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CLOSE THIS BOOKNailing and Screwing - Course: Making of wood joints. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut fr Berufliche Entwicklung, 16 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1. Purpose and Application of Nailing and Screwing
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2. Tools and Fasteners/Joining Elements for Nailing and Screwing
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3. Nailed and Screwed Joints
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4. Nailing and Screwing Techniques

2. Tools and Fasteners/Joining Elements for Nailing and Screwing

The tool used for driving in the nails, is the joiner's hammer. The hammer consists of a steel hammer head and a handle made of wood. Corresponding to the required effect of impact, they are produced in different weights. In the joiner's shop, hammers with 150 g, 300 g and 600 g weight are generally used. Small nails are driven in with a light hammer, medium-size nails with a medium-weight hammer and large nails with a heavy hammer.


Figure 1 Joiner's hammer

1 hammer head, 2 handle, 3 paw, 4 face, 5 eye

Why are hammers of different weights required?

__________________________________________________

The hammer handle must be tightly fitted into the eye of the hammer head and flush on top. It must be diagonally wedged!

For sinking the nail heads, a nail punch is used. Punches are made of steel. They have a cylindrical form, run conically towards below and end with a plane, round surface of 2 to 5 mm dia. With this surface, they are applied to the nail head and held with the left hand in the direction of the nail. By slight blows with the hammer on the head of the nail punch, the nail head is driven into the wood.


Figure 2 Nail punch

When sinking, there is a risk of bouncing, therefore the nail punch has to be held fast and safely, it must not slip off the nail head!

What are nail punches used for?

__________________________________________________

The tool used for driving in or loosen screws, is the screw driver. It consists of a steel blade, having the form of a wedge at the end and being slightly hollow-chamfered, which is joined with a handle. The screw drivers are made in different sizes. The size to be used depends on the screws to be driven in. The end of the screw driver must correspond to the dimension of the screw slot so that it is possible to drive in or out the screw without damaging the slot of the countersunk-head screw or the wood edge.


Figure 3 Screw driver

1 handle, 2 blade, 3 driving edge

If too much force is applied, there is a risk of slipping off and hence a risk of injury!

Depending on the application, nails and screws are manufactured in different kinds, forms and sizes. The following kinds are distinguished:

Nails

Unhardened steel nails

They are called wire or French nails. These nails are primarily used in joineries.

Hardened steel nails

Steel nails, due to their high strength, penetrate hard materials as well, e.g. brickwork, without being bent.

Hot-dip galvanized nails

Galvanized nails are wire nails with a zinc coating. By this, a good protection of the surface against corrosion is achieved. They are used for structural parts which are exposed to the influence of the weather.

Screws

Screws are made of steel or anti-corrosive alloys. Wood screws are also made of brass or aluminium. These screws are mainly required for the fastening of mountings of the corresponding material.

Why are different kinds of nails and screws necessary?

__________________________________________________

As to form, one differentiates between the following kinds:

Nails

Flat head nails

Flat head nails are used when thin sheet materials, e.g. plywood, hard boards, are fastened to solid wood (rear walls for furniture). Flat head nails are not suited for being sunk.


Figure 4 Flat head nail

Counter sunk-head nails

Countersunk-head nails are used for joining wood pieces. They have the form which is in common use in a joinery.


Figure 5 Countersunk-head nail

Upset-head nails

Upset-head nails are driven in when the nail head shall not be visible. When fastening thin sheet materials, there is a risk that the head penetrates the sheet material and does not hold it fast.


Figure 6 Upset-head nail

Apart from these nail forms, a variety of special nail forms for the most diverse applications are used. Among these are nails without heads, as well as ornamental nails and pins.

Screws

Counter sunk-head wood screw

Countersunk-head wood screws can be driven into the wood so that they are flush with the surface. They are the screw form which is generally used in a joinery.


Figure 7 Countersunk-head wood screw

Oval head countersunk wood screw

Oval head countersunk wood screws are used for the fastening of mountings.


Figure 8 Oval head countersunk wood screw

Round head wood screw

Round head wood screws are not suited for being sunk. They are used for the fastening of mountings and as ornamental screws.


Figure 9 Round head wood screw

Hexagon head wood screw

Hexagon head wood screws are used in the structural timber construction, e.g. supporting structures, roof coverings. They are screwed in and/or screwed out with the screw wrench.


Figure 10 Hexagon head wood screw

Cup square bolt

Cup square bolts are used for fastening the screw-on braces to the door leaf. The square situated under the head fits in a square hole correspondingly punched in the mounting or wood. This screw is fastened with a washer and a hexagonal nut. The cup square bolt cannot be loosened on the mounting side. For the fastening of chipboards, countersunk-head screws or round head screws with the thread extending over the entire length of the cylindrical shank are used.


Figure 11 Cup square bolt

1 head with square, 2 nut, 3 washer

Table 1: Nail sizes

Flat head nails

Countersunk-head nails

Upset-head nails

Length

Diameter

Length

Diameter

Length

Diameter

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

6

0.6

20

1.4

8

0.8

8

0.6

25

1.6

10

0.8

10

0.8

30

1.8

12

1

12

1

35

1.8

14

1

14

1

40

2

16

1

16

1

45

2.2

18

1.2

20

1.2

50

2.2

20

1.4

25

1.4

55

2.5

25

1.4

30

1.6

60

2.5

30

1.6



65

2.8

35

2



70

3.1

40

2



80

3.1

45

2



90

3.4

50

2



100

3.8

60

2.5



110

4.2

70

3.1



120

4.2

80

3.1



130

4.6

100

3.8



140

4.6





160

5.5





180

6





200

6



Table 2: Screw sizes

Countersunk-head wood screw






Oval head countersunk screw

Hexagon head wood screw

Cup square bolt

Round head wood screw






Length

Diameter

Length

Diameter

Length

Diameter


Shank

Thread core


Shank

Head


Thread

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

7

1.5 - 3

1 - 2.1

30

6 - 10

10 - 17

25

M5

10

1.5 - 3

1 - 2.1

35

6 - 10

10 - 17

30

M5 - M6

15

1.5 - 4

1 - 2.8

40

6 - 10

10 - 17

35

M5 - M8

20

2 - 6

1.4 - 4.2

45

6 - 12

10 - 19

40

M5 - M10

25

2.5 - 6

1.7 - 4.2

50

6 - 12

10 - 19

45

M5 - M12

30

3 - 6

2.1 - 4.2

60

6 - 10

10 - 24

50

M5 - M12

35

3 - 6

2.1 - 4.2

70

6 - 16

14 - 24

55

M5 - M 16

40

4 - 8

2.8 - 5.6

80

8 - 20

14 - 30

60

M5 - M16

45

4 - 6

2.8 - 4.2

90

8 - 20

14 - 30

65

M6 - M16

50

4 - 8

2.8 - 5.6

100

8 - 20

14 - 30

70

M5 - M16

60

5 - 8

3.5 - 5.6

110

8 - 12

14 - 19

75

M6 - M16

70

6 - 8

4.2 - 5.6

120

8 - 20

14 - 30

80

M6 - M16

80

6 - 8

4.2 - 5.6

130

8 - 12

14 - 19

90

M6 - M16




140

10 - 20

17 - 30

100

M8 - M16




150

12 - 20

19 - 30






160

16 - 20

24 - 30






180

16 - 20

24 - 30






200

16 - 20

24 - 30



Nails and screws are denominated as to

- form,
- required material, e.g. bare, galvanized, brass, etc.,
- required shank diameter, and
- length.

Example:

Countersunk-head screw, brass, 3 x 30
(shank diameter = 3 mm; length = 30 mm)

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