Home-immediately access 800+ free online publications. Download CD3WD (680 Megabytes) and distribute it to the 3rd World. CD3WD is a 3rd World Development private-sector initiative, mastered by Software Developer Alex Weir and hosted by GNUveau_Networks (From globally distributed organizations, to supercomputers, to a small home server, if it's Linux, we know it.)ar.cn.de.en.es.fr.id.it.ph.po.ru.sw

CLOSE THIS BOOKNitrogen Fixing Trees Highlights (Winrock, 1990-1997, 100 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia koa - Hawaii's most valued native tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia leucophloea - shade and fodder for livestock in arid environments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlnus acuminata: valuable timber tree for tropical highlands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlbizia saman: pasture improvement, shade, timber and more
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCasuarina junghuhniana: a highly adaptable tropical casuarina
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnterolobium cyclocarpum: the ear pod tree for fasture, fodder and wood
VIEW THE DOCUMENTErythrina variegata: more than a pretty tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInga edulis: a tree for acid soils in the humid tropics
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPithecellobium dulce - sweet and thorny
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPterocarpus indicus - the majestic n-fixing tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRobinia pseudoacacia: temperate legume tree with worldwide potential
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia nilotica - pioneer for dry lands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia saligna - for dryland fodder and soil stabilization
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia senegal: gum tree with promise for agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia seyal - multipurpose tree of the Sahara desert
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia tortilis: fodder tree for desert sands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlnus nepalensis: a multipurpose tree for the tropical highlands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCasuarina equisetifolia: an old-timer with a new future
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCasuarina glauca: a hardy tree with many attributes
VIEW THE DOCUMENTChamaecytisus palmensis: hardy, productive fodder shrub
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDalbergia latifolia: the high-valued Indian rosewood
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDalbergia melanoxylon: valuable wood from a neglected tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTErythrina edulis: multipurpose tree for the tropical highlands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTErythrina sandwicensis - unique Hawaiian NFT
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHippopha rhamnoides: an NFT valued for centuries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLeucaena diversifolia - fast growing highland NFT species
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLeucaena: an important multipurpose tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOlneya tesota - a potential food crop for hot arid zones
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHoney mesquite: a multipurpose tree for arid lands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPongamia pinnata - a nitrogen fixing tree for oilseed
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGuazuma ulmifolia: widely adapted tree for fodder and moreli
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFaidherbia albida - inverted phenology supports dryzone agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGleditsia triacanthos - honeylocust, widely adapted temperate zone fodder tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAndira inermis: more than a beautiful ornamental tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTErythrina poeppigiana: shade tree gains new perspectives
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlbizia procera - white siris for reforestation and agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlbizia odoratissima - tea shade tree
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAdenanthera pavonina: an underutlized tree of the humid tropics
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia mangium: an important multipurpose tree for the tropic lowlands
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia auiculiformis - a multipurpose tropical wattle
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPentaclethra microphylla: a multipurpose tree from Africa lwith potential for agroforestry in the tropics
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMyroxylon balsam and much more
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOugeinia dalbergioides: a multipurpose tree for sub-tropical and tropical mountain regions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTProsopis alba and prosopis chilensis: subtropical semiarid fuel and fodder trees
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSesbania sesban: widely distributed multipurpose NFT
VIEW THE DOCUMENTProsopis cineraria: a multipurpose tree for arid areas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTJuliflorae acacias: new food source for the sahel
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSesbania grandiflora: NFT for beauty, food, fodder and soil improvement
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcacia aneura - a desert fodder tree

Acacia seyal - multipurpose tree of the Sahara desert

One of few strongly gregarious Sahelian tree species, Acacia seyal combines tolerance of periodically inundated heavy clays with major roles in fuel and fodder production in countries at the southern edge of the Sahara desert, especially Mali, Chad and Sudan. A gum (gum talha) is collected from the tree and a proportion enters international trade. The epithet seyal derives from an Arabic word for "torrent" used for the species in Egypt and denotes association with water courses.


Acacia seyal Delile (family Leguminosae, subfamily Mimosoideae) is one of over 60 African acacias referred to the Uniseriae group of subgenus Acacia. The species usually reaches 9-10 m in height at maturity and in well-formed individuals a flat-topped crown develops. There arc two varieties, differing primarily in whether or not pseudogalls ("ant galls") develop and in bark color. In var. seyal there are no pseudogalls and a reddish bark color prevails, although periodic bark exfoliation exposes a pale powdery surface which darkens slowly. In var. fistula pseudo-galls arc present and the powdery bark typically remains whitish or greenish-yellow. Both varieties have paired, straight, strong, pale-colored, stipular spines up to 8 cm long which in var. fistula are often fused at the base into the inflated pseudo-galL The leaves arc bipinnate - usually with 48 pairs of pinnae, each of which bears 10-20 pairs of close-set, obscurely veined leaflets. Individual leaflets are 1-15. mm wide and about 5-8 mm long. Small bundles of up to 5 pedunculate capitate inflorescences arise in axillary positions on the young parts of shoots. Each inflorescence is vivid yellow in color, about 15 mm in diameter, and is borne on a peduncle 34 mm long. The dehiscent pods arc flat and somewhat curved, brown and up to about 20 cm long and 5-10 mm wide when ripe, with slight constrictions between the seeds. In a well-developed pod 6-10 seeds arc present, each 69 mm long, 4-5 mm wide and about 2 mm thick - in 1 kg there arc 20,00025,000 seeds. The chromosome number of 2n = 52 suggests tetraploidy.


The range of A. seyal extends from Senegal eastwards to western Somalia and the coastal lowlands east of the Red Sea, and from the Nile valley of southern Egypt to southern Zambia. The two varieties differ markedly in their ranges-var. seyal extends westwards from central Sudan and north of latitude 18°N and var. fistula extends south of latitude 10°S. The ranges overlap mainly in the upper Nile catchment, the Lake Victoria basin and the Ethiopian and East African rift valleys. Occurrence beyond the natural range is limited to arboreta (e.g. Iraq, Portugal) and experimental studies (e.g. India).


Given suitable climatic and edaphic conditions closed, and essentially pure, stands of A. seyal develop but admit sufficient light for grass to grow in the understory.

Through the greater part of the range of A. seyal mean annual rainfall is 500-1200 mm and there is a well-defined 6-8 month dry season with mean annual rainfall less than 50 mm. Occurrences in more arid climates arc associated with the presence of water in addition to direct rainfall The phenological cycle relates closely to the rainfall regime. Where there is a well defined unimodal rainfall pattern, leaf fall takes place by the middle of the dry period and trees remain leafless for 4-7 months, depending on when the subsequent wet season begins. Leafless periods are briefer in bimodal equatorial rainfall regimes. Flowering is concentrated in the middle of the dry season and ripe fruits arc present about 4 months later.

Temperature regimes vary through the range, particularly for var. seyal which is subject to mean annual temperatures of 18-25°C. Var. fistula occurs mostly where mean annual temperatures are 20-25°C, but also in cooler climates in Ethiopia, at the upper elevation limit (1700-2000 m). Relationships with extreme temperatures follow a similar pattern - in parts of West Africa where var. seyal is present, absolute temperature maxima are 50-55°C. Absolute minima through the range of the species are generally 5-10°C but below Sac at the northern limit and at altitudes >1800 m. The distribution pattern overall is indicative of a frost-sensitive species.

Acacia seyal var. seyal from F.E.M. Booth and G.E. Wickens. 1988. Non-timber uses of selected arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa. FAO.

Relationships with soil are well-defined. There is an unusual degree of adaptation for deep, heavy soils (pH 6-8) accumulated a, low points in a landscape or formed directly from fine-grouned rocks, such as shales, and readily weathered volcanic materials. In communities containing both varieties, var. fistula displays greater tolerance of waterlogging and occupies lower positions in depressions and along drainage lines. Saline soils are not suitable.



Var. seyal, especially, is an important source of rural energy as both fuelwood and charcoal. Stands managed on a 10-15 year rotation yield 10-35 m³ ha-1 of fuelwood.


Both varieties of A. seyal are viewed favorable as forage. Dry matter net energy contents are high: 6-8 MJ kg- 1 (foliage) and 4-7 MJ kg1 (fruits). The associated digestible protein levels are also :gh: 100-150 g kg1 in the foliage, and higher in the fruits. For both foliage and fruits, analyses indicate a well balanced supply of minerals and very favorable qualities in terms of proximate fractions (e.g. crude fiber 10-20%; ether extract <7%). The foliage of var. seyal has been shown to contain secondary metabolites but experience suggests that levels are not a matter of serious concern.

Gum talha.

Gum talha has not been toxicologically evaluated and is not listed as an approved food additive. It contrasts with gum arabic in several significant respects, being strongly dextrorotatory, of high molecular weight and low in nitrogen (0.06-0.24%) and rhamnose (<4% sugar composition). Ash contents of cobalt, copper, iron, nickel and, especially, aluminum (>6000 ppm) are high and tannin is present (2%), restricting acceptable use to such applications as a binder for foundry molding and a sizing agent in the textile industry.

Management of natural stands

Both varieties of A. seyal are noteworthy for occurrence in the undisturbed state in seral, even-aged stands. Reconstitution of an exploited var. seyal stand depends not on coppice shoots but on the presence of abundant seed and its exposure to a mild fire which enhances the germination of var. seyal but checks the regeneration of competing species. Stands 15 years old when harvested are likely to have produced a seed reserve sufficient to regenerate the stand. However, individual trees or uncut patches of the original cover should be left as seed sources to insure abundant regeneration. Where management for fodder production is concerned, evaluation of responses to lopping and cutting of var. seyal indicate limited recovery capacity in mature trees. Beating branches to detach leaves and fruits without damage to axillary buds is therefore preferred to exploit these as dry season resources.


Unopened, full-sized fruits are gathered off the trees and allowed to release seed. After cleaning, seed stores well in cool, dry conditions, remaining viable for up to 8 years. Pretreatment in the nursery is advantageous, although not essential, to accelerate the germination rate. Scarification and acid treatments have proved favorable. However, germination rates have rarely exceeded 30% in 7 days. Seeds can be pregerminated in contact with moist cotton wool or filter paper to allow rapid identification of viable non-dormant seed. Transfer to containers filled with a silt-rich medium. Seedlings require shade until the second leaf expands and watering at intervals of 1-3 days as necessary to keep the medium moist but not waterlogged.

Formal stands

Stands of var. seyal have been established in Sudan, often by direct sowing of pretreated seeds to prepared planting spots. Sowing seed in batches ensures a high proportion of spots become occupied. Competition from weed growth is overcome by using taungya, with mechanized site preparation and sowing. Sesamum or Sorghum is intercropped among widely spaced (ca 4 m) rows of trees. For poles and fuelwood a 20 year rotation is projected. Initial stocking is 1000 stems ha -1. Thinnings after 10 and 14 years reduce stocking to 675 and 450 stems ha -1, respectively.


Nodulation occurs in natural populations. In artificial regeneration it has been achieved by pelleting seed with culture of bacterial isolates, sowing into an infected medium or germinating in unsterilized soil. Uninfected seedlings have been inoculated successfully by treatment with a suspension of a symbiont. Rhizobium strains from A. mellifera and A. senegal and Bradyrhizobium from the latter have proved to be effective symbionts.


Over 40 species of insects are reported associated with A. seyal. These include 10 species of bruchid beetles which may damage high proportions of stored seeds. Beetles of various other families attack the wood, the postrychid Sinoxylon senegalense being the most notorious and swiftly locating and infesting freshly cut wood, especially if lying on the ground. Attacks are much reduced if the bark is removed and the cut stems stacked upright Subsequent creosote treatment ensures extended durability.

Selected references

Adams, M.E. 1967. A study of the ecology of Acacia mellifera, A. seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca in relation to land clearing. Journal of Applied Ecology, 4: 221-237.

Booth, F.E.M. & Wickens, G.E. 1988. Non-timber uses of selected arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa FAO Conservation Guide, 19: 8-12.

Hall, J.B. & McAllan, A. 1993. Acacia seyal: a monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor.

Le Hourou, H. N. 1980. Browse in Africa the current state of knowledge. International Livestock Centre for Africa Addis Ababa. 491 pp.

Tybirk, K. 1991. Regeneration of woody legumes in the sahel. Aarhus University Botanical Institute. AAU Report, 27: 1-81.

For a complete set of references contact the author or NFTA.

A Publication of the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association c/o Winrock International Rt. 3, Box 376 Morrilton, Arkansas 72110 USA Tel: 501-727-5435; Fax: 501-727-5417

NFTA 91-01 April 1991