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CLOSE THIS BOOKControlling Insect Pests of Stored Products Using Insect Growth Regulators and Insecticides of Microbial Origin (NRI, 1994, 58 p.)
Appendices
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix 1: References and further reading
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix 2: List of compounds described in review, including IUPAC chemical name, code number, trade mark, manufacturers producing the compound and toxicological data
VIEW THE DOCUMENTToxicological data for compounds examined, compared with data for conventional grain protectants

Controlling Insect Pests of Stored Products Using Insect Growth Regulators and Insecticides of Microbial Origin (NRI, 1994, 58 p.)

Appendices

Appendix 1: References and further reading

AL-HAFIDH, E. M. T. (1985) The Integration of Nosema whitei and some Insecticides on Tribolium castaneum. PhD Thesis, School of Agriculture, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

AMMAR, I. M. A. (1988) Residual bioactivity of insect growth regulators against Sitophilus oryzae in wheat grain. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 61(3): 56-60.

ANDERSON, M., FISHER, J. P. and ROBINSON, J. (1986) Flufenoxuron - an acylurea acaricide/insecticide with novel properties. pp. 89-96. In: Proceedings of British Crop Protection Conference on Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, November 1986.

ARMSTRONG, E. and BASS, L. K. (1986) Effects of infection by Nosema whitei on the mating frequency and fecundity of Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 47: 310-316.

ARMSTRONG, E. and NEWTON, P. B. (1985) The influence of starvation on mortality, development and protein content in parasitized and unparasitized Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 46(1): 103-108.

ARTHUR, F. H., THRONE, J. E., SIMONAITIS, R. A. and ZEHNER, J. M. (1990) Evaluation of chlorpyrifos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus methoprene as protectants of stored corn: small bin tests. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 1114-1121.

BABU, R. T., HUSSAINI, S. H., SRIRAMULU, M. and SIDDIQUI, M. K. H. (1991) Effect of inert clay and insect growth regulators on the development of Callosobruchus chinensis L. and the germination of mungbean seed [Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek]. Tropical Science, 31: 217-221

BECKETT, S. (1989) Biocontrol of stored product beetles - the (re)search. Stored Grain Australia, Summer 1989, 4.

BEEMAN, R. W. and SPEIRS, W. E. (1984) Toxicity, persistence and antagonism of avermectin B1 against stored-product insects. pp. 246-255. In: Proceedings of the Third International Working Conference on Stored Product Entomology, Manhattan, US.

BENGSTON, M. (1987) Insect growth regulators. pp. 35-46. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 1986.

BENGSTON, M., KOCH, K. and STRANGE, A. C. (1991a) Chemical control methods. pp. 471-481. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France. September 1990.

BENGSTON, M., KOCH, K. and STRANGE, A. C. (1991 b) Development of insect growth regulators as grain protectants in Australia and South-East Asia. pp. 485-490. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France, September 1990.

BOWERS, W. S. (1976) Discovery of insect antiallatropins. In: The Juvenile Hormones. GILBERT, L. l. (ed.). New York: Plenum.

BROOKS, W. M. (1988) Entomogenous Protozoa. In: Handbook of Natural Pesticides, vol. 5, Microbial Insecticides, Part A, Entomogenous Protozoa and Fungi. IGNOFFO, C. M. and MANDAVA, N. B. (eds). US: CRC Press.

BUCHI, R. (1991) Effects of the two IGRs methoprene and fenoxycarb on Liposcelis bostrychophilus and Acarus silo. pp. 491 -496. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France, September 1990.

CHAKRAVORTY, S., DEB, D. C. and SAMUI, T. N. (1989) Feasibility of hormonal control of some insect pests: a laboratory-based conclusion. Indian Journal of Entomology, 51 (2): 139-149.

CHAKRAVORTY, S., ROYCHOUDHURY N. and MUKHOPADHYAY B. (1986) Feasibility of insect pest control through endocrine disturbance in imagines. pp. 157-169. In: Proceedings of a National Symposium on Pesticide Residues and Environmental Pollution, Muzaffarnagar, India, October 1985.

CHANDLER, D. R., KING, R. G., JEWESS, P. and REYNOLDS, S. E. (1991) Temperature effects on the action of acylurea insecticides against tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae. Pesticide Science, 31: 295-304.

CHELLAYAN, S. and KARNARVAR, G. K. (1989) Juvenile hormone induced oviposition in virgin Trogoderma granarium. Entomon, 14(3-4): 187-190.

CHIANG, A. S., YEN, D. F. and PENG, W. K. (1986) Defence reaction of midgut epithelial cells in the rice moth larvae Corcyra cephalonica infected with Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 47(3): 333-39.

COGBURN, R. R. (1988) Fenoxycarb as a long term protectant for stored rough rice. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(2): 722-726.

COWAN, D. K., VAIL, P. V., KOK-YOKOMI, M. L. and SCHREIBER, F. C. (1986) Formulation of granulosis virus of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): efficacy, persistence and influence on oviposition and larval survival. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79: 1085-1090.

DAGLISH, G. J. and SAMSON, P. R. (1991) Insect growth regulators as protectants against some insect pests of cereals and legumes. pp. 509-515. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France, September 1990.

DAOUST, R. A. (1990) Commercialization of bacterial insecticides. pp 7-11. In: Proceedings and Abstracts of the Fifth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia, August 1990.

DESMARCHELIER, J. M. and ALLEN, S. E. (1992) Diflubenzuron as a grain protectant for control of Sitophilus species. Journal of Stored Products Research, 28(4): 283-287.

EDWARDS, J. P. and SHORT, J. E. (1984) Evaluation of three compounds with insect juvenile activity as grain protectants against insecticide-susceptible and resistant strains of Sitophilus species (Coleoptera:Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 20(1): 11 -15.

EDWARDS, I. P., SHORT, J. E. and ABRAHAM, L. (1991) Large-scale evaluation of the insect juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb as a long-term protectant of stored wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research, 27(1): 31 -39.

EDWARDS, J. P., SHORT, J. E. and ROWLANDS, D. G. (1988) Metabolism and insect juvenile activity of methoprene and three major metabolites in Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Stored Products Research, 24(3): 165-172.

EISA, A. A., AMMAR, I. M. A. and EL-SHEIKH, A. E. A. (1986) Effect of two insect growth regulators and the ovicide isoxathion on the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum when admixed with wheat flour and egg treatment. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 24(7): 1689-1696.

EISA, A. A., AMMAR, I. M. A., RADWAN, H. S. A. and EL-NABAWI, A. (1984) Larvicidal activity and development inhibition of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum fed insect growth regulator treated wheat flour. Minufiya Journal of Agricultural Research, 8: 405-414.

EL-SAYED, F. M. A. (1984) Effect of the synthetic insect growth regulator methoprene on larval development and reproduction of two species of stored product insects. Bulletin de la Socit Entomologique d'Egypte, 65: 215-221.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (1988) Pesticide Fact Handbook. United States Environmental Protection Agency. New Jersey, US: Noyes Data Corporation.

FALCON, L. A. (1990) Innovative approaches to the industrialization of microbial insecticides. pp. 109-116. In: Pesticides and Alternatives: Innovative Chemical and Biological Approaches to Pest Control. Proceedings of an International Conference, Crete, Greece, September 1989.

FIELDS, P. G. (1991) The cold-hardiness of Cryptolestes ferrugineus and the use of ice nucleation-active bacteria as a cold synergist. pp. 1183-1192. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France, September 1990.

FOX, P. (1990) Insect Growth Regulators. Richmond, UK: PJB Publications.

FRYDOCVA, B., VERNER, P. H. and BARTOS, J. (1989) The comparative effectiveness of two biopreparations based on the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana, especially their effects on storage pests. Agronomicka. A (Rostlinna Vyroba), 1989(50): 247-264.

GAZIT, Y., ISHAAYA, I. and PERRY, A. S. (1989) Detoxification and synergism of diflubenzuron and chlorfluazuron in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 34: 103-110.

GOLOB, P., COX, J. R. and KILMINSTER, K. (1987) Evaluation of insecticide dips as protectants of stored dried fish from dermestid beetle infestations. Journal of Stored Products Research, 23(1): 47-56.

GONZALES, J. M. and CARLTON, B. C. (1982) Plasmid transfer in Bacillus thuringiensis. pp. 85-95. In: Genetic Exchange: a Celebration and a New Generation. STREIPS, U. N., GOODGAL, S. H., GUILD, W. R. and WILSON, G. A. (eds). New York, quoted by JUTSUM, A. R., POOLE, N. J., POWELL, K. A. and BERNIER, R. L. (1989) Insect control using microbial toxins; status and prospects. In: Progress and Prospects in Insect Control. British Crop Protection Monograph No. 43 (Edited by N. R. McFarlane). Proceedings of an International Conference held at the University of Reading, UK, 18-20th September 1989, pp. 131-144.

HENRY, J. E. (1981) Natural and applied control of insects by Protozoa. Annual Review of Entomology, 26: 49-73.

HLUCHY, M. and SAMSINAKOVA, A. (1989) Comparative study on the susceptibility of adult Sitophilus granarius L. Coleoptera, Curculionidae and larval Galleria mellonella L. Lepidoptera, Pyralidae to the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana Bals. Vuill. Journal of Stored Products Research, 25(2): 61 -64.

HUBER, I (1990) Viral insecticides: profits, problems, and prospects. pp. 117-123. In: Pesticides and Alternatives: Innovative Chemical and Biological Approaches to Pest Control. Proceedings of an International Conference, Crete, Greece, September 1989.

HUSSEIN, M. H. (1983) Altosid SR 10 as a seed protectant against the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). International Pest Control, 25(5): 140-141,158.

ISHAAYA, I. (1982) Biological and biochemical aspects of the disruption of adult formation in Tribolium by a novel Bis(thiocarbamate) R-31026 and the Juvenoid R-20458. Pesticide Science, 13: 204-210.

ISHAAYA, I. (1990) Benzoylphenyl ureas and other selective insect control agents - mechanisms and application. pp. 365-376.In: Pesticides and Alternatives: Innovative Chemical and Biological Approaches to Pest Control. Proceedings of an International Conference, Crete, Greece, September 1989.

ISHAAYA, I., ASCHER, K. R. S. and YABLONSKI, S. (1981) The effect of Bay Sir 8514, diflubenzuron and hercules 24108 on growth and development of Tribolium confusum. Phytoparasitica, 9(3): 207-209.

ISHAAYA, I., YABLONSKI, S. and ASCHER, K. R. S. (1987) Toxicological and biochemical aspects of novel acylureas on resistant and susceptible strains of Tribolium castaneum. pp. 613-622. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 1 986.

ISHAAYA, I., YABLONSKI, S., ASCHER, K. R. S. and CASIDA, J. E. (1984) Pyrethroid synergism and prevention of emergence in Tribolium castaneum and Musca domestica (Vicina) by the insect growth regulator RO 13-5223. Phytoparasitica, 12(2): 99-108.

IVIE, G. W., WRIGHT, J. E. and SMALLEY, H. E. (1976) Fate of the juvenile hormone mimic 1 -(4-ethyl phenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-6,7-epoxy-trans-2-octene (Stauffer R-20458) following oral and dermal exposure to steers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24(2): 222-227.

JASSIM, H. K., ABDULLAH, L. M. and ABD-AL-AHAD, I. (1988) Determination of the exact concentration of Beauveria bassiana (Vuill.) to control the larvae of the fig moth, Ephestia cautella (Walk.) on stored dates in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 6(1): 44-45.

JUTSUM, A. R., POOLE, N. J., POWELL, K. A. and BERNIER, R. L. (1989) Insect control using microbial toxins; status and prospects. pp 131-144. In: Progress and Prospects in Insect Control. Proceedings of an International Conference, Reading, UK, September 1989. British Crop Protection Monograph no. 43, McFARLANE, N. R. (ed.).

KAWANISHI, C. Y. and HELD, G. A. (1990) Viruses and bacteria as sources of insecticides. pp. 351-383. In: Safer Insecticides: Development and Use. HODGSON, E. and KURU, R. A. (eds.). USA: Marcel Dekker.

KHAN, A. R. and SELMAN, B. J. (1988) On the mortality of Tribolium castaneum adults treated sublethally as larvae with pirimiphos-methyl, Nosema whitei and pirimiphos-methyl + N. whitei doses. Entomophaga, 33(3): 377-380.

KIRSCHBAUM, J. B. (1985) Potential implications of genetic engineering and other biotechnologies to insect control. Annual Review of Entomology, 30: 51 -70.

KLEIN, J. A. and BURKHOLDER, W. E. (1984) Effect of Dianex (methoprene) on growth and reproduction of Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Environmental Entomology, 13(5): 1340-1345.

KRAMER, K. J., HENDRICKS, L. H., WOJCIAK, J. H. and FYLER, J. (1985) Evaluation of fenoxycarb, Bacillus thuringiensis and malathion as grain protectants in small bins. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(3): 633-635.

KRAMER, K. J. and McGREGOR, H. E. (1980) Susceptibility of stored product insects to chitin inhibitors LY-131215 and LY-127063. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 53(3): 627-630.

KUCEROVA, Z. and ZUSKA, J. (1991) Susceptibility of the psocid pest Liposcelis bostrychophilus to methoprene and to a new juvenoid. pp. 565-570. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Bordeaux, France, September 1990.

KUMARI, S. M. and NEELGUND, Y. F. (1985) Preliminary infectivity tests using six bacterial formulations against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 46(2): 198-199.

LASOTA, J. A. and DYBAS, R. A. (1991) Avermectins, a novel class of compounds: implications for use in arthropod pest control. Annual Review of Entomology, 36: 91-117.

LELIVELDT, B., LABORIUS, G. A. and SCHULZ, F. A. (1988) The distribution of Mattesia spp. (Neogregarinida: Ophryocystidae) a pathogen of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:Bostrichidae) in Togo. Journal of Stored Products Research, 24(4): 241-243.

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McGAUGHEY, W. H. (1987) Bacillus thuringiensis: a critical review. pp. 14-23. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Pests, Tel-Aviv, Israel, September 1987.

McGAUGHEY, W. H. and BEEMAN, R. W. (1988) Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in colonies of Indian meal moth and almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(1): 28-33.

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McGREGOR, H. E. and KRAMER, K. J. (1977) Activity of Dimilin (TH 6040) against Coleoptera in stored wheat and corn. Journal of Economic Entomology, 69: 479-480.

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MKHIZE, J. N. (1986a) Activity of insect growth regulators with juvenile hormone-like effects against the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Tropical Pest Management, 32(4): 324-326.

MKHIZE, J. N. (1986b) Dosage-mortality responses of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.), to an insect growth regulator, R-20458. Insect Science and its Application, 7(1): 19-21.

MKHIZE, J. N. (1988) Synthetic juvenile hormone analogues against four species of stored product beetles. Insect Science and its Application, 9(2): 275-278.

MKHIZE, J. N. (1992) Activity of a juvenile hormone analogue as a protectant against the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (a). Insect Science and its Application, 13(2): 183-187.

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THIND, B. B. and EDWARDS, J. P. (1986) Laboratory evaluation of the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb against some insecticide susceptible and resistant stored product beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research, 22(4): 235-241.

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VICK, K. W., COFFELT, J. A., SILHACEK, D. L. and OBERLANDER, H. (1985) Methoprene and sex pheromone as control agents for the almond moth (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) on peanuts stored in the shell. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2): 258-262.

VIR, S. (1981) A13-63392: a highly effective juvenile hormone analogue for the control of Tribolium castaneum. Current Science, 50(11): 502-503.

VON KRIEG, A., HUGER, A. M., LANGENBRUCH, G. A. and SCHNETTER, W. (1983) Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis: ein neuer, gegenber larven von coleopteren wirksamer pathotyp. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 96: 500-508. Quoted by McGAUGHEY, W. H. (1987) Bacillus thuringiensis: a critical review. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 1987.

WEBLEY, D. J. and AIREY, W. A. (1982) Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of diflubenzuron against Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) and other storage insect pests. Pesticide Science, 13: 595-601.

WHITE, D. G. (1987) Control of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus with the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb on wheat or structural surfaces. pp. 566-575. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Pests, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 1987.

WING, K. D. and ALLER, H. E. (1990) Ecdysteroid agonists as novel insect growth regulators. pp. 251-258. In: Pesticides and Alternatives: Innovative Chemical and Biological Approaches to Pest Control. Proceedings of an International Conference, Crete, Greece, September 1989.

WORTHING, C. R. and HANCE, R. J. (1991 ) The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 9th edn., UK: British Crop Protection Council.

Appendix 2: List of compounds described in review, including IUPAC chemical name, code number, trade mark, manufacturers producing the compound and toxicological data

Methoprene

IUPAC chemical name [isopropyl (E,E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate]

Code no. 'ZR515'

Trade mark 'Altosid'

(Zoecon Corporation / Sandoz A G)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats >34 600 mg/kg ADI for man, 0.1 mg/kg

Hydroprene

IUPAC chemical name [ethyl (E,E)-3,7,11-trimethyidodeca -2,4-dienoate]

Code no. 'ZR-512'

Trade mark 'Altozar'

(Zoecon Corporation / Sandoz A G)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >5000 mg/kg

Kinoprene

IUPAC chemical name [prop-2-ynyl (±)-(E,E)- 3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,4 dienoate]

Code no. 'ZR777'

Trade mark 'Enstar'

(Zoecon Corporation / Sandoz A G)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, 4900 mg/kg

Fenoxycarb

IUPAC chemical name [ethyl 2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethylcarbamate]

Code no. PRO 13-5223'

Trade mark 'Insegar'

(Dr R Maag Ltd and Roche).

Toxicology: Acute oral LD50 for rats >10 000 mg/kg

Juvenile hormone analog I (JHA I)

6',7'-epoxy-3'-ethyl-7'-methyl-dec-2-enyl-6-ethyl-3-pyridyl ether

Dr K Mori, Tokyo, Japan

R-20458

At least four chemical formulations for R-20458 have been quoted in references:
(i) 3- [5-(4-ethyl phenoxy)-3 -methyl pent-3 -enyl ] -2, 2 -dimethyloxirane
(ii) 6,7-epoxy-3,7-dimethyl-1 -(p-ethylphenoxy)-2-octene (Mkhize and Gupta,1985)
(iii) 6,7-epoxy-1 -(p-ethylphenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-trans-2-octene (Mkhize,1986b)
(iv) 4-ethyl phenyl-6,7'epoxy-geranyl ether (Mkhize,1988)

(Hoffman La Roche Inc., Stauffer Chemical Co. Ltd.)

MV-678

Chemical name [2-methoxy,9(4-isopropylphenyl)-2,6-dimethyl nonane]

(Hoffmann La Roche Inc.)
R-31026

Chemical name [S,S-Di-isobutyl N-ethylethylenebis(thiocarbamate)]

(Stauffer Chemical Co. Ltd. California, US)

Diflubenzuron

IUPAC chemical name [1 (4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea]

Code no. 'PH-60-40', 'TH-6040', 'A13-29054'

Trade mark 'Dimilin'

(Philips Duphar, now Duphar B.V.)

Toxicology Oral LD50 for rats, >4640 mg/kg

A13-63223 Penfluron

Chemical name [N-(2, 6-difluorobenzoyl)-N'-(4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl urea]

A13-63220

Chemical name [N-(4-bromophenyl)-N'-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea]

A13-63386

Chemical name [2,6-difluoro-N-3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl amino carbonyl benzamide]

A13-63219

Chemical name [N-(4-butylphenyl)-N'-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea]

A13-63392

Chemical name [2-fluoro-N [{4-(phenylmethoxy) phenyl} methylene] benzenamine]

A13-63061

Chemical name [N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(2 [6-d if luorobenzoyl)-thiourea]

(Saxena and Mathur,1981)

(Insect Reproduction Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, US)

A13-23939
LY-127063

Chemical name [N-[(5-(4-bromophenyl)-6-methyl-2-pyrazinyl amino) carbonyl] -2-chlorobenzamide]

(Lilly Research Laboratory)

Triflumuron

IUPAC chemical name [1 -(2-=chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-trifluoro-methoxyphenyl)urea]

Code no. 'SIR 8514'

Trade mark 'Alystin'

(Bayer AG)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >5000 mg/kg

Teflubenzuron

IUPAC chemical name [1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6 difluorobenzoyl)urea]

Code no. 'CME-134'

Trade mark 'Nomolt'

(Celamerck GmbH & Co., now Shell International Chemical Company)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >5000 mg/kg

Three of its analogues:

WB 271082

Chemical name [1 - [4-(7-methoxy-3,7-d i methyl-2-octenyl) oxyphenyl] -3-(2,6 dichlorobenzoyl)-urea]

WB-148

Chemical name [1 - [4-(7-methoxy-3,7-d i methyl-2-octenyl)oxyphenyl] -3-(2,6 difluorobenzoyl)-urea]

S-171

Chemical name [1-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea]

(Ciba-Geigy)
Hexaflumuron

IUPAC chemical name [1-(3,5-dichloro-=4-(1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea]

Code no. 'XRD-473'

Trade mark 'Consult', 'Trueno'

(Dow Elanco Ltd)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >5000 mg/kg

Feeding trials in rats, NOAEL (2yr) 75 mg/kg daily

Chlorfluazuron

IUPAC chemical name [1 -(3,5-dichloro-4-(3-chloro-5-trifl uoromethyl-2pyridyloxy)phenyl)-3-(2,6-=difluorobenzoyl)urea]

Code no. 'IKI 7899' (Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd)

'CGA 112'913' (Ciba-Geigy)

'UC 64644' (Union Carbide Corp.)

'PP 145' (ZENECA Agrochemicals)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, 8500 mg/kg

Percutaneous LD50 for rats,1000 mg/kg

Flufenoxuron

IUPAC chemical name [1-(4-(2-chloro a,a,a-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)-2fluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-dif luorobenzoyl)ureal

Code no.'WL 115 110'

Trade mark 'CASCADE'

(Shell International Chemical Company)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >3000 mg/kg

In feeding trials, NOAEL (90-d) for rats and mice, 50 mg/kg

KA1488

Chemical name [N-ethylcarbamic acid 2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethyl ester] ('CGA045128')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA416

Chemical name [1-[(4-ethoxy-2-methyl-2,4pentadienyl)oxy]-3-(ph enylmethyl)benzene] ('CGAA013353')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA860

Chemical name 15- [(4-phenoxyphenoxy)methyl 1 -1,3-benzodioxole] ('CGA028772')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA1075

Chemical name [1 - [(4-ethyl phenyl)methoxy] -4-phenoxybenzene] ('CGA035452')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA1205

Chemical name [2,3-dihydro-2- [(4-phenoxy-phenoxy)methyl] -1,4-benzodioxin] ('CGA042015')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA1213

Chemical name [1 -(3-ethoxybutoxy)-4-phenoxybenzene] ('CGA038531')

(Ciba-Geigy)

KA1245

Chemical name [1 -(2-ethoxypropoxy)-4-phenoxybenzene] ('CGA038519')

(Ciba-Geigy)

Buprofezin

IUPAC chemical name [2-tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-5-phenyl-1,3,5 thiadiazinan-4-onel]
Code no.'NNI-750','PP618'

Trade mark 'Applaud'

(ZENECA Agrochemicals Ltd. Nihon Nobyaku Co. Ltd)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for male rats, 2198 mg/kg, for females, 2355 mg/kg

Cyromazine

IUPAC chemical name [N-=cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine]

Code no. 'CGA 72 662'

Trade mark 'Larvadex' (veterinary) 'Neoprex' (veterinary) 'Vetrazine' (veterinary) 'Trigard' (plant protection)

(Ciba-Geigy)

Toxicology Technical grade Acute oral LD50 for rats, 3387 mg/kg

RH-5849

Chemical name [1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butyl hydrazine]

(Rohm & Haas)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, 435 mg/kg Dermal LD50 for rats, >5000 mg/kg

Bacillus thuringiensis

Trade mark, to control lepidopterous larvae: 'Dipel' (Abbott Laboratories) 'Bactospeine'(Duphar B.V.) 'Biobit'(Novo Ind.) 'Future' (Solvay); produced from B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki: 'Thuricide' (Sandoz) 'Javelin'(Sandoz); from B. thuringiensis var. aizawai: 'Certan' (Sandoz); to control coleopterous larvae from var. san diego: 'M-One' (Mycogen)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, 'Javelin' >5000 mg/kg 'Thuricide' >13 000 mg/kg

Avermectins

Generic name avermectin B1 [a mixture of avermectins containing >80% avermectin B1a (5-O-dimethyl-avermectin A1a) and <20% avermectin B1b (5-O-demethyl-25-de(1 -methylpropyl)-25-(1 -methylethyl)avermectin A1a)]

Trade mark 'Affirm'

(Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories)

Toxicology Acute oral LD50 for rats, >5.0 g/kg Acute dermal LD50 for rats, >2.0 g/kg

Toxicological data for compounds examined, compared with data for conventional grain protectants


Figure

Notes:

* Figure depends upon the carrier used and the conditions of the study.
LD50 Dose required to kill 50% of test organism.
ADI Acceptable daily intake (the daily intake which, during an entire lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk on the basis of all the known facts at the time, agreed by the joint FAO/WHO meeting on Pesticide Residues.
**Data taken from EPA, 1988. (Data taken from Worthing and Hance, 1991 )

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