado 5969, Lima
Luis Miguel Saravia, Servicio de Apoyo de IRED-AL, Leon de la Fuente 110, Lima 17

Philippines

Ebert T. Bautista, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City
Alex G. Coloma, Watershed Management and Erosion Control Project, NIA Campsite, Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija
Rogelio B. Dael, Upland Agriculture Site Management Unit, Central Visayas Regional Project Office, Bayawan, Negros Oriental (germplasm and trials)
John Dalton, ACIPHIL, 116 Legaspi Street, P&L Building 2nd Floor, Makati, Metro Manila
Alma Monica A. de la Paz, Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc., Annex Building Room 2, Jacinto Campus, Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City (germplasm and trials)
Alois Goldberger, Abra Diocesan Rural Development, Bangued 2800, Abra (germplasm and trials)
Constancio D. de Guzman, Department of Horticulture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna
Jose Galvez, NIA Watershed Act., National Irrigation Administration, ICC Building, Quezon City
Dennis P. Garrity, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), PO Box 933, Manila 1099 (hedgerow technologies; germplasm and trials)
Alois Goldberger, Abra Diocesan Rural Development, Regional House Libbog, Bangued, Abra (germplasm and trials)
Alexander R. Madrigal, Department of Science and Technology-Region 4, Farcon Building, Rizal Avenue, San Pablo City, Laguna (germplasm and trials)
Leonard Q. Montemayor, Federation of Free Farmers, 41 Highland Drive, Blue Ridge, 1109 Quezon City
Enriqueta Perino, Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resource (DEHR), College, Laguna
Robert John Sims, Misamis Oriental State College of Agriculture and Technology (MOSCAT), Claveria, Misamis Oriental 9004 (germplasm and trials)
Jose Tabago, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Central Luzon State University, Munoz, Nueva Ecija (germplasm and trials)
Paul P.S. Teng, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), PO Box 933, Manila 1099 (pathology)
Ly Tung, Farm and Resource Management Institute (FARMI), Visayas State College of Agriculture (VisCA), Baybay, Leyte 6521-A (germplasm and trials)
John L. Waggaman, Barrio San Pedro, Bauan, Batangas 4201, (germplasm and trials)
Terence Woodhead, Department of Soil Physics, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna

Portugal

Graham Quinn, Sitio Atlas 179, Garajau, 9125 Canico, Madeira

Rwanda

Institut de recherche et de education et developpement (IRED), BP 257, Cyangugu
Francois Ndolimana, Division of Fertilizers, Ministry of Agriculture, BP 1648, Kigali
Vincent Nyamulinda, c/o OPYRWA, PO Box 79, Rubengeri (germplasm and trials)

Saudi Arabia

John Bowlin, World Bank Field Office, PO Box 5900, Riyadh 11432

Scotland

Landwise Scotland, Brig O Lead, Forbes, Alford AB3 8PD
Keith A. Smith, The Edinburgh School of Agriculture, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG

Senegal

Thierno Kane, Federation de associations du Fouta le developpement, BP 3865, Dakar
Amadou Seck, Rodale International, BP 237, Thies

Sierra Leone

Kiets Hall, FAO Agroforestry Project, c/o United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), PO Box 1011, Freetown
Vijay Wijegoonaratna, ILO Rural Project, c/o UNDP, PO Box 1011, Freetown

Singapore

Patrick Y. Durand, Southeast Asia Representative Office, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT), #14-275 Selegie Com., 257 Selegie Road

Solomon Islands

Bill Cogger, Principal, National Agricultural Training Institute, Auki, Malaita
Morgan Wairiu, Dodo Creek Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, PO Box G 13, Honiara

South Africa

C.W. Browne, Development Aid, PO Box 384, Pretoria 0001
Daya Chetty, House of Delegates, Private Bag X0580, Umzinto 4200
S. Christie, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Private Bag X520,Sabie 1260
John Erskine, University of Natal, PO Box 375, Pietermaritzburg 3200
Chris Nicolson, PO Box 11015, Dorspruit 3206
C. Ntsane, QwaQwa Government, Private Bag X816, Witsishoek 9870
Noel Oettle, University of Natal, PO Box 375, Pietermaritzburg 3200
A.J. Pembroke, Botanic Gardens, 70 St. Thomas Road, Durban 4001
Zoomie Robert, PO Box 405, Umhlali 4390
Abbas Shaker, Private Bag X5002, Umtata, Transkei
Rudi Snyman, Agricor, Private Bag X2137, Mmabatho 8686, Bophuthatswana
Mr. Swanepoel, Ministry of Water and Forestry, Private Bag X9052, Cape Town 8000
Anthony Tantum, Vetiver Grass Stabilization ce, PO Box 167, Howick 3290 (germplasm and trials)
P. van Eldik, Board of Control, Potchefstroom University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom
J.J.P. Van Wyk, Research Institute for Reclamation Ecology, Potchefstroom University Potchefstroom 2520 (germplasm; Eragrostis)
W.P.J. Wessels, Department of Soil Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600

South Korea

Wong Kwon Yong, Department of Agronomy, Seoul National University, Suwon 440-744

Sri Lanka

M.B. Adikaram, Nation Builders Association, 48 Hill Street, Kandy
Godfrey Gunatilaka, Marga Institute, 61 Isipatana Mawatha, Colombo 5
Roberto Lenton, International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI), Digana Village, Digana via Kandy
Lee Moncaster, CARE-Sri Lanka, Vilasitha Nivasa 2nd Floor, 375 Havelock Road, Colombo 6
K. Rajapakse, 147/8 Dharmsoka Mawatha, Lewella, Kandy
L.M. Samarasindhe, NGO Council of Sri Lanka, 380 Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7

St. Lucia

Harry Atchinson, c/o St. Lucia Banana Association, Castries
Gabriel Charles, Tropical Forest Action Programme, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 1537, Castries
Barton Clarke, Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), Windban Research Station, PO Box 971, Castries
Standley Mullings, Stanthur and Company, Limited, Columbus Square, Castries

St. Vincent

Lennox Diasley, Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Agriculture, Kingstown
Leonard Jack, Caribbean Development Foundation, PO Box 920, Kingstown
Conrad Simon, Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Agriculture, Kingstown

Sudan

Ceasar Kenyi Draku, Extension Department, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 194, Kassala, Eastern Sudan (germplasm and trials)
Omer Elgoni, Range and Pasture Administration, PO Box 2513, Khartoum
K.D. Shepherd, Jebal Marra Rural Development Project, PO Box 9010 (K.T.I.), Khartoum
Abdalla Sulliman Elawad, Islamic African Relief Agency, PO Box 3372, Khartoum

Sweden

Karina Francis, Agriculture Division, Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), Birger Jarlsgatan 61, Stockholm S-105 25

Switzerland

Christopher Gibbs, Aga Khan Foundation, PO Box 435, Geneva 1211
Robert Quinlan, International Office, Catholic Relief Services, 11 rue Cornavin, Geneva 1201
Cyril Ritchie, Esperanza Duran, International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA), 13 rue Gautier, Geneva 1201
Andreas Zoschke, CIBA-GEIGY Agricultural Division-Plant Protection, Basle 4002

Syria

Nasrat Fadda, International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), PO Box 5466, Aleppo

Taiwan

C.H. Huang, Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, 14 Wenchow Street, 5th Floor, Taipei

Tanzania

Ted Angen, Selian Agricultural Research Center, Box 6160, Arusha (germplasm and trials)
Janet Cundall, Cashew Improvement Project, PO Box 608, Mtwara
Paul Richardt Jensen, Hima-Danida-iringa Soil and Water Conservation Project, PO Box 1187, Iringa (germplasm and trials)
L. Nshubemuki, Tanzania Forestry Research Institute, PO Box 45, Maftinga

Thailand

Christoph Backhaus, Thai-German Highland Development Programme, PO Box 67, Chiang Mai 50000
Biomass Users Network, Regional Office for Asia, PO Box 275, Bangkok
Arthorn Boonsaner, Watershed Division, Royal Forestry Department, Phaholyothin Road, Bangkok 10900
Narong Chomchalow, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200 (germplasm)
Tom Drahman, CARE-Thailand, 246/4 Soi, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400
Bhakdi Lusanandana, Agricultural Land Reform Office, Thanon Katchadamnoen Nok, Bangkok 10200
Malee Nanakorn, Department of Botany, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900
Apichai Thirathon, Office of Land Development Region 9, Rim Mae Nam Road, Nakornsawan Tok, A. Muang 60000, Nakornsawan (germplasm and trials)

Togo

Boukari Ayessaki, RAFIA, BP 43, Dapaong (germplasm and trials)
Tchemi Wouro, Ministre du Developpement Rural, Lome

Trinidad and Tobago

T. Fergerson, Department of Crop Science, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Joseph I. Lindsay, Department of Soil Science, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
Selwyn Dardiane, Director of Forests, Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain

Turkey

Faik Ahmet Ayaz, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon
Nazmi Demir, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Affairs, Ankara
J. Sahin, TUBITAK-DEBCAG, Istanbul Cad. No. 88, Ankara

Uganda

Ruth Mubiru, Uganda Women Tree Planting Movement, PO Box 10351, Kampala
J. Mugwera, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, PO Box 7082, Kampala

United States

E.E. Alberts, Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research, ARS, USDA, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (quantitative measure of runoff and erosion)
Aledra Allen, Agriculture Division (ASTAG), Asia-Technical Department, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 (Vetiver Network)
Horace Austin, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 3737 Government Street, Alexandria, Louisiana 71302
Deepak Bhatnagar, Food and Feed Safety Research, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), PO Box 19687, Room 2129, New Orleans, Louisana 70179
B.B. Billingsley, Coffeeville Plant Material Center, SCS, USDA, Route 3, Box 215A, Coffeeville, Mississippi 38922
Al ginger, Biomass Users Network, PO Box 33308, Washington, D.C. 20033
Eugene Le Blanc, 1427 Huey 75, Sunshine, Louisiana 70780 (Sunshine germplasm)
Mark Le Blanc, Department of Horticulture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (germplasm and trials)
Geric Boucard, Texarome Inc., Leakey, Texas 78873 (mechanized propagation, planting, and harvesting; agronomy; oil distillation; germplasm)
John Boutwell, Research and Laboratory Services Division, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, PO Box 25007, Denver, Colorado 80225-0007 (germplasm)
Pat Boyd, National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Laboratory, Plant Science Institute, ARS, USDA 11601 Old Pond Drive, Glenn Dale, Maryland 20769-9157
James L. Brewbaker, Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, PO Box 680, Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795
Lale Aka Burk, Department of Chemistry, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts 01063 (vetiver oil chemistry)
Lewis Campbell, Rural Engineering, West African Agriculture Division, World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 (vetiver in Caribbean)
Thomas M. Catterson Forestry/Natural Resources, Associates in Rural Development Inc. (ARD), RD #i, Box 44, Clinton, New York 13323, USA (Haiti)
Carol Cox, Ecology Action, 5798 Ridgewood Road, Willits, California 95490 (germplasm)
Seth M. Dabney, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, ARS, USDA, PO Box 1157, Oxford, Mississippi 38655 (germplasm and trials)
Gerrit Davidse, Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 631660299 (taxonomy; vetiver in Central and North America)
Andre Delgado, Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 220, McGregor Building, Washington, D.C. 202504300
Kittie S. Derstine, Golden Meadows Plant Materials Center, SCS, USDA, PO Box 2202, Galliano, Louisiana 70354 (germplasm and growth studies)
James DeVries, Heifer Project International, PO Box 808, Little Rock, Arkansas 72203
Mel Duvall, Department of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (agrostology)
James Eagan, 26411 Robin Street, Esparto, California 95627 (germplasm)
Thomas Eisner, Division of Biological Sciences, Seeley G. Mudd Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (chemistry of vetiver oil)
E.D.M. Fletcher and John Muntz, SIFAT, Lineville, Alabama 36266 (germplasm and trials)
Connie Fitz, Box 505, Woodstock, Vermont 05091 (vetiver history)
Donald Fryrear, Big Spring Experiment Station, ARS, USDA, Box 909, Big Spring, Texas 79721 (wind erosion)
Levi Glover, SCS, USDA, Ft. Valley State College, PO Box 4061, Ft. Valley, Georgia 31030

Richard G. Grimshaw, Agriculture Division (ASTAG), Asia-Technical Department, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 (Vetiver Network Coordinator)
Roger Hanson, Tropsoils Program, University of North Carolina, Box 7619, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
Richard R. Harwood, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Plant and Soil Science Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1325 (agricultural systems; germplasm)
Patrick Emeka Igbokwe, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, PO Box 625, Lorman, Mississippi 39096 (germplasm and trials)
John Jeavons, Ecology Action, 5798 Ridgewood Road, Willits, California 95490
Loyd Johnson, Route 3, Box 486, Somerville, Alabama 35670
Robert J. Joy, SCS, USDA, Box 236, Hoolehua, Molokai, Hawaii 96729 (germplasm and trials)
W. Doral Kemper, Soil and Water Conservation Program, Plant and Natural Resource Sciences, ARS, USDA, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (vegetative hedges)
Larry Kramer, Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research, ARS, USDA, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (grass hedges in temperate agriculture)
Stephen Kresovich, Plant Genetic Resource Unit, ARS, USDA, New York State Agricultural Research Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York 14456-0462 (DNA analysis of genetic variation; clonal identification)
J.H. Krishna, Water Research Center, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands
David L. Leonard, LUPE Project-Honduras, Department 236, PO Box O25320, Miami Florida 33136 (germplasm and trials)
Gilbert Lovell, Southern Regional Plant Introduction Station, ARS, USDA, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797 (germplasm
William B. Magrath, Environmental Policy Research Division The World Bank-S-3065 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20433 (economics;
Dan Mason, Wetland Research Project, PO Box 225, Wadsworth, Illinois 60083 (vetiver wetlands ecology)
Mike Materne, SCS, USDA, PO Box 16030 University Station, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (germplasm and trials)
John Mayernak, New Mexico State University, HCR 30 Box 61, Tucumcari, New Mexico 88401 (germplasm and trials)
Charles B. McCants, 201 Merwin Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606
Colin McClung, Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent Street, Arlington, Virginia 22209
Richard N. Middleton, Kabermatten Associates Inc., 2327 Pondside Terrace, Silver Spring, Maryland 20906 (urban flood mitigation and erosion control)
Keith McGregor, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, ARS, USDA, PO Box 1157, Oxford, Mississippi 38655 (quantitative measure of runoff and erosion)
Don Meyer, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, ARS, USDA, PO Box 1157, Oxford, Mississippi 38655 (hedge hydrolics)
Seiichi Miyamoto, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1380 A&M Road, El Paso, Texas 79927 (physiology; salt and mineral tolerances; germplasm)
R. Muniappan, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam 96913 (germplasm and trials)
Mary Musgrave, Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology, Life Sciences Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (stress physiology and water-logging)
Charles Owsley, Americus Plant Materials Center, SCS, USDA, Route 6, Box 417, Americus, Georgia 31709
James H. Perkins, South Texas Plant Material Center, SCS, USDA, Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas 78363 (germplasm and trials)
J.S. Peterson, National Plant Materials Center, SCS, USDA, Building 509, BARC East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (germplasm; botany)
Kathleen Plavcan, Pfizer Corporation, 630 Flushing Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11206 (chemisty)
Hugh Popenoe, International Program in Agriculture, 3028 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (germplasm and trials)
Martin L. Price, Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), 17430 Durrance Road, North Fort Myers, Florida 33917 (technical advice and locating germplasm)
Errol G. Rhoden, 308 Milbank Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama 36088 (germplasm and trials)
Jerry C. Ritchie, Hydrology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Building 265 Room 205, BARC East, Beltsville Agricultural Research Station, Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Herbert Ross, SCS, USDA, Alabama A&M University, PO Box 183, Normal, Alababama 35762
John M. Safley, Ecological Sciences, SCS, USDA, PO Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013
J. Eric Scherer, National Plant Materials Center, SCS, USDA, Building 509, BARC East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (germplasm)
David Schumann, Forest Products Laboratory, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2398
W. Curtis Sharp, National Plant Materials Laboratory, SCS, USDA, PO Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013
Holly Shimizu, U.S. Botanic Gardens, First and Canal Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024 (germplasm)
John Silvius, Cederville College, Cederville, Ohio 45314
Jackie L. Smith, Directorate of Engineering and Housing, ATTN: AFZX-DE-E, U.S. Army, Fort Polk, Louisiana 71459-7100
James Smyle, Agriculture Division (ASTAG), Asia-Technical Department, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 (Vetiver Network)
Edward D. Surrency, SCS, USDA, 355 E. Hancock Avenue, Box 13, Athens, Georgia 30601
Prabmakar Tamboli, East Asia Pacific Agricultural Operations (EA3AG), World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 (germplasm and trials)
Grant Thomas, Department of Agronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (vegetative barriers)
Suresh C. Tiwari, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi 39096
B. Dean Treadwell, Sove Te Haiti, PO Box 407103, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33340 (germplasm and trials)
Arnold Tschanz, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Federal Building Room 625, 6505 Bellcrest Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782
Goro Uehara, Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, 1910 East-West Road, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
Remko Vonk, Agriculture and Natural Resources, CARE, 660 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016
Howard Waterworth, National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Laboratory, ARS, USDA, 11601 Old Pond Drive, Glenn Dale, Maryland 20769
James A. Wolfe, SCS, USDA, Federal Building Suite 1321, 100 West Capitol Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39269 (germplasm and trials)

Vietnam

Dang Thanh Binh, Office Manager of Rural Development, Department of Agricultural Development, State Bank of Vietnam, Hanoi
William John Leith, Plantation and Soil Conservation Project, Vietnam-Sweden Forestry Cooperation Programme, c/o Interforest, Bai Bang, PO Box 1226, Nana P.O., Bangkok 10112, Thailand (germplasm)
Bui Quang Toan, NIAPP Office, 6 Nguyen cony Tru, Hanoi

Western Samoa

Tupuala Tavita, Department of Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries, PO Box 3017, Apia

Yemen

Mohammed Surmi, PO Box 3816, Sana

Zambia

Glenn Allison, District Development Support Program, PO Box 450148, Mpika (germplasm and trials)
George Richard Gray, Masstock (Zambia) Ltd., PO Box 34756, Lusaka (germplasm and trials)
Msanfu Research Station, Msanfu (germplasm)

Zimbabwe

David Pell Goodwin, Department of Surveying, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare (germplasm and trials)
Jano L. Labat, Sugar Cane Farm, Chiware Holdings Put Ltd., PO Box 14, Chiredzi (germplasm and trials)
A.R. Maclaurin, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare
Matopos Research Station, Department of Research and Special Services, PB K 5137, Bulawayo (germplasm)
Anthony O'Brien, Henderson Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture, PB 2004, Mazowe (germplasm)
David Scott, Chipinga Farm, Chipinga (germplasm and trials)
H. Vogel, Conservation Tillage Sustainable Crop Production Service-German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), PO Box 415, Borrowdale, Harare
John Wilson, Fambidzanai Training Centre, PO Box 8515, Causeway, Harare (germplasm and trials)

E Biographical Sketches

NORMAN BORLAUG (Chairman) is a consultant in the Office of the Director General, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico City and a professor at Texas A&M University. A specialist in wheat breeding, agronomy, plant pathology, and other areas, he is one of the best-known spokesmen and ambassadors for tropical agriculture. He is particularly renowned for creating the high-yielding wheat varieties that have transformed the grain supplies of India, Pakistan, and other nations. A native of Cresco, Iowa, he is now a citizen of both the United States and Mexico and is the recipient of more than 30 honorary degrees. In 1970 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.

RATTAN LAL has been a member of the department of agronomy at Ohio State University since 1987. In 1968 he received his Ph.D. in agronomy (soil physics) from Ohio State University. From 1969 to 1987, he worked as a soil physicist and coordinator of upland production systems with the International institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria. His research interests include soil erosion and its control, soil structure and management, soil compaction and drainage, ecological impact of tropical deforestation, viable alternatives to shifting cultivation, and sustainable management of soil and water resources.

DAVID PIMENTEL is professor of insect ecology and agricultural sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. He received his Ph.D. in entomology from Cornell in 1951 and was chief of the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) tropical research laboratory in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and project leader of the USPHS technology development laboratory in Savannah, Georgia, before joining the department of entomology and limnology at Cornell. His particular interests are ecosystems management and pollution control, energy and land resources in the food system, and pest control. He has served as both chairman and member of numerous panels and committees of the National Research Council, including some on biology and renewable resources, agriculture and the environment, and innovative mosquito control. He served as chairman of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development from 1975-1980 and of the Environmental Studies Board of the National Research Council from 1981-1982.

HUGH POPENOE is professor of soils, agronomy, botany, and geography, and director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture and International Programs (Agriculture) at the University of Florida. He received his Ph.D. in soils science from the University of Florida in 1960. Since then his principal research interest has been in the area of tropical agriculture and land use. His early work on shifting cultivation is one of the major contributions to this system. He has traveled and worked in most of the countries in the tropical areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. His current interests include improving indigenous agricultural systems of small landholders, particularly with the integration of livestock and crops. Currently, he is on the international advisory committee of the National Science Foundation and serves as U.S. board member for the International Foundation of Science.

NOEL D. VIETMEYER, study director and technical writer for this study, is a senior program officer of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science and technology that are important for the future of developing countries.

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