In the field of storage protection, peasant farmers are using chemical pesticides to an increasing extent. Surveys have shown that there are serious problems in the correct use of these chemicals, in the selection of appropriate products and in their quality and availability. These factors cause major problems, and may entail very high risks.
The use of chemical pesticides has made a major contribution to the decrease in non-chemical treatments traditionally used by smallholders.
The information contained in the following publication addresses the problem within the context of both environmental protection and conservation of natural resources, whilst at the same time respecting the need to implement appropriate technologies
The traditional methods of storage protection presented in this brochure were compiled by the project "Post-Harvest Protection for Smallholders" (GTZ Section 423-2), and have already been published in French.
Observations have shown that traditional methods of protection are also practised by smallholders in English-speaking countries of Africa, yet in many places these methods have fallen into obscurity. For this reason, the project "Integrated Control of the Larger Grain Borer and Associated insect Pests in Farmers' Stores" has decided to have the brochure translated into English and published.
Since traditional methods of protection are often country-, region and/or situation-specific, it will often be necessary to adapt, modify or supplement them. This must be performed by national services, NGOs, or other organizations and individuals familiar with the respective local conditions.
This booklet aims to improve knowledge on non-chemical storage
protection, to increase the potentials for applying these methods, and to
promote corresponding extension activities. The methods and techniques are
presented here in order to help make extension staff aware of the alternative
possibilities existing in their region with
regard to storage protection. It is hoped that this will stimulate an exchange of ideas between smallholders and extensionists concerning the nature of substances, and methods traditionally used to protect stored produce.
The listed substances are not registered products, but natural substances and preparations. Their mode of action varies. Consequently, it must be borne mind that differences in the active ingredient content of the substances mentioned (e.g. neem) or their formulation (e.g. ash), may entail differences in application and efficacy..
The effect of traditional stored-product protestants on the Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncates) has been studied in only a few cases. Wherever information is available, it is presented in the columns on effects on target organisms (pests).
It must be remembered that the use of these plant compounds is not entirely free from certain risks, as only few studies have been done on their toxicity in humans.
Estimates of the efficiency of these traditional methods of storage protection vary. Therefore, implementation programmes might also focus on research and experimentation in order to answer these questions.
The target groups of this booklet are agricultural extension and plant protection staff, as well as the national research institutions engaged in post-harvest protection. Non-governmental organisations, self-help groups and women's groups may also find it helpful.
The recommendations given in this booklet will be of particular interest to the African countries south of the Sahara.
The bibliographical sources used were too extensive to be included within the scope of the booklet.