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CLOSE THIS BOOKHammering and Marking - Course: Technique for manual working of materials. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut fr Berufliche Entwicklung, 17 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1. Purpose of hammering and marking
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2. Tools and accessories
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3. Working principle of hammering
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4. Working techniques of hammering
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5. Working technique of marking
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6. Labour safety recommendations

2. Tools and accessories

Main hammering tool is the hammer of various types.

Engineers’ hammer

The hammer head is made of tough tool steel with hardened and ground face (2) and pane (4).


Figure 3 Engineers’ hammer

The hammer handle (1) is made of strong and elastic wood and fixed to the hammer head by means of a cotter (3) in oblique position.

Different hammers are used, depending on the size of the workpiece and the purpose of use:

- Riveting hammer (50 g - 200 g),
used for smaller workpieces.

- Hand hammer (200 g - 400 g),
widely used for various fitting purposes.

- Bench hammer (400 g - 2000 g),
used for massive workpieces.

Special hammers for sheet metal working:

- Chasing hammer (250 g - 500 g),
ball face hammer for chasing of thin sheet metal.


Figure 4 Chasing hammer


Figure 5 Curving hammer

- Curving hammer (250 g - 750 g),
barrel face hammer for notchless curving of sheet metal strips.

- Finishing hammer (250 g - 500 g) and smoothing hammer (350 g - 1000 g),
flat or oval face hammers for planishing of faces.

- Wooden hammer (170 g - 500 g),
rubber and aluminium hammers:

Hammers not damaging the surface of the sheet metal during forming and straightening operations.

For special purposes, wooden hammers may be bevelled or radiused.


Figure 6 Finishing hammer


Figure 7 Wooden hammer and aluminium hammer

Hammering supports:

- Surface plates

Strong and flat cast-steel plates which are held by a stand or put on a work bench and are used for most hammering work.

Surface plates must not be damaged by chisel cuts!


Figure 8 Surface plate

- Blacksmiths’ anvil

Hardened support with face (2), round horn (1) and flat horn (3) for various forming and straightening operations.


Figure 9 Blacksmiths’ anvil

Special supports for sheet metal working

- Anvil tool
Flat surface of small size.

- Blacksmiths’ double face sledge
Differently convex surfaces of small size.

- Blacksmiths’ hardy and bordering tool
Differently shaped faces and edges, specifically for flanging work.


Figure 10 Anvil tool


Figure 11 Blacksmiths’ double face sledge


Figure 12 Blacksmiths’ hardy and bordering tool

Main marking tool is the marking punch.

- Letter set
Set of marking punches of all alphabetic letters.

- Figure set
Set of marking punches of the figures 0 - 9.


Figure 13 Marking punch (figure 1)

- Special number and word punches
Marking punches of groups of figures or complete words for special requirements.

What makes the difference between engineers’ hammers and hammers for sheet metal working?

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Which properties are typical of hammering supports?

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Which supports are meeting the general requirements of hammering?

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What types of marking punches are in use?

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