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CLOSE THIS BOOKSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
Week 5: Training
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-48: Small-scale fishing - fishing trip assessment
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-49: Salt making - special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-50: Tropical sea birds special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-51: Poisonous and toxic fish - special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-52: Audiovisual and lesson plans
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-53: Salt making industry: field trip
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-54: Corrosion control special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-56: Solar fish drying
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-57: Fish smoker special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-58: Charcoal making special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-59: Metric system special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-60: Team building
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-61: Introduction to basic refrigeration and ice making with field trip
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-62: Individual interviews and net mending
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-63: Support systems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-64: Processing field trip
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-65: Special project - seaweed farming
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-66: Culinary skills and fish nutrition special group project

Small-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)

Week 5: Training

Week 5, Sessions T-48 Thru T-66

Session T-48: Small-scale fishing - fishing trip assessment

Time: 7:30 AM


· For trainees to formally assess their fishing trip

· To make trainees aware of the need for maintenance of fish gear and possible improvements of fish gear for future trips

· For trainees to work on gear repair, line quality and hook sharpening, etc.


In this session trainees look back over fishing trip and discern which learnings were reinforced from previous sessions. They rate their skill level and through self assessment decide areas they need skill improvement. Trainees look over gear and make necessary repair to gear and generally ready gear for next trip. They examine which preparations were beneficial to trip and which could have been done differently to have been more beneficial.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, markers, tape, fishing gear used on trip




30 Minutes

1. Technical trainer has trainees list on newsprint those aspects of fishing trip that went well, and what made them go smoothly. On another piece of newsprint trainees list aspects of fishing trip that could have gone better, and what could be done to remedy problems on future trips.

20 Minutes

2. Trainees are asked to get into pairs (preferably with someone they worked together with during fishing trip). Trainees are asked to give each other feedback about skills. Trainees ask other trainees to help them improve skills which trainees feel they need to work on. Trainees are reminded that they can use feedback positively as well as negatively. Feedback should be limited to aspects of fishing trip.

40 Minutes

3. Technical trainer now reviews:

a. pre-planning

- food

- fish gear

- fish preparation/handling

b. fishing trip

- trolling

- lure

- hand line

- deep line

c. navigation

- boat handling

d. Diesel

- premaintenance

40 Minutes

4. Trainees check fishing gear and ready it for next trip. Trainer wraps up session.

Trainer's Note:

Closure would be more appropriate immediately after fishing trip session, however after 12 hours at sea (and some sea sickness) trainees are just not up for processing of their fishing trip session.

Session T-49: Salt making - special group project

Time: 10 AM


· To acquaint trainees with the various methods of salt making
· To make trainees aware of salt making methods from sea water
· To construct and demonstrate a small-scale salt evaporator
· To provide technology transfer skills to trainees


This is an ongoing group exercise in salt making. Though the initial session is primarily concerned with introducing the concept of salt production and building a model salt evaporator, the actual manufacture of salt will take place during the remainder of the training.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, markers, wood nails, woodworking tools, plastic liner (.006 mil), clean sea water




20 Minutes

1. Trainee leader for whom this is a special project gives lecturette covering the following aspects of salt and salt making.

a. Various salt usages

- refrigeration and brine

- food preservation: salting, drying, smoking

b. Antiseptic effect of salt

- osmosis effect in water

- prevention of spoilage

- longer shelf life

c. Simple salt making

- evaporation of sea water solar, cooking

- evaporation process

d. Demonstration process

- site selection

adequate sunlight, protection from wind

e. Construction

- dig evaporation pond

- build structure

1 Hour 30 Minutes

2. Trainee leader now has team construct and set up evaporation box. Evaporation Box Construction

a. finish box

b. plastic liner

c. collect clean sea water

Trainer's Note:

1. Trainee group should prepare all construction materials ahead of time.

2. If the importance of salt making as a viable cottage industry is not brought out by trainee leader, trainer should bring it up.

The following is a sample lecturette given by trainee leader during pilot program.



1. What is salt used for (in general, in fishing communities)?

2. Some simple methods for making salt from seawater

3 . Demonstration small-scale salt evaporator

General uses for salt:

1. Food preservation

2. Spices in cooking

3. Health (greater need for salt in hot climates)

4. Refrigeration (use of brine as a secondary refrigerant to lower freezing temperature)

5. Industrial uses: soap, bleaching powder, dyes, pottery, fertilizer

Main uses for salt in small-scale fisheries:

Refrigeration - A concentrated brine solution can be used as a secondary refrigerant to lower the freezing temperature of water. This temperature will vary, depending on the concentration of salt in the brine. The lowest temperature which can be reached is -6° F at a brine concentration of 23.3% salt (by weight).

Food preservation - Salting, especially in conjunction with smoking and drying, retards bacterial growth and subsequent spoilage of fish, giving preserved fish a longer shelf life.

Why is salting not more frequently used in small-scale fishing communities?

Problems often exist with cost and availability of salt. Despite the abundance of natural resources (seawater), coastal communities often import salt from hundreds of miles away. Thus, the establishment of small-scale salt making operations can be a very worthwhile investment for a fishing community.

Methods for small-scale salt making:

All salt making at the simple level in which we are interested involves evaporation of seawater, leaving coarse salt crystals. This can be done by solar evaporation or wood fired cooking.

Solar Methods - Ponds - Shallow ponds dug near a salt water source are frequently used as salt evaporators. In the Philippines, fish culture in the wet season alternates with salt production during the dry season. Where a sandy substrate is available, a pond may be shaped in sand and then lined with plastic to hold water. Bamboo Halves - Also from the Philippines, this technique utilizes a preconcentrated brine set out in shallow bamboo troughs to crystallize. The seawater is first concentrated by leaching it for several days through a sand filter. This makes the process somewhat more laborious, but where bamboo is readily available, it may be a practical technique. Structures lined with plastic - For our demonstration project, we chose to build a wooden box and line it with plastic, since sites for pond digging were not available. This provides a permanent structure which can be moved if necessary, though costs for materials will be higher than with the above methods.

Cooking Salt - Most methods which produce salt by cooking give a refined table quality salt, as opposed to the coarser grade salt produced by solar evaporation. The basic method entails boiling a concentrated brine (sometimes made from impure or 'dirty' coarse salt) until only fine salt crystals remain. Note: When using salt in fish processing, be aware that impurities in the salt can affect the final product, eg. color, taste, etc. For instance, concentrations of copper and iron can cause a yellow and brown discoloration in the salted product. Bacterial molds adapted to high concentrations of NaCl can cause spoilage of salted fish. These bacteria can be killed by pre-heating salt at 100°C for 15-30 minutes before use in processing. The following diagram illustrates a basic two-step salt making process for a pond or other evaporation container:


1) Clean seawater sits in an evaporation pond at approximately 5" depth until it evaporates to a more concentrated brine solution. The rate of evaporation will vary depending on weather conditions: air and ground temperature, amount of sunlight, rain, etc. An example from a demonstration project in the Philippines found that with an atmospheric temperature of 26°C-29°C and a ground temperature of 40°C52°C, daily evaporation is 12-15% of seawater for a six square foot surface area at 2" depth. 2) The brine solution is run through a sand or fine cloth filter to remove dirt or impurities, then put into a crystallization pond at no more than 2" in depth 3) If the brine in the crystallization pond is not agitated and there is adequate sunlight, salt crystals should begin to form. The salinity will be about 200% at this point. 4) Remove salt crystals by hand, let dry in the sun for 1-2 days. 5) Crystallizing ponds should be cleaned after use especially if a white slurry remains. This contains carbonate and sulfate crystals which are sharp and not desirable in the pond or salt crystals.

Demonstration Project:

The following categories were considered in planning a demonstration salt maker: 1) site, 2) design, 3) materials and construction, 4) maintenance.

1) Three important aspects to consider when choosing a site are: proximity to and availability of clean sea water, protection from wind, good exposure to sunlight for most of the day. Due to the lack of open sandy areas near the shore for digging a pond, it was decided to build a box evaporator and line it with plastic. Originally, a small corner on the cooperative grounds was to be used for the site. Later, this was changed to the flat roof of the storeroom as this would be out of reach of curious onlookers, children, etc. The roof also has a two foot ledge which shelters the site from wind. 2) The design was taken from a project model done in the Philippines: One simple wooden box 4 ft x 6 ft divided into four compartments: two evaporation ponds and two crystallizing ponds.


3) Materials used were low grade plywood for the base, 2 x 5" lengths for the evaporation pond edges and 2 x 3" for the crystallizing pond edges. Gauge six plastic was originally intended for the lining, but as this could not be obtained, doubled garbage bags were used. These were stapled in place. (Seawater was obtained in buckets with a boat outside the bay, as this was thought to be cleaner.) 4) Maintenance included covering the pond with a sheet of plywood during heavy rainstorms, measuring the depth each day to gauge evaporation rates, and filtering and harvesting salt at the appropriate stage.


· "A Study on The Viability of Salt Making in Polyethelene Plastic Material For Small Scale Industry'' by Simeon N. Aypa, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Manila, Philippines

· "Salt: A Growing Major Crop of Pangasinan". Countryside Banking. April 1980

· "Preparation of Salt Brines For The Fishing Industry" Kenneth S. Hilderbrand Jr., Oregon State University Extension Service January 1979

· "Intermediate Technology and Alternative Energy Systems For Small-Scale Fisheries". David B. Thompson, South China Seas Fisheries Development and Coordinating Program, Manila, Philippines November 1979

Session T-50: Tropical sea birds special project

Time: 4:00 PM


· To acquaint trainees with the identifying characteristics of tropical sea birds
· To learn how to identify families of birds at sea
· To make trainees aware of special uses for sea birds in fishing and navigation


This session is a special project for one of the trainees. Trainee acquaints other trainees with sea bird identification as a way to gain useful information for navigation and better fishing. Sea bird identification also gives insight into ecological problems. In future PCVs will be able to use sea bird identification to assist local fishermen in more efficient fish capture.


· Flip chart, markers




1 Hour

1. Trainee for whom this is special project gives lecturette using the following example outline used during pilot program.

2. Trainees should make an attempt to identify sea birds in the surrounding area.

Tropical Sea Bird Identification

Importance of Seabird identification

1. Indicators of land

2. Indicators of fish

3. Indicators of health of environment

4. General knowledge

Important characteristics for bird identification at sea

1. Silhouettes - most times will only get a glimpse of bird

2. Size - length of bird from bill to tail and wingspread

3. Shape - relative proportions of head, neck, body, appendages

4. Colors - not so important, most seabirds are black, white, grey or brown

5. Patterns - very important. i.e., dark cap, eye spot, dark or light eyebrow, light collar, rump, dark "M" pattern on mantle, wingtip, underwing pattern, breast, tail, wingband

6. Bill shape - long, short, heavy, slim, hooked, pointed

7. Bill color - helps indicate species

8. Foot and eye color - only good at close range

9. Voice

10. Flight - glide or soar, fly rapidly with stiff wings, or slowly with flexible wings, hover, light and buoyant or heavy and sluggish rapid, deliberate, leisurely, how high, just above waves, above horizon or high over masthead

11. Feeding habits

12. Flocking

13. Habitat - distance off shore

14. Distribution

Seabird Identification

Albatross Diomedeidae: Hugh, largest seabird, long, narrow wings, conspicuous bill, soars and glides. Ship followers.


Stercorariidae: Brown or gray and white. White flash at base of flight feathers, pointed wings, bent at wrists. Elongated central tail feathers.

Tropic Bird

Phaethontidae: Elongated central tail streamers, long wings, pelagic.


Larinae: Long wings, stocky body. Powerful buoyant flight. Ship followers.

Frigate Bird

Fregatidae: Mainly black, deeply forked tail, slender body, hooked bill, never land on water - feathers not waterproof. Pirates - force others to disgorge their catch, males all black, red throat patch inflate, females black with white throat.


Sterninae: Small, slim body. Long wings, forked tail, pointed bill, related to gulls, flock indicates fish.


Sterninae: Contrasting colored cap, slim body, long wings, wedge shaped tail.


Sulidae: Large pointed bill, large head, long pointed wings and tail, throat patch, long neck, black and white or brown and white, brightly colored feet, legs, and bill, indicate fish.

Gadfly Petrel

Procellariidae: Long wings, bent at wrists, heavy hooked bill, erratic flight, highly pelagic, all dark or dark with white underparts. Wedgeshaped tail, tubular nostrils.


Procellariidae: Long, narrow wings, fully extended, slim hooked bill, all dark or dark with white underparts, paired tubular nostrils.


Phalacrocoracidae: Long hooked bill, long neck and tail, rounded wings, black, flight pattern V, submerge to escape, float low in water, prefer shallow offshore water.


Pelicanidae: Huge, heavy body, broad wings, head folded on breast, flaps slowly, white, distensible throat pouch, never far from land, head drawn in while flying.


Alcidae: Short narrow wings, heavy body, large head, conspicuous feet. Small body, black and white, fly low over water, escape by submerging, become airborne with difficulty.

Storm Petrel

Hydrobatidae: Very small, long rounded wings, flits over waves, "butterfly flight", pelagic , nostrils united into one tube.


Phalaropodidae: Very small, slim bill, pointed wings, pelagic, lobed feet, breeding plumage chestnut, fly low over water.

- Margie Hulsair, PCV Sierra Leone


Session T-51: Poisonous and toxic fish - special project

Time: 5:00 PM


· To acquaint trainees with marine fish which are poisonous to eat
· To acquaint trainees with marine fish which are dangerous and/or toxic to touch
· To introduce simple remedies and/or treatments for marine fish poisoning or toxicity
· To provide technical transfer and workshop skills to the trainee presenting the session


This session is presented by a trainee for whom this is a special project. Poisonous fish and other marine life can be dangerous. Harmful marine life is more prevelent in tropical waters than in temperate waters. There is a need to be able to identify those fish which are potentially harmful to the PCV in the field.


· flip chart, markers




45 Minutes

1. Trainee presents lecturette on ciguatera, the symptoms and possible treatment. Also covers fish which carry toxins, bacterial toxicity and fish dangerous to the touch as well as venomous fish. Following is an outline presented by trainee during pilot program.


Fish which are poisonous to eat:

Ciguatera - Ciguatera is a general term for fish poisoning with a common group of symptoms resulting from a not well understood toxin. Over 300 species of fish have been associated with ciguatera, especially those occuring in reefs and shallow water areas and around islands, usually within 35° of the equator. It has been suggested that the toxin may originate with a benthic alga and some correlation is seen with fish at higher levels of the food chain such as snapper, barracuda, groupers, and surgeon fishes. Poisoning occurrences can vary with season and locality.

Symptoms, which can begin from within 4 hours to 30 hours after a meal, include tingling of lips, tongue and throat followed by numbness, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, metallic taste in mouth and temperature confusion. More severe symptoms include muscular weakness, dizziness, pallor, insomnia, exhaustion and muscle pains. The death rate is 10% or less.

Treatment varies according to symptoms present, as there is no single antidote.

Other Toxic Organisms - In general, viscera, ovaries and liver of all species will have a higher concentration of any toxins present in the fish. The livers of sharks, seals and whales are poisonous due to high levels of vitamin A. Turtles also have been reported to cause poisoning similar to ciguatera, though this is not a common occurrence.

Bacterial Toxicity - The largest proportion of illnesses caused by eating fish and shell fish result from bacterial toxicity. Direct causes are polluted waters, and indirect causes are secondary contamination during processing.

Food poisoning occurs with greater frequency in warm water and in warm climates. Be very careful about eating raw seafood, especially raw invertebrates. If purchasing shellfish or crustacea, make sure the animals are alive when purchased. Shellfish can be decontaminated by placing them in a bucket of clean seawater for 24 hours.

Type E Botulism is commonly associated with seafood and usually is contracted from raw or improperly processed seafood. Be especially careful of fish or fish roe which is fermented, smoked or held in vinegar. Heat (cooking) will kill the type E Botulism.

Parasites, though occuring in the majority of cases in fresh water organisms, also exist in marine forms and certainly will be found in some estuarine species. Again, they are usually contracted from insufficiently cooked, raw, or improperly processed seafood.

Fish which are poisonous to touch:

- Jellyfish, Portugese Man 0"' War - causes skin irritations, welts; allergic reactions include an asthma like reaction. Treatment: urine, green papaya, hard liquor, isopropyl alcohol, followed by dilute ammonia or saturated baking powder solution.

- Urchins - sharp spines with barbs lodge in feet or arms and break off. Treatment: remove spines if possible, clean and watch carefully for infection.

- Stingrays - are common in shallow coastal waters, burrow in sand. The rapid action of the spine causes injury or laceration plus injection of venom. Treatment: irrigate wound with clean salt water, soak wound in hot water (the venom is sensitive to heat) for 30-90 minutes, later apply antibiotics.

- Corals, Sponges, Hydrozoans - some of the above cause stings similar to those from jellyfish; sponge spicules lodge in skin - do not handle; "Fire coral", actually a hydrozoan, causes skin irritation, corals are sharp and can cause cuts. Treatment: remove pieces of coral, wash with hydrogen peroxide and treat with antiseptics.

Bony Fishes:

Stonefish - Stonefish are the most dangerous poisonous fish of the Indo-Pacific. They live in warm shallow waters, in crevices of rocks and corals and are well camouflaged. Stepping on any of the numerous spines which inject venom into the victim causes excruciating, immediate pain, sometimes delirium and death. Treatment: an antivenom exists, developed in Australia.

Scorpion Fishes - These fish occur in all oceans and all have one or more venom glands. They camouflage themselves in weedy habitats and if stepped on, cause extremely painful stinging which can last months. Hypotension and impairment of respiration can occur. Treatment: no antivenom exists, seek medical attention, try applied heat to detox poison.

Porcupine Fish - These fish are related to puffers and the spines erect when disturbed. The toxin can cause respiratory failure and a fall in blood pressure. Treatment: no known antidote.


Moray Eels - Bites from morays can be severe, are easily infected, and the eel will usually not let go. Treatment: irrigate wound, clean, watch for infection.

Sea Snakes - Of 50 species of sea snakes, many are widely distributed geographically. Some are aggressive, some docile, and the fangs are located far back in the snake's mouth. Most bites result from handling nets at night. Only a small prick occurs with no pain; within 5 minutes to 8 hours muscles ache, are stiff, tongue is thick. A small proportion of bites are fatal. Treatment: antivenom exists for some species - try to capture the snake and seek medical attention.

A general rule is to be careful! Medical help may not be readily available.


· Australian Venomous and Poisonous Fishes. R.V. Southcott M.D. D.Sc. 1975. Pub. by R.V. Southcott, Mitchem, South Australia 5062

· Fish and Shellfish Hygiene. Report of a WHO expert committee convened in cooperation with FAO, WHO technical series No. 550. Geneva 1974.

· Fish Poisoning in the South Pacific. Dr. R. Bagnis. 1973, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia

· Dangerous Marine Organisms of Hawaii. Athline M. Clark 1978. University of Hawaii Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program.

- Rebecca Hoff, PCV Sierra Leone

Session T-52: Audiovisual and lesson plans


Time: 7:30 AM


· To show trainees that lesson plans can facilitate the planning, preparation and presentation of instructional activities, i.e. workshops and meetings

· To acquaint trainees with various audiovisual aids appropriate to Third World settings

· For the trainee assigned the special project to build on communication/technology transfer skills


This session is a follow-up to Session 28, Communication Through Illustration. Audiovisual aids and well planned and presented workshops are key elements of successful extension services.




30 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the special project gives a lecture on audiovisual aids and lesson plans. Emphasized are materials appropriate to Third World settings, such as grass matting or banana leaves for bulletin boards, home made chalk boards, etc.

1 3/4 Hours

2. Trainee divides the group into small groups of 4 and 5 to prepare a lesson plan for any topic using the attached format. Small groups report out on their lesson plan and then present the lesson.

15 Minutes

3. Trainee draws closure to the session by linking back to previous sessions on extension, community analysis and WID and stressing the importance of workshops and audio visual aids, as non-formal educational tools.


· Visual Aids: A Guide for Peace Corps Volunteers
· Peace Corps Audiovisual Communications Handbook
· Forestry Training Manual

Following model presentation taken from pilot program.


I. Audiovisual aids are instructional materials which utilize the senses (seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, smelling) to communicate an idea or to convey a need for action.

A. Audiovisual aids facilitate learning by "attacking" the learner from additional angles. (Make sure that the message is the same from all angles.)

B. Audiovisual aids may be divided into five categories: printed materials, presentation boards, three-dimensional materials, active aids and electrical materials.


C. The use of audiovisual aids involves planning, preparation and presentation.

1. Planning

a. Identification of needs/audience analysis

1) The need to know and the need to change must be derived from the value system of the audience.

2) The problems and solutions addressed must be acceptable to the audience.

3) The group affiliation, age level, occupational, educational, cultural, social and language backgrounds of the audience must be identified.

b. Statement of objectives

1) Objectives should address the knowledge, skill or attitude change desired of the audience.

2) Objectives should be stated specifically and should indicate the process by which they will be evaluated.

c. Presentation strategy

1) The objectives should define how best to meet them.

2) The type of audiovisual aid to be used is selected based on the objectives.

d. Selection of information

1) The objectives should indicate the content necessary to accomplish them.

2) The content to be used is selected based on the objectives

e. Organization of information

1) A content outline is developed and then specific details are added (treatment).

2) The content must be arranged so that it is attractive, interesting, understandable and easy to follow.

2. Preparation

a. Base the A-V aid on one or two simple ideas presented in a simple, straightforward manner. (Simplicity is an asset!)

b. Be neat and use basic principles of color and design.

c. Be careful in your selection of symbols and your representation of them. (Things don't look the same and aren't seen the same - visual perception - all over the world.)

d. Have some members of the intended audience assist you in the preparation of the A-V aid; their involvement will make it more effective.

e. Evaluate effectiveness in advance by asking some members of the intended audience appropriate questions relating to planning, preparation and presentation.

1) What would you say was the purpose of this material? Why?

2) What are the main points made?

3) What other points are made?

4) Is there something that might not be clear?

5) Is there something that might be added to make this material more understandable?

3. Presentation

a. If included in a presentation, make sure that the A-Y aid is appropriate to its context.

b. Make sure that the A-V aid is visible to all members of the audience and that their attention is focused on it when it is being used.

c. If not included in a presentation, locate the A-V aid so that it will be seen by as many members of the intended audience as possible.

d. Evaluate.

1) Who saw the A-V aid?

2) Were the objectives met?

II. Lessons plans are forms which facilitate the planning, preparation and presentation of instructional activities (i.e., audiovisual aids, workshops, presentations, formal and informal meetings).


Name: Marilyn Berry

Place: Association of Fishermen

Subject: Presentation Plans Audience Peace Corps Trainees

Date: November 9, 1982 Time: 7:30 PM

Special Considerations:

Prerequisite Learning:

What occupational, cultural, educational and social considerations may affect the audience's understanding and acceptance

What knowledge, skill or attitude must the audience have prior to the presentation? of the presentation?



What knowledge, skill, or attitude will the audience have after the presentation?

What materials will be used during the presentation?

Presentation Strategy: How will the objectives be accomplished? What information will be presented? How will the information be presented? In what order will the ideas be presented? What questions will the audience be asked to answer? What techniques will be used to reinforce the ideas presented?

Evaluation: Have the goals been accomplished? What aspects of the presentation contributed to the accomplishment of the goals? What improvements should be made?


· Peace Corps Audiovisual Communications Handbook. Pett, editor.
· Visual Aids: A Guide For Peace Corps Volunteers. 1977.
- Marilyn Berry, PCV Sierra Leone

Name:___________________ Place:_____________________
Subject:__________________Date: _____________________
Special Considerations: Prerequisite

Objectives: ______________ Materials:

Presentation Strategy:


Session T-53: Salt making industry: field trip

Time: 7:30 AM


· To allow trainees opportunity to view a small-scale salt making operation

· To make trainees aware of the possibilities of income generation on the community level a salt making system

· To acquaint trainees with the entire salt making process from start to finished product


This session is important in that it combines key areas of the training - fish preservation and income generation. The field trip is short four hours of walking through a salt making processing facility. The availability of industry personnel to answer questions is also an important facet of this session. Generally, the industrialization of salt making is on a larger scale than the PCV will be dealing with; however, the salt making process will be the same - except on a smaller level. Tie into SP on salt making, Session 49.

Materials and Equipment:

· Transportation for trainees, trainers
· Sunglasses due to salt glare, cameras, notebooks




20 Minutes

1. Technical trainer gives brief orientation to the salt making industry to be visited.

a. salt making process

b. facility

c. economics of salt making

Technical trainer reminds trainees of the interview techniques they have practiced previously and gives a few minutes for trainees to form questions that they might want to ask while on field trip.

3 Hours

2. Tour of salt making facility

a. salt ponds

b. dike system

c. plant facility

30 Minutes

3. Upon return technical trainer processes the experience of the field trip. Questions that were asked are reviewed, interview techniques are critiqued by trainers

Trainer's Note:

A preliminary trip to facility to arrange field trip with the facility personnel is a must. A follow-upletter giving exact dates and times is advised.

Session T-54: Corrosion control special project

Time: 4 PM


· For trainees to become aware of the proper cathodic protection for boats in salt water

· For trainees to become conversant with various methods and techniques available for protecting boats

· To enable trainee assigned to build on communication/technology transfer skills


This is a special project session. This session points out the basics of corrosion and the various methods to protect vessels from corrosion.


· flip chart, markers, corroded objects for demonstration




1 Hour

1. Trainee for whom this is a special project gives presentation on corrosion covering the following:

a. types of corrosion

- galvanic

- stray-current

b. preventing


c. factors influencing the proper amount of zinc

d. overprotection

e. placement of zincs

The following presentation is from the pilot program.


Any action, chemical or biological, which breaks down the integrity of a vessel is corrosion. Fighting corrosion is never an inexpensive proposition. The costs in time and money are often high but are borne out when you consider the monetary value of your vessel and the personal value that you attach to your life.

Electrochemical corrosion occurs in boats by an electrolytic reaction of two metals ~ with salt water acting as an electrolytic solution. The more easily reactive or lower value metal will corrode first due to the current or charge set up between two unlike metals. Any water will carry the charge but salt water is a much more potent electrolytic solution than fresh water. Salt water speeds up corrosion.

What we do on boats is use a lower value metal, usually zinc, as a sacrificial metal. As the zinc corrodes it provides electrons to other higher value metals (brass, copper, steel) to prevent the loss of their electrons. When there is no zinc remaining, copper, the next higher value will start to corrode away, acting as a sacrificial metal.


Zinc anodes (referred to as zincs) are the most common form of maritime defense against electrolytic corrosion. Zincs are usually cast around an iron bar, to guarantee a tight clean fit. This bar is then bolted or welded in place below the waterline of a vessel. On wooden boats all metal fittings usually have their own zincs. Those which cannot hold their own zinc are connected to a nearby zinc by a piece of copper wire tightly fixed. It is important to fix zincs tightly to the metal. They protect so that corrosion doesn't form between the two metals and reduce the effectiveness of the system.

Common practice is to concentrate a higher number of zincs to the after part of a vessel. This gives added protection to the rudder and the propeller. From the point of view of navigational safety it is "desirable" to protect both.

Suggested placement of zinc on each side of a 65 foot shrimper. Each bar represents 11.5 lb anode.

The amount and placement of zincs on a hull is often decided by the use of charts and by guesstimation. The following chart gives some good basic ideas of recommended amounts of zinc to be used on vessels, but it is essential that the amount of zinc be checked and tailored to each individual vessel. These amounts are based on recommendations for ships underway (5 knots or better) when a boat sits in mooring and has very little current, or sits in water with less salinity it doesn't need as much protection.


These figures are general. They assume differences in amount of equipment on board. When paint is patchy or flakey more protection is necessary to counteract the larger area of metal exposed to saltwater. To use this chart you would check the zincs on your hull when it is slipped. If they are 50% to 80% disintigrated after a year in the water you have adequate protection. If they are gone you have been operating without protection and have widespread problems.

A more scientific method to measure the protection of zincs is done in the water. This calls for measuring the electrical potential of the hull relative to a reference electrode. Here zinc is added until the following measurements are recorded on a silversilver chloride reference electrode:

steel hull - 0.85
Aluminum hull - 0.95
Copper sheathed - 0.65

There are inherent dangers in overprotecting a boat. Over zincing can damage wood or aluminum hulls and blister paint on all types of hulls. Over protecting releases hydroxide ions by electrochemical reaction on the surface of protected metals. These hydorxide ions form lye which eats into wood and aluminum.

The simplist check for "over protection" is to look inside your boat for white deposits around thru-hull fittings. The deposit could be salt. If it has a bitter taste you probably have lye and need to remove zincs immediately. Flush off lye with vinegar and keep your eyes on the area in the future.

Another serious type of electrical corrosion is stray electrical current. Loose or corroded connections, frayed insulation, or undersized wiring all allow electricity to escape along steel plates or wooden planks. (Wood always contains some moisture to help pass along electrical currents.) This leads to rapid desintigration of zincs.

This isn't the last of your electrical problems. Large metal objects on your vessel can have different charges, leading to a flow of current and a loss of metal. The best defense against this problem is called "bonding". This means wiring all large metal objects on a vessel together to equalize their voltage and keep them from corroding.

Fiberglass and wooden vessels are "bonded" by running a copper rod or wire along the length of the hull. All metal objects such as stacks, winches, masts, coamings, engine blocks, stoves, appliances and stays are securely grounded to these copper rods so that built-up current can flow to the zincs. In steel hulled vessels it is only necessary to connect these fixtures to the hull.

Electrical corrosion is a major problem to protect against and very expensive to repair if it does major damage. Corrosion by marine life organisms is another major problem. There are two forms of marine organism corrosion, surface and internal.

Surface barnacles and weed grow on the hull and slow the boat drastically. A clean bottom is a big fuel money saver. Marine organisms can also grow unevenly on the hull due to differences of lighting angles and different grades of anti fouling paint being used on the hull. This can affect the handling of your vessel.

While the organisms are wet they clean off the bottom much easier than after they dry. Thus a boat that sees a lot of use is usually cleaner than one that is moored for months on end. The best protection against a build-up of weed is a good healthy coat of anti-fouling or bottom paint.

Bottom paint usually contains a suspension of copper. As with all paints it is applied to a clean, salt free, dry surface. After the boat is placed in the water the copper is slowly released and acts as a poison to kill organisms which try to lodge in imperfections, cracks, and crevasses on the hull. It usually works effectively for six months to a year and must then be reapplied because the copper has all been released.

When bottom paint is applied it should dry enough to bond with the hull but never enough to totally dry. The copper makes the paint disintegrate and flake off if it dries completely. Check your paint and put the boat back into the water six to twelve hours after you finish painting. (Check the tides and finish painting six to twelve hours before you put your boat back in the water.)

The second major category of marine organisms detrimental to wooden boats are marine borers. The major tropical borer is the toredo navalis. Toredo is found throughout the tropics. It has shells at the head which chew a passage thru wood while the siphons hang out the tail end of the organism. When toredo enters wood it only makes a hole 1/16 inch in diameter so it is very hard to identify on the surface. As it bores into wood, the hole increases in diameter and the worm grows in length. Toredos grow into a diameter of 1/2 inch and a length of one to two feet. The best defense is a good coat of bottom paint.

The most effective cure is to remove the wormeaten plank and replace with a new plank. There are always effective half measures as well since it isn't always possible to replace a plank immediately.

Toredo can live in water with a salinity as low as five parts per thousand (sea water is normally thirty to thirty-five parts per thousand). Leaving your vessel in flowing fresh water, upstream from the tidal estuaries for two weeks should kill toredo in your planking. The lack of salt in the water kills them.

When you find tiny holes, heating them with a blow torch identifies them as worm holes As the flame heats the area you will see a spurt of water erupt as from a small water pistol. Now that you have found and possibly killed the worm, you want to guarantee yourself of its demise. Insert a piece of stripped, small gauge copper wire into the hole and plug with a small epoxied driven wooden plug. The copper acts as a poison to kill young organisms and the plug keeps them from getting adequate supplies of fresh water while guarding from further invasion.

Now that we have discussed hull corrosion and maintenance we are ready to come above decks. There are four major categories in the open salt air: 1) rusting of iron members, 2) dry rot and moss on exposed wood, 3) checking, splintering and cracking on exposed wood, and 4) solar disintegration of manmade fibers.

1. Rusting of iron members: Iron rusts due to exposure to moisture which causes oxidation. Much shipboard iron is galvanized, which provides a bit of protection. Non galvanized iron should never be exposed to moisture or air. It should be sealed as well as possible. To preserve iron fixtures it is first necessary to have a clean surface. Existing rust does not hold a coat of paint Step 1. Chip rust pockets and scrape off loose paint. After chipping out major pockets with a hammer, wire brush with lots of elbow grease. Step 2. Surfaces with coatings of grease will not bond paint so it is necessary to remove with soap and water. Step 3. Acid etch to prepare the surface to accept paint. Most commercial etches contain a high percentage of dilute phosphoric acid (about 15% acid) so phosphoric acid diluted works well. This removes the last bits of rust from the metal surface. Step 5. Flush with fresh water (never salt) to remove last bits of residue from surface. Step 6. Apply protective coating to dry surface. There are two types of paint being used today on ships. The best, most expensive and hardest to obtain is epoxy resin paint. This is a two stage paint where a hardener is added to the paint before applying. It is usually applied over a special epoxy resin undercoat. The more traditional system calls for a red lead undercoat followed by two coats of marine grade (or any) external enamel paint.

On shipboard there are many articles which cannot hold a coat of -taint due to banging, chafing and flexing. These are traditionally protected by a coating of flexible tar. Many steel structures are bedded to a deck where water would seep in and are very hard to remove and clean. Therefore, when they are attached they are coated with tar and bedded on a piece of tar impregnated felt. Flexible cable and stays are brushed down periodically with a mixture of tar and diesel or oil to give a thin flexible coating.

2. Dry rot and moss on exposed wood: Work decks cannot be painted well because of the tackle, chain and cases that are constantly dragged across them. Wooden decking has a special problem from fresh water. It impregnates the wood and causes moss to grow, thus breaking down the integrity of the wood grain. This is where that most corrosive element, salt water, saves the mariner. Exposed wood is flushed and scrubbed with salt water. The water keeps the wood from drying out and cracking while the salt kills fresh water mosses which would otherwise harm the planking.

3. Checking, cracking and splintering of exposed wood surfaces: Where possible wood surfaces should be covered. This keeps the wood from cracking. First make sure that wood is clean and splinter free. Wash with fresh water to remove salt and allow paint to bond. There are now preparations to preserve wood from rot. Here in Puerto Rico you can get Metal-Ex which is painted into the wood before painting. After this thoroughly dries, apply two or three thin coats of an enamel paint. Thin coats ensure bond and flexibility of the paint so it doesn't weather off so rapidly.

4. Solar disintegration of man-made -fibers This is the easiest of all to guard. The beauty of man-made fibers at sea is that they don't shrink or rot when wet. On the minus side, sunlight causes them to deteriorate. Therefore, nylon, tryalene end polypropaline nets, fibers, sails and cases should be covered from sunlight as a protection and to extend their life.

Bill Yost, PCV Sierra Leone


· Corrosion Control, Bonding of Boats, Oregon State University by Edward Kolbe, Burce Mate, Robert Jacobson

· Cathodic Protection for Boats in Saltwater, Oregon State University. Nov. 1979

· Metrics

· Weather for the Mariner, William J. Kotsch, 1377 Naval Institute Press

· Preserving food by drying, Manual M-10, Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange

Session T-55: The ugly american

Time: 7:30 PM


· To acquaint trainees with the elements of effective development work
· To have trainees explore why effective development work is time taking, patient work
· To have trainees understand the importance of community involvement


Trainees are given chapter 18 of The Ugly American titled "The Ugly American and the Ugly Sarkhanese." This particular reading points out the necessity for clearly thinking out your project as a development worker. Moves into the absolute necessity for community involvement in a project. Emphasizes the need for ownership of project by community members.




20 Minutes

1. Trainer passes out reading, asks trainees to spend next 20 minutes reading and underlining elements they see as important in development work.

15 Minutes

2. Trainees are asked to form small groups of 5 or 6 and to list on newsprint the elements which they decide are the most important to them as Peace Corps volunteers. They briefly share these lists with large group. Trainer should point out any elements which they have missed.

15 Minutes

3. Trainees are asked to go back into small groups and list traits the "Ugly American" exhibited which they would wish to emulate. Once again they share lists with large group.

20 Minutes

4. Trainees are now given copies of Chapter 19, "The Bent Backs of Chang 'Dong," asked to read the material and make observations about Emma's behavior that they could apply to their own Peace Corps service. Trainer suggests that trainees may want to write these observations in their own journals.

10 Minutes

5. Trainer asks for any observations that anyone may want to make. Trainer now gives short talk on the learnings over past two weeks - summarizing the role of the extensionist, the need for community analysis and the necessity for setting realistic goals for oneself as a PCV.


· flip chart paper, marker, copies of "The Ugly American and The Ugly Sarkhanese" and copies of "The Bent Backs of Chang 'song " for each trainee


Two weeks later Atkins and his wife left by plane for Sarkhan. Emma, a stout woman with freckles across her nose was, in her way, quite as ugly as her husband. She was hopelessly in love with Atkins, but had never been able to tell him why adequately.

She did not blink when Atkins told her they were going to Sarkhan. She told Homer that she'd be pleased to move into a smaller house where she could manage things with her own hands, and where she wouldn't need servants.

Two weeks later the Atkins were living in a small cottage in a suburb of Haidho. They were the only Caucasians in the community. Their house had pressed earth floors, one spigot of cold water, a charcoal fire, two very comfortable hammocks, a horde of small, harmless insects, and a small, darkeyed Sarkhanese boy about nine years old who apparently came with the house. The boy's name was Ong. He appeared promptly at six each morning and spent the entire day following Emma around.

Emma Atkins enjoyed herself in Sarkhan. She learned enough of the language so that she could discuss with her neighbors the best places to buy chickens, ducks, and fresh vegetables. She learned how to prepare beautifully fluffy rice seasoned with saffron. She liked working in her house, and it was a matter of some pride to her that she was as good a housekeeper as most of her neighbors.

Homer Atkins kept busy with his man-powered water pump. The idea had developed very slowly in his mind. What was needed was some kind of efficient pump to raise the water from one terraced paddy to another. Lifting water in the hilly sections consumed enormous amounts of energy. It was usually done by a pail, or by a cloth sack, attached to the end of a long pole. One man would lower the pail and swing it up to the next terrace where another man would empty it. It was a slow and cumbersome method, but the Sarkhanese had been doing it for generations and saw no reason to change. Atkins had decided that there was no sense in trying to talk them out of an obviously inefficient method unless he could offer them a more efficient method to replace it.

He solved two-thirds of his problem. A simple pump needed three things. First, it needed cheap and readily available piping. He had decided that the pipes could be made out of bamboo, which was abundant. Second, the pump needed a cheap and efficient pump mechanism. This had taken longer to find, but in the end Atkins had succeeded. Outside many Sarkhaese villages were piled the remains of jeeps which had been discarded by the military authorities. Atkins had taken pistons from one of these jeeps and had replaced the rings with bands of cheap felt to make a piston for his pump. He then cut the block of the jeep in two; he used one of the cylinders as a suction chamber, and the other cylinder as a discharge chamber. With a simple mechanical linkage the piston could be agitated up and down, and would suck water as high as thirty feet. The third problem, which Atkins had not yet solved, was the question of what power could be applied to the linkage.

In the end Emma gave him the answer.

"Why don't you just send off to the States for a lot of hand pumps like they use on those little cars men run up and down the railroads?" she asked one day.

''Now look, dammit, I've explained to you before," Atkins said. "It's got to be something they use out here. It's no good if I go spending a hundred thousand dollars bringing in something. It has to be something right here, something the natives understand."

"Why, Homer," Emma said, "with all that money you've got in the bank back at Pittsburg, why don't you give some of it to these nice Sarkanese?"

Atkins looked up sharply, but saw at once that she was teasing him. He grunted.

"You know why. Whenever you give a man something for nothing the first person he comes to dislike is you. If the pump is going to work at all, it has to be their pump, not mine,"

Emma smiled fondly at Homer Atkins. She turned and looked out the window. A group of Sarkhanese on bicycles, as usual, were moving in toward the market places at Haidho She watched them for a few moments, and then spun around, excitement in her eyes.

"Why don't you use bicycles? There are millions of them in this country and they must wear out. Maybe you could use the drive mechanism of an old bicycle to move the pump."

Atkins looked at Emma and slowly sat up straight. He slapped his hand against his knee.

"By God, I think you've got it, girl," he said softly. "We could take the wheels off an old bike, link the chain of the bike to one large reduction gear, and then drive the piston up and down with an eccentric "

Atkins began to walk around the room. Emma, a slight grin on her face, returned to her charcoal fire over which she had a fragrant pot of chicken cooking. In a few moments she heard the rustle of paper and knew that Atkins was bent over his drawing board. Two hours later he was still drawing furiously An hour after that he went to a footlocker, took out a half-dozen bottles of beer, and brought them back to his work table. By dinner time he had drunk them all and was whistling under his breath When Emma tapped him on the shoulder and told him that dinner was ready, he swung around excitedly

"Look, baby, I think I've got it," he said, and began to explain to her rapidly, interrupting himself to make quick calculations on a piece of paper. When she finally got him to sit down, he ate so fast that the chicken gravy ran down his chin. He wiped his chin with his shirt sleeve and made sure none of the gravy got on his precious drawings. Emma Atkins watched her husband fondly. She was proud of him, and she was happy when he was happy. Today she felt very happy, indeed.

"Stop drinking beer, Homer Atkins," Emma said, grinning. "You'll get drunk. And then you'll forget that it was my idea about the bicycle."

"Your idea?" he yelled in astonishment. "Woman, you're crazy. I was thinking about that all along. You just reminded me of it."

But then he went back to the locker, brought back two bottles of beer, and blew suds at her when he filled her glass.

Two days later Atkins had a working model. Not a single item in the crude pump would have to be imported. He had calculated that there was probably enough scrap around the countryside to make a couple of thousand pumps. What he had to do now was to get a couple of pumps actually in operation, to see how they worked. At this point Emma Atkins demonstrated her diplomatic skills.

"Now look, Homer, don't go running off like a wild man," Emma said softly. "You've got a good machine there. I'm proud of you. But don't think that just because it's good the Sarkhanese are going to start using it right away. Remember the awful time that you had getting trade unions In America to accept earth-moving equipment. These people here are no different. You have to let them use the machine themselves and in their own way. If you try to jam it down their throats, they'll never use it."

"All right, Mrs. Foster Dulles, you tell me what to do," Atkins said. He knew she was right and he was grateful to her. "You tell me how I ought to approach the Sarkhanese."

Emma calmly explained her plan to Homer. He realized that she had been thinking of this for some time. It was an intricate, beautiful plan, and he wished that some of the stuffed-shirts in the American Embassy could hear his wife talking.

The next day he put into operation Emma Atkins' grand strategy.

He drove in his used jeep to the tiny village of Chang 'song, a community of one hundred souls, living in fifteen or twenty houses. The village was set precariously on a steep hill sixty miles outside of Haidho. The soil there was rich; but the backbreaking, time-consuming process of lifting water up seven or eight levels--even though the differentials were small-had always made Chang 'song a poor village.

Atkins politely asked the first person he met in Chang 'song where the home of the headman was. He talked to the headman, a venerable man of seventy five, without an interpreter. It was not easy, but he could tell that the headman was pleased that Atkins was making the effort to talk his language. With infinite courtesy the old man sensed what words Atkins was searching for, and politely supplied them. The conversation moved along more rapidly than Homer had expected it would.

Atkins explained that he was an American and that he was an inventor. He had an idea for a pump to lift water. He, Atkins, wanted to develop and patent this pump and sell it at a profit. What Atkins wanted the headman to find was a Sarkhanese worker with mechanical skill. Atkins said he would pay well for this man's time and skill; if he was able to help with the pump, he would become half-owner of the patent. The old man nodded gravely. They then began a long, complicated, and delicate negotiation over the matter of how much the native mechanic should be paid. Atkins understood all of this quite well--it was just like negotiating with a trade union organizer in the States. Each man knew that he would eventually have to compromise; and each took pleasure in talking the whole thing out. In the end Atkins got the services of a mechanic for a price which he knew was just slightly higher

than the going rate. Both the headman and Atkins were satisfied. They shook hands, and the headman left to bring in the mechanic. Atkins reached in his shirt pocket, took out a cigar, and lit it with pleasure. This would, he thought, be fun.

When the headman returned he brought with him a small, stocky, heavily-muscled man whom he introduced as Jeepo. The headman explained that the name was not a native name. He was called Jeepo because of his reputation as a famous mechanic in the maintenance and repair of jeeps. Atkins didn't listen too closely to what the headman was saying. He was studying Jeepo, and he liked what he saw.

Jeepo looked like a craftsman. His fingernails were as dirty as Atkins', and his hands were also covered with dozens of little scars. Jeepo looked back steadily at Atkins without humility or apology, and Atkins felt that in the mechanic's world of bolts and nuts, pistons and leathers, and good black grease he and Jeepo would understand one another.

And Jeepo was ugly. He was ugly in a rowdy, bruised, carefree way that pleased Atkins. The two men smiled at one another.

"The headman says you are a good mechanic," Atkins said. "He says that you're an expert on repairing jeeps. But I must have a man who is expert at other things as well. Have you ever worked on anything besides jeeps?"

Jeepo smiled.

"I've worked on winches, pumps, Citroens, American and French tanks, windmills, bicycles, the toilets of wealthy white people, and a few airplanes."

"Did you understand everything that you were working on?" Atkins asked.

"Who understands everything that he works on?" Jeepo said. "I feel that I can work with anything that is mechanical. But that is only my opinion. Try me."

"We'll start this afternoon, "Atkins said. "In my jeep outside is a heap of equipment. You and I will unload it and we'll start at once."

By the middle of the afternoon they had assembled most of Atkins' equipment on the edge of a paddy on the second level of the village of Chang 'Dong. Twenty-five feet of bamboo pipe had been fastened together; the bottom of the pipe was put into a backwater of the river that flowed by the village. The top piece of the pipe was fitted by a rubber gasket to the crude pump which Atkins had designed. Above the pump was the frame of a used bicycle with both of its wheels removed. Jeepo had done the assembly entirely by himself. Atkins had made one attempt to help, but Jeepo had gone ahead on his own, and Atkins realized that he wanted to demonstrate his virtuosity. By late afternoon the assembly was ready.

Atkins squatted calmly in the mud waiting for Jeepo to finish. The headman and two or three of the elders of the village were squatting beside him. Although they were externally as passive as Atkins, he was aware that they were very excited. They understood perfectly what the machine was intended for; they were not sure it would work.

"Sir, the mechanism is ready to operate," Jeepo finally said quietly. "I'm not sure we can get suction at so great a height; but I'd be pleased to turn the bicycle pedals for the first few minutes to test it."

Atkins nodded. Jeepo climbed aboard the bicycle and began to pump slowly. The chain-drive of the bicycle turned with increasing speed. The crude pipes made a sucking noise. For several seconds there was no other sound except this gurgle. Then, suddenly, from the outflow end of the pump a jet of dirty brown water gushed forth. Jeepo did not stop pedaling nor did he smile; but the headman and the other elders could not restrain their excitement about the size of the jet of water that was being lifted to the second rice terrace.

"This is a very clever machine," the headman said to Atkins. "In a few minutes you have lifted more water than we could lift by our old methods in five hours of work."

Atkins did not respond to the man's delight. He was waiting to see how Jeepo reacted. He sensed that Jeepo was not entirely happy or convinced.

Jeepo continued to pump at the machine. He looked down at the machinery, noted some tiny adjustments that had to be made, and called them out to Atkins. When the small paddy was full of water he stopped, and swung down out of the bicycle seat.

"It is a very clever machine, Mr. Atkins," Jeepo said quietly. "But it will not be a sensible machine for this country."

Atkins looked steadily at Jeepo for a long moment, and then nodded.

"Why not?" he asked.

Jeepo did not respond at once. He moved silently around the mechanism, twisting a bolt here, adjusting a lever there; then he stood up and faced Atkins.

"The machine works very, very well," Jeepo said. "But to make It work a person would have to have a second bicycle. In this country, Mr. Atkins, very few people have enough money to afford two bicycles. Unless you can find another way to drive the pump, or unless your government is prepared to give us thousands of bicycles, your very clever device is a waste of time."

For a moment Atkins felt a flush of anger. It was a hard thing to be criticized so bluntly. For a hot, short moment, Atkins calculated how many bicycles his three million dollars would buy; then, with the memory of Emma's tact in his mind, he put the thought aside. He turned back to Jeepo.

"What happens to old bicycles in this country?" he asked. "Aren't there enough of them to serve as power machines for the pumps?"

"There are no old or discarded bicycles in this country," Jeepo said. "We ride bicycles until they are no good. When a man throws his bicycle away, it's too old to be used for one of these pumps."

For a moment the ugly American faced the ugly Sarkhanese. When he was younger, Atkins would have turned on his heel and walked away. Now he grinned at Jeepo.

"All right, Jeepo, you say you're an expert mechanic. What would you do? Am I simply to give up my idea-or can we find some other way to give power to the pump?'

Jeepo did not answer at once. He squatted in the shallow rice-field, his khaki shorts resting in three inches of mud. He stared fixedly at the improbable machine. For ten minutes he said nothing. Then he stood up and walked slowly to the machine. He turned the pedal and held his finger over the rear-drive sprocket of the wheel as if to test its strength. Then he walked back and squatted again.

The headman looked once at Atkins and then talked in a sharp voice to the elders. The headman was embarrassed at Jeepo's arrogance, and he was saying that the entire village of Chang 'Dong would lose face by this ridiculous performance. Jeepo's ears became slightly red at the criticism, but he did not turn his head or acknowledge that he heard the headman's words.

Atkins felt like laughing. The headman and the elders reminded him very much of the diplomats to whom he had talked for so many months in Phnom Penh. He was quite sure that Jeepo had an answer for these comments, and he was also sure that it was not a political or personal answer, but technical. Atkins squatted down beside Jeepo, and for fifteen minutes the two men sat quietly on their heels studying the machine. Atkins was the first to speak.

"Perhaps we could make the frame of the bicycle out of wood and then we'd only have to buy the sprocket mechanism," Atkins said in a tentative voice.

"But that's the part of the bicycle which is most expensive," Jeepo said.

For perhaps another ten minutes they squatted motionless. Behind him Atkins could hear the shrill voices of the headman and the elders. Although they were attempting to maintain their dignity and manners, it was clear to Atkins that they were trying to find a way to apologize to him and to smooth the whole thing over. It never occurred to Atkins to talk to them. He and Jeepo were hard at work.

Once Atkins walked to the mechanism, turned the pedals rapidly, held his finger on the sprocket gear, and looked at Jeepo. Jeepo shook his head. He understood the mechanical question that Atkins had asked and was giving his answer. Without exchanging a word they demonstrated six or eight alternative ways of making the pump work, and discarded them all. Each shake of the head upset the headman and elders profoundly.

It was dusk before they solved the problem, and it was Jeepo who came up with the solution. He suddenly stood bolt upright, walked over to the bicycle, remounted, and began to pedal furiously. Water gushed out of the outflow of the pump. Jeepo looked back over his shoulder at the lower level of the pump, then started to shout at Atkins in a loud and highly disrespectful voice in which there was the sound of discovery. It took Atkins another five minutes to understand fully what Jeepo was proposing.

It was the height of simplicity. What he proposed was that a treadmill be built which could be turned by the rear wheel of an ordinary bicycle fitted into a light bamboo frame. What this meant was that a family with a single bicycle could put the bicicle in the bamboo rack, mount it, and pedal. The rear wheel would drive the treadmill which in turn would drive the pump with an efficiency almost as great as Atkin's original model. When anyone needed to use the bike, he could simply pick it up from the rack and ride away.

"This man has made a very great discovery," Atkins said solemnly to the headman and the elders. "He has developed a way in which a bicycle can be used to drive the pump and still be used for transportation. Without Jeepo's help my idea would have been useless. What I propose is that we draw up a document giving Jeepo one-half of the profits which might come from this invention."

The headman looked at Jeepo and then at the elders. He commenced talking to the elders in a solemn voice. Atkins grasped that the headman had never heard of a binding legal document between a white man and a Sarkhanese. It became clear to him, also, that the headman was determined to drive a hard bargain. After several minutes of consultation he turned to Atkins.

"Do you propose that you and Jeepo will begin to build such pumps?" the headman asked.

"Yes. I would like to enter into business with Jeepo. We will open a shop to build this kind of a pump, and we will sell it to whoever will buy. If the customer does not have the money, we will agree that he can pay off the cost of the pump over a three-year period. But don't get the idea that Jeepo will be paid by me for doing nothing. He must work as the foreman of the shop, and he will have to work hard. Not any harder than I work, but as hard as I do."

One of the elders broke in excitedly. He pointed out that it was very unlikely that a white man would work as hard as Jeepo. He had never seen a white man work with his hands before, and what guarantee could they have that Atkins would work as hard. Another of the elders agreed, pointing out that this looked like the trick of a white man to get cheap labor from a Sarkhanese artisan. Both of the elders were firmly opposed to Jeepo entering into the partnership.

During all of this discussion, Jeepo did not speak. He tinkered with the pump and bicycle mechanism, tightening gears, checking valves, and tightening the bicycle chain, When the two elders had finished talking, he turned around and came through the mud of the rice paddy to where the group was talking.

"I have listened without speaking to what you foolish old men have been saying." Jeepo said, his voice harsh with anger. "This American is different from other white men. He knows how to work with his hands. He built this machine with his own fingers and his own brain. You people do not understand such thing. But men that work with their hands and muscles understand one another. Regardless of what you say, I will enter into business with this man if he will have me."

There was a quick flush of shame on the headman's face. "I think that Jeepo is correct," he said. "This man can be trusted. I will now write up the document which will assure that he and Jeepo share the profits and the work equally."

"And the document should say that neither I nor the American shall license or patent the idea of the pump," Jeepo said. "We will make the idea available to anyone else who can make it. But on the ones we make, we deserve the profit. That is the way of working men."

Jeepo looked at Atkins. Atkins was pleased, and he nodded.

"Also, when we have made some pumps and sold them we will print little books and it will show others how to do it," Atkins said. "We will send it around the whole of Sarkhan, and the village of Chang 'song will become famous for its mechanical skills."

Jeepo and Atkins did not wait for the headman to complete their contract before beginning work. Two days later they had rented a large old rice warehouse on the edge of Chang 'song. In another day they had hired twelve workers. Jeepo and Atkins drove into Haidho, bought used tools and supplies, and carted them back to the warehouse. In a week the plant was in full operation. Over the entrance to the warehouse a small sign written in Sarkhanese said: "The Jeepo-Atkins Company, Limited." Inside the warehouse was a scene of incredible and frantic effort. Jeepo and Atkins worked eighteen to twenty hours a day. They trained the Sarkhanese'; they installed a small forge which glowed red-hot most of the day; they tested materials; they hammered; they swore; and several times a day they lost their tempers and ranted at one another. Their arguments, for some reason, caused the Sarkhanese workmen a great deal of pleasure, and it was not until several months had passed that Atkins realized why--they were the only times that the Sarkhanese had ever seen one of their own kind arguing fairly and honestly, and with a chance of success, against a white man.

Emma Atkins did not stay long in the suburb outside of Haidho. Within a week she had moved their belongings to a small house in Chang 'song. She bustled about her home and through the village, buying chickens and vegetables, and making huge casseroles of rice and chicken. Every day at noon she and several of the village women brought two of the casseroles to the warehouse and all of the men ate from them. Emma seemed to find it not at all unusual that her husband should be in a tiny hillside village constructing something as outlandish as bicycle water pumps.

Once a technical advisor from the American Embassy called at the warehouse and watched quitely for several hours. The next day the counsellor of the Embassy called. Taking Atkins to one side, he pointed out to him that for white men to work with their hands, and especially in the countryside, lowered the reputation of all white men. He appealed to Atkins' pride to give up this project, Moreover, he pointed out that the French, most experienced of colonizers, had never allowed natives to handle machinery. Atkins' reply was brief, but it was pointed, and the counsellor drove away in anger. Atkins returned joyfully to his work in the warehouse.

At the end of six weeks they had manufactured twenty-three pumps. When the twenty-fourth pump was finished, Atkins called all of the men together. He and Jeepo then faced the group and between them outlined what now had to be done. Jeepo did most of the talking.

"This is the difficult part," Jeepo started quietly. "You have worked hard and well to build these pumps-now you must sell them. Our friend Atkins here says that in America one of the best things that can happen to engineers like yourself is to be allowed to sell what they make. So each of you will now take two of these pumps as samples, and go out and take orders for more. For each pump that you sell you will get a ten per cent commission." one of the men interrupted. He did not understand what a commission was. There was a confused five minutes while Atkins and Jeepo explained, and when they were finished the prospective engineer salesmen were smiling cheerfully. They had never heard of such a proposal before, but it struck them as both attractive and ingenious. When the discussion was over, twelve contracts were laid out on a table; and each of the Sarkhanese signed a contract between himself and The Jeepo-Atkins Company, Limited.

The next morning twelve oxcarts were lined up outside the warehouse. Two of the pumps were carefully laid out on beds of straw on each of these carts. By noon the twelve salesmen had left for all parts of the province.

Now the waiting began. Jeepo, the headman, the elders, and everyone else in the village realized that everything rested on the persuasiveness of the engineer-salesmen and the performance of the bicycle-powered pump. If no orders were placed, Atkins would have to leave, and the excitement of the factory would disappear. In only a few weeks all of this activity had become very important to the people of Chang 'song. The people drifted into the warehouse, and watched Jeepo and Atkins at work, and many of them began to help. The tension grew steadily; and when four days had passed and not one of the salesmen had returned, a blanket of gloom as thick as a morning mist settled over the village.

Then on the morning of the fifth day one of the salesmen returned. He drove at a speed which, for an oxcart, is rare. The ox stumbled and splashed mud in the air, and the salesman beat the animal with gusto and enthusiasm.

As the ox labored up the hill, everyone in the village came to the warehouse to learn what would happen. When the cart, covered with mud, drew to a halt, there was a low murmur. They could all see that the cart was empty. The driver got down from the cart slowly, fully aware of his importance. He walked over calmly and stood before his two employers.

"I have the pleasure to inform you, sirs, that I have done wrong," he began, a grin on his face. "You told me that I should bring back the two samples, but I was unable to do it. I have taken orders for eight pumps. But two of my customers insisted that I deliver the pumps at once. Because their paddies were in desperate need of water and the crops might have been ruined, I reluctantly gave them the pumps. I hope I have not made a mistake."

There was a deep sigh from the crowd and everyone turned and looked at Jeepo and Atkins. These two squat, ugly, grease-splattered men stared at one another for a moment, and then let out shouts of joy. Jeepo hugged Atkins. Atkins hugged Jeepo, and then Jeepo hugged Mrs. Atkins. Then everyone in the village hugged everyone else. For several hours an improvised party involved the entire village.

The next morning the village was up early, but notes early as Atkins and Jeepo. As the people went down to the warehouse, they heard the clank of hammers and wrenches. They peered into the dim interior of the warehouse and smiled at one another. Atkins and Jeepo were in the midst of a terrible argument over a modification of the pump. Emma Atkins was laying out a huge breakfast in front of the two men, and they were ignoring it as they continued their argument.


Emma Atkins was a simple and straightforward person. She was not a busybody; but she had learned that when she wanted to know something the best way to find out was to ask a direct question. She had been in Chang 'song only two weeks when she asked an unanswerable question.

She was working in her kitchen with two of her Sarkhanese neighbors, trying to make a small guava which grew in the jungle into a jam. The glowing charcoal stove and the sweet aroma of the bubbling fruit gave the kitchen a cozy and homey atmosphere. Emma felt good. She had just finished telling her neighbors about how a kitchen was equipped in America; then through the open window, she saw an old lady of Chang 'song hobble by, and the question flashed across her mind. She turned to the two women and spoke slowly, for the Sarkhanese language was new to her.

"Why is it that all the old people of Chang 'song are bent over" Emma asked. "Every older person I have seen is bent over and walks as if his back is hurting."

The two neighbor women shrugged.

"It is just that old people become bent," one of them answered. "That's the natural thing which happens to older people."

Emma was not satisfied, but she did not pursue the problem any further then. Instead, she kept her eyes open. By the time the rainy season was over, she had observed that every person over sixty in the village walked with a perpetual stoop. And from the way they grimaced when they had to hurry, she realized that the stoop was extremely painful. The older people accepted their backaches as their fate, and when Emma asked them why they walked bent over, they only smiled.

Three weeks after the monsoon ended, the older people in the village began to sweep out their own homes, the paths leading from their houses to the road, and finally the road itself. This sweeping was inevitably done by older people. They used a broom made of palm fronds. It had a short handle, maybe two feet long, and naturally they bent over as they swept.

One day, as Emma was watching the wrinkled and stooped woman from the next house sweep the road, things fell into place. She went out to talk to the woman.

"Grandmother, I know why your back is twisted forward," she said. "It's because you do so much sweeping bent over that short broom. Sweeping in that position several hours a day gradually moulds you into a bent position. When people become old their muscles and bones are not as flexible as when they were young."

"Wife of the engineer, I do not think it is so," the old lady answered softly. "The old people of Southern Sarkhan have always had bent backs."

"Yes, and I'll bet that they all got them from sweeping several hours a day with a short-handled broom," Emma said. "Why don't you put a long handle on the broom and see how it works?"

The old woman looked puzzled. Emma realized that in her excitement she had spoken in English. She put the question to the woman in Sarkhanese.

"Brooms are not meant to have long handles," the old lady said matter-offactly. "It has never been that way. I have never seen a broom with a long handle, and even if the wood were available, I do not think we would waste it on long handles for brooms. Wood is a very scarce thing in Chang 'song.

Emma knew when to drop a conversation. She had long ago discovered that people don't stop doing traditional things merely because they're irrational. She also knew that when people are criticized for an action, they stubbornly persist in continuing it. That evening Emma had a talk with Homer.

"Homer, have you noticed the bent backs of the old people in this village?' Emma asked.

"Nope, I haven't," Homer said, washing down a bowl of rice with a bottle of beer. "But if you say they're bent, I'll believe it. What about it?"

"Well, just don't say 'what about it'," Emma said angrily. "I'm getting to the age where when my bones get stiff, it hurts. Imagine the agony those old people go through with their backs perpetually bent over. It's worse than lumbago. I've asked them, and they tell me it's excruciating."

"All right, all right, Emma," Atkins said. "What are we going to do about it?"

"Well, the first thing we're going to do is get longer broom handles," Emma said with heat.

However, Emma found that it was difficult to get longer handles. Wood of any kind was scarce in that area, and expensive. The handles the Sarkhanese used for their brooms came from a reed with a short strong stem about two feet long. For centuries this reed had been used; and, centuries ago people had given up looking for anything better. It was traditional for brooms to have short handles, and for the brooms to be used exclusively by people too old to work in the rice fields. But Emma wasn't bound by centuries of tradition, and she began to look for a substitute for the short broom handle.

It would have been simple, of course, to have imported wooden poles, but long ago Homer had taught her that only things that people did for themselves would really change their behavior. With mid-western practicality, Emma set about researching her problem. It was a frustrating task. She tried to join several of the short reeds together to make a long broomstick. This failed. Every kind of local material she used to try to lenghten the broomstick handles failed.

Emma refused to be defeated. She widened the scope of her search, until one day she found what she was after. She was driving the jeep down a steep mountain road about forty miles from Chang 'song. Suddenly she jammed on the brakes. Lining one side of the road for perhaps twenty feet was a reed very similar to the short reed that grew in Chang 'song--except that this reed had a strong stalk that rose five feet into the air before it thinned out.

"Homer," she ordered her husband, "climb out and dig me up a half-dozen of those reeds. But don't disturb the roots."

When she got back to Chang 'song, she planted the reeds beside her house and tended them carefully. Then, one day, when several of her neighbors were in her house, she casually cut a tall reed, bound the usual coconut fronds to it, and began to sweep. The women were aware that something was unusual, but for several minutes they could not figure out what was wrong. Then one of the women spoke.

"She sweeps with her back straight," the woman said in surprise. "I have never seen such a thing."

Emma did not say a word. She continued to sweep right past them, out on the front porch, and then down the walk. The dust and debris flew in clouds; and everyone watching was aware of the greater efficiency of being able to sweep while standing up.

Emma, having finished her sweeping, returned to her house and began to prepare tea for her guests. She did not speak to them about the broom, but when they left, it was on the front porch, and all of her guests eyed it carefully as they departed.

The next day when Emma swept off her proch, there were three old grandmothers who watched from a distance. When she was finished Emma leaned her long-handled broom against the clump of reeds which she had brought down from the hills. The lesson was clear.

The next day, perhaps ten older people, including a number of men, watched Emma as she swept. This time when she was finished, an old man, his back bent so that he scurried with a crab-like motion, came over to Emma.

"Wife of the engineer, I would like to know where I might get a broom handle like the one you have," the man said. "I am not sure that our short-handled brooms have bent our backs like this but I am sure that your way of sweeping is a more powerful way."

Emma told him to help himself to one of the reeds growing beside the house. The old man hesitated.

"I will take one and thank you; but if I take one, others may also ask, and soon your reeds will be gone."

"It is nothing to worry about, old man," Emma said. "There are many such reeds in the hills. I found these by the stream at Nanghsa. Your people could walk up there and bring back as many as the village could use in a year on the back of one water buffalo The old man did not cut ore of

Emma's reeds. Instead he turned and hurried back to the group of older people. They talked rapidly, and several hours later Emma saw them heading for the hills with a water buffalo in front of them.

Soon after, Homer completed his work in Chang 'song, and they moved to Rhotok, a small village about seventy miles to the east. And it was not until four years later, when Emma was back in Pittsburgh that she learned the final results of her broom handle project. One day she got a letter in a large handsome yellow-bamboo paper envelope. Inside, written in an exquisit script, was a letter from the headman of exquisit script, was a letter from the headman of Chang 'song.

"What does he mean, 'lucky accident'?" Emma said to Homer. "Why I looked all over for three months before I found those long reeds. That was no accident."

Homer did not look up at her from the letter. He knew that the indignation in her voice was false. He knew that if he looked now he would see tears glittering in the corners of her eyes. He waited a decent amount of time; when he raised his head she was just pushing her handkerchief back into the pocket of her apron.

Session T-56: Solar fish drying

Time: 7:30 AM


· To acquaint trainees with the principles behind various fish drying techniques
· To design a simple solar fish dryer
· To understand proper sizing elements when designing equipment


This session is important in that the vast majority of fish dried in third world countries are done without benefit of proper hygienic care and handling during the processing phase. A solar drier offers a great deal to the small-scale fisherman intent on producing a quality product. The trainees are given the principals in design, but are "allowed" to offer measurements reflecting their own personal working area needs. This is seen as a problem solving exercise for trainees.

Materials and Equipment:

· Wood/bamboo, plastic (.006 mil), nails, cordage, screening, flip chart, markers, woodworking tools, salted fish for drying




40 Minutes

1. Trainee leader gives brief introduction to drying of fish.

a. lecture on drying principles

- reduction of water content

- bacterial action stoppage

- cessation of fungal activity

b. salting of fish prior to drying

- water content

- antiseptic quality

- bacteria growth inhibited

c. open air drying

- advantages

- disadvantages

d. solar air dryer

- advantages: increased heat

- total exclusion of flies, beetles, elimination of maggot infestation

- weather proof

e. construction and design

- simple

- wood, bamboo frame

- glass, plastic liner

- chimney effect

- need of constant air flow

- screening

- intake

- out-flow

3 Hours 30 Minutes

2. Trainees build their own solar driers. Each trainee will make their own design. However, they will only construct one drier for each five trainees. Technical trainer will choose which design should be built.


1. Cleaning

a. cut open back of fish lengthwise
b. remove gills and guts
c. scrub inside clean with coconut husk. (make sure slime and blood is removed)

2. Brining

a. mix 1 lb salt to every 1 gallon clean seawater, in a clean container to make brine solution
b. immerse cleaned fish until all covered with brine solution
c. leave for 2 hours

N.B. When brining use coarse salt

3. Air Drying

a. take out of brine solution and hang in shade tail side up
b. leave for 1/2 hour or until no drip off
c. smear again with salt (coarse) only on flesh - not skin
d. stack neatly open side down in rows in a clean container
e. leave overnight

4. Sun drying

a. shake dried salt out and rinse with sea water
b. place on corrugated iron or shelf open side up to dry in sun
c. cover with netting material to keep flies away

Smoke Drying

1. Cleaning

a. same as for Sun Curing

2. Brining

a. mix 2 lb salt to every 1 gallon seawater in a clean container
b. immerse cleaned fish until all covered with brine solution
c. leave for 2 hours

3. Dripping

a. rinse fish in seawater
b. hang tail side up for 1/2 hour to drip to remove excess moisture

4. Smoke Drying

a. arrange skin side down in the smoke drying rack
b. smoke-dry by using fire with a lot of smoke; sawdust is best
c. smoke until nice brown and hard

N.B. Coarse salt can be bought from Burns Philip at $7.50/cwt. (1 cwt. = 112 lbs)

Solar fish dryer

Session T-57: Fish smoker special project

Time: 7:30 AM


· To acquaint trainees with the fish smoking process
· To make trainees aware of different fish smoking methods and techniques
· To plan and construct a smoker for on-line fish processing and preservation


This is an important session in the fish preservation sequence. The nonrefrigerated fish product in most developing countries is met by the smoking of fish.

Materials and Equipment:

· Tin roofing or plywood, wood working tools, charcoal, fish, flip chart, markers




40 Minutes

1. Lead trainee presents lecturette based on following outline:

a. three processes in smoking fish

- salting

- smoking

- drying and cooking

b. types of smoking

- cold

- hot

c. cold smoking

- temp range 15-30° C

- not preservation

- needs refrigeration

- disastrous for tropics because of spoilage

d. hot smoking

- temp range 30°-85° C

- minimum time l/2 hour at 85°C

- two processes involved salt application moisture reduction by hot air currents

e. smoking facilities

- simple

- sophisticated

f. kilns

- chimney type

- wood, tin, brick

g. smoking problems maintaining proper temperature

- proper air flow

- rate of humidity

- smoke intensity

h. smoking duration

- overnight

- two days

- week

- humidity

- size, type of fish

i. hanging fish for smoking

- S-shaped hooks round wood sticks

- square sticks

- bamboo

j. fuels

- hardwoods kwila, mangrove

- careful of pine, greenwood, casurina, wetwood

- use no petroleum products

k. design of a smoker

- measurements equal volume of fish

l. construction of a smoker

m. use of smoker with fish

3 Hours 30 Minutes

2. Trainees build their "own" fish smoker, with only a minimum of design, structural and construction input from the technical trainer.

The following is a sample of presentation by trainee leader from pilot program.


Three processes in smoking: 1) Salting - extracts body liquid, assists in drying process, 2) Smoking flavors fish and darkens flesh. Preserving qualities are improved by the antiseptic action of smoke, 3) Drying and Cooking - wood for heat and smoke used will give cure desired.

Types of Smoking: 1) Cold smoking - 27-54° F (15-30°C). Temperature not enough to cook the fish. Form of curing, not preservation, fish will only keep for a few days. Produces good flavor. Not used in tropics, temperature and humidity spoilage overtakes cure and ruins fish. 2) Hot smoking 180°F for at least 30 minutes. Flesh is cooked. Heat cooks fish and sets up hot air currents over the fish to conduct heat away. Temperature is controlled either by increasing or decreasing the fire underneath or by altering the height of the racks above the fire. To remove moisture from body tissue in hot smoking: 1) salt somosis extracts moisture from tissue and penetrates cells, 2) hot air currents.

Facilities for smoking: 1) open fire, 2) kilns - chimney kiln constructed from barrel or constructed from brick or metal.

Conditions affecting uniformity of product: 1) weather conditions, 2) size and construction of kiln, 3) type and moisture content of sawdust, 4) experience of smoker operator - turning, removing ones that are near the fire that get done first, then moving down the upper ones.

Complete operation for smoking fish: 1) landing, 2) temperature storage, 3) salting, 4) spitting, 5) smoking, 6) cooking, 7) trimming, 8) storage, 9) market.


· "Smoking fish at home-safely" by Kenneth S. Hilderbrand Jr., Extension Sea food technologist, Oregon State University, Extension Marine Advisory Program


S-shaped hooks - one end through belly slit. Hang from stick.

Round wood sticks - under gill flap through mouth, open belly cavity with sticks

Square sticks with nails driven through fillets. Drive nails through stick pointing up to keep fish secure.

Bamboo sticks

- Margie Hulsair, PCV Sierra Leone

Plywood smoker

Drying the Fish

After brining comes step three, drying the fish. Pat fish dry with a cloth, then place them on a rack in the refrigerator and drain one to three hours. Drying increases keeping quality and promotes development of the ''pellicle," a glossy finish of dissolved proteins on fish surfaces which gives them the desired appearance, retains natural juices, and helps spread smoke evenly.

Building the Smoker

A simple smokehouse may be designed from a large cardboard box, a metal oil drum, a wooden barrel, an old refrigerator, or even plywood The cardboard box is perhaps easiest to obtain; it should be 30 inches square and 48 inches high. Here are the construction directions:

a. remove one end of box to form bottom of smokehouse.

b. unfasten flaps at opposite end so they fold back and serve as a cover.

c. strengthen box, if necessary, by tacking 3/4 inch strips of wood on outside of box--vertically at corners and horizontally across sides.

d. cut a door 10 inches wide and 10 inches high in bottom center of one side; make one vertical and one horizontal cut, so uncut side serves as hinge.

e. suspend several rods or sticks (iron or wood) across top of box; cut holes through box, so rods rest on wooden strips; a rack of wire mesh (1/2" or 1/4'' mesh hardward cloth) may replace rods; refer to diagrams below.

Cardboard Smokehoue. Courtesy U.S. Department of the Interior Fishery Leaflet 209.

Drying the fish; Building the smoker

Corrigated smoker (portable)

Session T-58: Charcoal making special project

Time: 4 PM


· To acquaint trainees with the benefits of charcoal as an easy-to-transport, efficient fuel

· For trainees to understand the basic principles of small-scale charcoal making, including the earthmound kiln and the portable kiln

· For the trainee assigned the special project to build on communication/technology transfer skills


In most developing countries, firewood is becoming increasingly expensive and difficult to get. In the last session, trainees built a smoker for smoking fish, a technology which requires a prolonged source of heat. In this session, trainees learn that wood converted to charcoal is a much more efficient use of wood as a fuel. Charcoal is relatively simple to make, and certainly much easier to transport than wood.




5 Minutes

1. After presenting the goals for the session, the trainee assigned the special project asks trainees to give reasons why firewood as a fuel is a problem in developing countries. Trainee lists the reasons on newsprint.

20 Minutes

2. Trainee then gives a brief lecturette on the advantages of charcoal as a fuel, and presents the simple, "how-to" steps in making charcoal. Both the earth-mound kiln and the portable kiln are discussed (the trainee presents diagrams of both).

20 Minutes

3. Trainee divides the large group by country into small groups of 3 or 4, and tells each group to list out on newsprint the different ways a charcoal making secondary activity might benefit their projects, i.e., to make smokers more economically feasible for the subsistance fisherman, to free women from the arduous chore of hauling firewood, etc. Groups report out to the large group.

5 Minutes

4. Trainee draws closure to the session by linking back to the session on smokers and links to the special project on alternative source of fuel and energy, including mention of the mudstove, methane digesters, etc.


· Small-scale Charcoal Making: A Peace Corps Manual for Trainers. July, 1982.

Session T-59: Metric system special project

Time: 5 PM


· For trainee assigned this special project to build on communication/technology transfer skills
· To acquaint trainees with the metric system


In their work as marine fisheries extensionist, trainees need to know the metric system well and be able to do conversions between the two systems with ease.


· Flip chart, markers




30 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the special project compares Fahrenheit scale with the Celsius scale. Conversions between the two scales are practiced. A chart is then presented on "simple conversions": inches to centimeters; mile to kilometer; hectar to acre; cups, quarts, gallons to liters; pounds to kilograms; etc.


There are two major systems of measurement used in the world today: The metric system and American Dummy units.

Metric is a decimal system of weights and measurements devised in revolutionary France. It was established that the meter is equal to one ten millionth of the distance from the equator to either pole back before the world became pear shaped.

Decimal measurement of temperature had already been established by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius in 1742. He proposed a centigrade temperature scale using 0° as the freezing point and 100° as the boiling point of pure water.

Conversion factors of Fahrenheit to Celsius is fairly simple if you remember that 0°C = 32° F and 100°C = 212° F. Thus 100°C = 212°-32° F or 180. The distance between freezing and boiling is 180°F. Thus 1.8 times the number of degrees Celsius plus 32 = the Fahrenheit temperature.

Given 27° C you multiply by 1.8 for a total of 48.6. To this add the 32 degrees below freezing and you have a total of 80.6° F.

The gram - The basic metric wt. was established as the wt. of one cubic centimeter at 4°C (the temp. of water at its greatest density).


· Weather for the Mariner, WM. J. Kotsch. 1977 Naval Institute Press o Preserving food by Drying Manual M-10 ICE
- Bill Yost, PCV Sierra Leone

Temperature conversion

Other Handy Conversions

*within 2%


1 in = 2,540 cm
* 1 cm = .4 in
*1 yard = .9 meters
1 m. = 39.37 in
*1 mile = 1.6 kilometers
*1 k = 5/8 mile
*1 acre = 2/5 hectare
*1 hectare = 2.5 acres

Volume Measurements

100 ml. = 3.4 oz
500 ml. = 17.0 oz
30 ml. = 1 oz
120 ml. = 1/2 cup
240 ml. = 1 cup
480 ml, = 1 pint
960 ml. = 1 quart
3.81 liters = 1 US gallon


1 lb. = .454 kg.
1 kg. = 2.204 lb.
1 oz. = 28.4 grams
100 grams = 3.5 oz

British and American systems are the same except in volume measures:


1 oz. = 28 ml.
5 oz.(1/4 pint) = 140 ml.
10 oz. (1/2 pint) = 280 ml.
1 pint (20 oz.) = 560 ml.
1 qt. (40 oz,) = 1.1 L.
1 gallon = 4.5 liters
44 British gallon = 55 U.S. Gallon

Barometric Pressure is measured both inches and millimeters

Barometric pressure conversion

One millibar is 1000 dynes per square centimeter. A dyne is the unit of force in the centimeter-gram-second system of measurement.

One last conversion is for speed through the water 10 knots = 11.5 miles per hour = 18.5 kilometers per hour

Session T-60: Team building

Time: 7:30 PM


· To improve the communication and relationship between trainees who will be stationed in same Peace Corps country


In this session trainees use their feedback skills. This exercise also requires some degree of personal risk taking. At the end of session trainees feel closer to each other and are eager to come together as a team.




5 Minutes

1. Trainer makes statement that during this exercise the participants themselves will conduct the time frames Trainers will be available only if they are asked to facilitate one of the dyads interactions.

2 Hours 30 Minutes

2. Participants make a list being as specific as possible for everyone in

- Things you do or say which make me feel good.

their group of:

- Things you do or say which make me feel bad.

- Things I do toward you which make me feel good.

- Things I do which I regret or make me feel bad.

- Things I would like us to do more of.

- Help I think you can give me.

- Differences and disagreements between you and me are?

- The source of our disagreement seems to be,....

- I handle these disagreements by....

- You handle these disagreements by....

Each trainee explores the questions with all other trainees in their country group. In cases where there is a problem or difference the following is put in writing by the two parties: - Situation, problem or difference - What I intend to do about it - What I might do in spite of myself - How I would like you to help me.

Trainer's Note:

At the end of session people will still be engaged in dialogue. Your role is to be sure that everyone shares with everyone else.

Adapted from Cross Cultural Trade-off, by Paul Pedersen

Session T-61: Introduction to basic refrigeration and ice making with field trip

Time: 7:30 AM


· To acquaint trainees with the fundamentals of basic refrigeration and ice making

· For trainees to become aware of the refrigeration cycle

· To acquaint trainees with refrigerants, compressors, refrigeration systems and various ice making systems

· To allow trainees the opportunity to view first hand the various ice making and refrigeration components and to interview refrigeration technicians


This session deals with basic refrigeration and ice making. The PCV in the field will not be a refrigeration specialist and should only be expected to have a basic comprehension and awareness of the refrigeration cycle and the various components in a system. The ability of the PCV to understand the operating principle and functions of components will provide a starting point for further, more in-depth study of the particular model or make of refrigeration equipment used in-country, if required.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, markers, freezer/refrigeration models for demonstration




1. Technical trainer gives overview of what trainees are to look at while on field trip.

a. introduction

- refrigeration: what is it?

- process of removing heat from space or area

- problems associated with refrigeration

- thermometers

- basic systems direct expansion indirect expansion

- definition latent heat sensible heat

b. Refrigeration cycle components

- compressor (pump)

- condensor (receiver tank)

- evaporator (cooling coils)

- expansion valve (pressure reducing valve)

c. compressors

- single cylinder

- multi cylinder

- reciprocating

- rotary

- centrifugal

- direct drive

- belt drive

d. refrigerants

- desirable properties low boiling point safe - non-toxic mixes well

with oil non-corrosive to metal high latent heat valve ease of liquification at moderate temperatures and pressure

- toxic refrigerants amonia methyl chloride sulfur dioxide

- non-toxic refrigerants carbon dioxide calcium chloride freon

e. freon

- most widely used

- colorless

- odorless

- non-irritating

- non-flammable

- chemically inert

- freon types 12,14,22,502

f. ice makers

- plate

- flake

g. refrigeration cycle (see Appendix 1)

- graphic example

- explanation of cycle

2. Tour of refrigeration/freezer facility. This is a tour with explicit examples and demonstration. Trainees are reminded of their interview techniques and the need to get the most out of field trip by asking questions.

Refirigeration Cycle

Elementary Mechanical Refrigerator


Flake Ice Refrigeration System

Hermetic compressor service chart

Session T-62: Individual interviews and net mending

Time: 2:30 PM


· The interview goals for this session are the same as in previous interview sessions

· To provide trainees with formal instruction in net sewing techniques utilizing the Becket Bend and R and L side knots

· To increase speed of sewing and mending nets


Individual interviews continue as in previous weeks. Trainees learn new net mending techniques and knots. Trainees practice net mending to increase speed.




30 Minutes

1. Technical trainer reviews net sewing and mending skills developed to date. Introduces R and L side knots. Trainees practice.

20 Minutes/

2. Interviews are conducted using format from previous trainee sessions.

Trainer's Note:

If at all possible ask fishermen from community to "drop in" during net sewing session to encourage trainees and possibly transfer new skills to trainees in area of net sewing and mending.

Session T-63: Support systems

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to look at their support system - personal and professional - over the last year, at the present time, and over the next two years


This session reinforces the learnings of Team Building, session T-60. Trainees need to see their country teams as an important part of their support system - both professional and personal - over the next two years.


· flip chart, markers, journals




20 Minutes

1. Trainer asks trainees to define personal support systems and professional support systems. Trainer has an opportunity to discuss with trainees the importance of a "team approach" to their program.

30 Minutes

2. Trainees record in their

a. Six months ago, who was part of your support system?

journals the following:

b. Who at the present time?

c. Any similarities between the two systems?

d. How are you going to find your support system once at your site.

3. There is no formal wrap to this session. It is meant to be a reflective time for trainees.

Session T-64: Processing field trip

Time: 7:30 AM


· To process the Refrigeration and Ice Making Field Trip from the previous session
· To review points made by refrigeration technicians about the refrigeration process and ice making/refrigeration components


The previous session in refrigeration and ice making has given all particulars from the principles of operation and component identification to refrigerants. The field trip reinforced this by allowing the trainees the opportunity to interview the refrigeration technicians about problems, designs, etc. This session processes the field trip -- particularly the information gathered, and enables trainees to identify additional areas of refrigeration where they feel they need further information.


· flip chart, markers




15 Minutes

1. Technical trainer asks trainees for an overview of the field trip based on the following outline posted on newsprint:

a. refrigeration systems

b. ice making facilities

c. repair facilities

d. repair tools

5 Minutes

2. Technical trainer asks trainees to brainstorm additional areas where they feel they would like to have more information.

10 Minutes

3. Technical trainer asks where and how they feel they can get this information. Trainees are given assignments to gather data. Trainer gives deadline for assignments the following week.

Trainer's Note:

This is a session in problem-solving. It is important for trainees to recognize that there will be many times when they need information and will have to use various methods to get technical information.

Session T-65: Special project - seaweed farming

Time: 8 AM


· To acquaint trainees with the basic principles of seaweed farming
· To acquaint trainees with the nutritive value of seaweed as a food
· For the trainee assigned the special project to practice and build on communication and technology transfer skills


In many areas of the world, seaweed is farmed as a food crop. It is high in nutritive value, particularly in iodine, potassium and other vitamins.

Seaweed farming would be a worthwhile project activity in developing countries where seaweed is already harvested in the wild and consumed by the local population, and if available supplies are insufficient to meet the demand.


· dried seaweed, i.e. Chinese or Korean, flipchart, marking pens




30 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the special project presents a lecture on the nutritive value of seaweed, its uses in cooking, and the basic principles of seaweed farming.

5 Minutes

2. Trainee tells group that in the next session, Nutrition and Fish Culinary Skills, they will all have a chance to sample "dried fish and seaweed soup."

3. Trainer draws closure to session by linking it to nutrition sessions and to sessions on income generation.


· Manual on Farming of Eucheuma Spinosum. Gena Products Phil. Inc., P.O. Box 568, Cebu City, Philippines.


Dried seaweed

Chinese cabbage


Dried fish

Green Onions, sliced

Soy Sauce Noodles

Use one length of dried seaweed. Place in pot with about three cups of water. Bring water just to boiling point. Remove seaweed. Add vegetables and dry fish to broth. Cook until tender. Soak noodles in hot water for 10 minutes. Drain. Add to soup. Add soy sauce and/or other seasonings.

Session T-66: Culinary skills and fish nutrition special group project

Time: 11 AM


· For trainees working on the group project to build on communication/technology transfer skills

· For trainee assigned the special group project to build on leadership, organizational and communication/technology transfer skills

· To acquaint trainees with various ways of cooking fish

· To acquaint trainees with nutritional information around meal preparation


In the first cooking session, the special group project leader presented general fish culinary techniques and nutrition. In this second session, the group leader emphasizes the important role minerals play in good nutrition.

Materials and Equipment

· flip chart, markers, food to be prepared, cooking facilities




20 Minutes

1. Group leader presents the two recipes to be prepared in the session: fish chowder and fish salad. A chart is then presented with minerals listed and which common foods they are found in. Group leader then points out which minerals will be found in the ingredients for the two recipes.

30 Minutes

2. The three trainees who signed up for this session proceed to prepare the fish salad and the fish chowder, explaining the procedure and useful tips in preparation. Recipes are located prior to session by trainees.

3. Trainees enjoy the food.

Trainer's Note:

The following is nutritional information that group project leader should impart to other trainees during the session.


Nutrients - necessary to feed cells, supply energy, supply heat, repair cells, facilitate growth.

Necessary nutrients - protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals.

Functions of nutrients: 1) build and repair body, 2) regulate body processes, 3) furnish energy.


Sources: Meat, liver poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, dried beans, peas.

Functions: 1) build and maintain all body tissue, 2) regulate acid-base balance of body, 3) formation of body hormones and enzymes, 4) build resistance to disease.

Deficiency symptoms: 1) poor muscle tone and posture, 2) lowered resistance to disease, 3) premature aging, 4) anemia, 5) stunted growth (children), 6) tissue degeneration, 7) slow recovery from illness or surgery.


Sources: Sugars, syrups, molasses, flour and flour products, bread, crackers, cereals, potatoes, starchy vegetables.

Functions: 1) furnish heat and energy.

Deficiency symptoms: 1) loss of weight (if calorie intake is deficient).


Sources: Butter, lard, vegetable shortening, margarine, salad dressings, meat meals, bacon, oils, nuts, cheese, cream.

Functions: 1) furnish heat and energy, 2) carry fat soluble vitamins, 3) supply essential unsaturated fatty acids, 4) supply spare thiamine (vitamin B1).

Deficiency symptoms: 1) loss of weight (if calorie intake is deficient), 2) abnormal skin.

Minerals chart

Minerals chart (continued)


Vitamin chart

Vitamin chart (continued)

- Margaret Hul sair, PCV Sierra Leone