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CLOSE THIS BOOKSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
Week 4: Training
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-29: Introduction to fish handling and care - I
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-30: Fish processing and presentation special project - filleting
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-31: Community analysis introduction
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-32: Fish handling and care II
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-33: Fish processing and preservation water filtration systems special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-34: Community analysis - Part II
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-35: Fish handling and care III - Cleaning and processing on the fishing boat
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-36: Weather for the mariner special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-37: Community analysis - part III interview skills - spatial relationships
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-38: Introduction to fish preservation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-39: Ice box construction - special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-40: Problem analysis
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-41: Fish silage - Special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-42: First aid afloat
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-43: Exploratory fishing trip I - Preparation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-44: Individual interviews/net mending
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-45: Star charting special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-46: Navigation and seamanship

Small-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)

Week 4: Training

Week 4, Sessions T-29 Thru T-47

Session T-29: Introduction to fish handling and care - I

Time: 7:30 AM


· To provide trainees with proper orientation on procedures necessary for good fish handling and care
· To give trainees opportunity to work in a fish processing area, with proper tools, on fish in a hygienic manner


This session begins by explaining the basic tenets of fish handling and care. A guest lecture by a local fisherman at the outset emphasizes the need for proper care control of fish when first brought aboard the fish vessel. Also, this lecturette promotes a basis for future involvement of local fishermen in the area of fish handling and care.




30 Minutes

1. Guest lecturette (local fisherman)

a. handling of fish on board the boat

b. care of fish on board the boat

c. equipment necessary for proper handling and care (knife, ice)

2 Hours

2. Technical trainer continues lecture with the shelf life of fish

a. 32°F is ideal holding temperature

b. ice is the best cooling medium

c. white fish (snapper, cod) will stay edible approximately 15 days after caught if well iced and held at constant 32°F

d. fatty fish - herring, tuna, have slightly shorter shelf life

e. shelf life is the measure of success in delaying the inevitable microbial meal Fish go bad because:

a. bacteria

b. microbes live symbiotically in skin, skull and guts of fish

c. after fish dies, enzymes in stomach are first to trigger an autolytic process "self-digesting"

d. if fish is reasonably well handled, microbiologists expect to find a bacteria count of about 300 organisms per gram of tissue e. punctured and bruised fish can have a bacteria count as high as 800 million per gram of tissue Seafood handlers thermometer a. water temperatures b. danger zone c. critical zone d. fresh storage zone e. freezing temperature f. frozen storage temperature 9. quick frozen

1 Hour

2. Fish processing room orientation

30 Minutes

a. explanation of room's function

b. traineeslearn fish care, handling, cleaning by doing five fish each

c. demonstration of clean-up procedures (prior to processing, post-processing). Trainees do clean-up after demonstration

Materials and Equipment:

· flip chart, pens, scrub brush, bucket, fresh water, demo fish

Trainer's Note:

Important to utilize local fisherman in initial orientation to fish handling and care.


· "Life Begins at 40°: How to use Seafood-handlers Thermometer". W. O. Davidson. Oregon State University, Sea Grant Extension SG32. September, 1975
· Ocean Leader. Fall 1981. Seattle, Washington. "Life on the Shelf is a race against bacteria" p. 26
· Local fisherman Ramon Corrales. Puerto Real, P.R.

Session T-30: Fish processing and presentation special project - filleting

Time: 4 PM


· To provide trainees with proper filleting techniques
· To acquaint trainees with the various skills needed in the filleting procedure
· To build on technology transfer skill


This session was done as a special project. The trainee in charge of this project needs to be properly versed in filleting techniques of the various fish, i.e., round, flat, etc.




15 Minutes

1. Trainee presents lecture on the reasons for filleting fish. Also, a step-by-step chart on filleting techniques assists in the understanding of the fillet process.

45 Minutes

2. Trainees each fillet one fish. Clean up.

Trainer's Note:

It is important that the trainee restrict the presentation to the fillet process. Other sessions are devoted to related areas and also providing time for filleting of fish by other trainees.


· Fillet knife, cutting board, knife sharpener, fish (round and flat), flip chart, markers


· Manual on Fish Processing and Marketing. UNPD/FAO. Manila, Philippines. 1980.
· Local Fisherman. Puerto Rico.
· Fish Cooperative. Puerto Real, P.R.

Session T-31: Community analysis introduction

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to understand the 14 sub-systems in the social cybernetics framework
· For trainees to see themselves as a system


In this session community analysis is introduced. The fourteen social cybernetic sub-systems will begin to enable trainees to understand and analyze the various segments of the community and how change in one segment can affect the other and vice versa.




15 Minutes

1. Trainer introduces the sub-systems, and gives rief lecture on social cybernetics.

1 1/2 Hour

2. Trainees then write their own autobiographies ccording to the 14 sub-systems of social cybernetics. (They should be told earlier in the day to bring their journals to the evening session.) Trainer explains how important it is for trainees to see and understand themselves as a system before they can begin to see a community as one.

15 Minutes

3. The group reconvenes and breaks into groups of three to discuss the following questions:

- What is it like to see oneself as a system?

- Which systems do they know the least about themselves? The most?

15 Minutes

4. Large group comes back together. Trainer asks for general discussions on the small group findings.

10 Minutes

5. Trainer summarizes the session and links back to the marine fisheries Volunteer's role as an extensionist.

Trainer's Note:

For this exercise, trainees will need a working area/classroom with tables on which to write comfortably.

Theory of Human Organization - A.R. MULLER

Session T-32: Fish handling and care II

Time: 7:30 AM


· To introduce trainees to score sheets which will enable them to be professional in judging fish quality
· Trainees will perform the basic steps in the fish processing room, starting with pre-processing cleaning through clean-up
· Trainees to become aware of quality control
· For trainees to individually explore methods of transferring information as an extensionist


In previous Fish Handling and Care Session T-29, trainees learned how to ready fish handling area, clean fish and clean area after fish were cleaned. In this session trainees will repeat the steps. In addition they will judge the quality of the fish as they clean them. After completing a full cycle, trainees will explore methods they might utilize to transfer information to others about quality control as an extensionist.

Materials and Equipment:

· Approximately six to seven pounds of fish per trainee from one to 10 days old
· One to two blade steel knives per trainee
· Equipment for cleaning processing room

Trainer's Note:

You will need to get a variety of fresh fish for this session. It is important that the fish be a wide variety of species as well as from one to ten days in age. We found that we had to age the fish ourselves and freeze them in order to insure having fish of a variety of ages.




10 Minutes

1. Technical trainer reviews the learnings from previous session and introduces the score sheet for raw fish. Trainees take time to acquaint themselves with the content of the score sheets.

10 Minutes

2. Technical trainer now gives instructions for trainees to prepare processing room and to clean and grade fish for quality.

20 Minutes

3. Trainees prepare processing room by scrubbing and following procedures learned in previous sessions.

2 Hours

4. Each trainee takes a fish to clean. After cleaning, judges the quality of fish and checks out their judgement 1 with technical trainer. Each trainee should process at least five different fish and check findings on each one with technical trainer.

20 Minutes

5. Processing room is scrubbed completely as previously performed in Session 29.

20 Minutes

6. Trainees are asked to break into small groups of three or four and asked to brainstorm ways in which they could pass on the information about fish quality as an extensionist. From the list of ideas generated by small group trainees prioritize which they feel will be most effective and why.

20 Minutes

7. Small groups report out to large group. Trainer processes presentations and reflects back to extension session.



General Appearance

Approximate Days in ice


Black pupil, translucent cornea, glossy thin transparent Slime, bright opalescent silver gray-green Sheen, bright luminous spots, gills bright pastel rose.



Eyes flattening, slight greyness of pupil, loss of Sheen, specks no longer luminous, body slime cloudy, Slight bleaching of gills and accumulation of slightly cloudy slime.



Eyes similar, loss of greenness and irridescence of Spots, generally more pink, gills dark red, mottled, Appearance of some dark brown slime.



Eyes concave and general cloudiness of pupil, body Lost gloss, going grey, pinkening around head, slime On gills thickening and blood diffusing into slime, Lateral line less distinct.



Eyes either flat and cloudy or swollen and bloodshot, Body pale and anemic (bleached) no spots, lateral Line obvious, gills bleached in patches, slime more Copious becoming dark maroon-purplish.



Eyes sinking and cloudy, body well bleached, dorsal Area insipid steely grey (anemic), gills either well Bleached dark brown or mottled red, lateral line Very obvious.



Eyes sunken, pink or very cloudy, body covered in Yellow slime and loss of most grey color on dorsal Area, gills have thick slime which is brick red or Pale dirty pink.



Eyes cloudy and bloodshot, gills bleached with thick Pink slime, body white with patches of yellow slime. Eyes bloodshot, skin showing a mauve hue and starting



To disintegrate, gills totally bleached to a Pale brown pink, with watery rose colored slime. Odor of Gills






Fresh celery


Musty, earthy, stale mustard, wheatstocks, 4-5 Stale celery


Briny, eely, bready, malty



Strong stale celery



Little odor, slightly eely, mustiness, Mousy



Turnipy, musty, brye, spicy celery (little odor)



Septic tank, faecal, rotting potatoes, Fermenting grass



Sour, faecal, acidic, rotting Vegetables, nauseating Flesh and Gut Cavity Appearance



Translucent flesh, gut cavity pearly white, blood Bright red.



Flesh steely grey but loss of some transparency, Gut cavity white and glossy, blood bright red, cut Flesh clear but pinkish.



Flesh lost transparency, now waxy white, but no


Reddening, belly flaps pearly pink.


Flesh white waxy, some pinkening on ventral half, Cut surfaces of belly flaps more pink.



Pinkening on ventral half of fillet, considerable Pinkening on gut cavity, blood dark, browning Along mid-line.



Considerable pinkening of fillet. Raw Texture



Firm and elastic (hard)



Firm but some loss of elasticity, Scales starting to lift



Becoming soft, no elasticity, Flaccid



Plasticine like, sticky, plastic Rubber, scales loose



Very soft, mushy and gaping, scales Very loose Cooked Odor



Slightly seaweedy



Boiled or condensed milk, fish Fingers, mousy



Neutral, wet cotton wool, wet string



Condensed milk, toffee like, Slight carmel



Faint vomit, slightly burnt, Smoked fish



Slight oniony, soapy or tallow like, Boiled potatoes



Junket, wet newspapers



Slight ammoniacal odors, slight Burnt rubber



Sour vomit Cooked Texture



Firm thick white curd, wooly and juicy


Firm elastic but drier


Short but dry


Firm, dry, sticky, stringy


Soft and dry, no slickness


Dry, chewy, like chewing newspapers Cooked Flavor


Sweet, characteristic of species (meaty/lamb flavor)



Less sweet, faint lamb, herring Like, less flavor



Canned meat, metallic slight Oniony, definite loss of flavor



Little flavor, flounder like, flat - Sour, cold mutton



Absolutely no flavor, faint musty, Sweaty



Neutral, faint turnipy



Very slightly rancid, herring like, Slight fishmealy


Strong metallic aftertaste, Astringent



Sour cold chicken, slight green Peas aftertaste



Strong ammoniacal, sour, difficult To taste


Session T-33: Fish processing and preservation water filtration systems special project

Time: 4:30 PM


· For trainee to research and present to other trainees the concept of clean water for fish processing
· For trainee to demonstrate the construction of a simple water filtration system which can be used on the community level in fish processing
· For trainee, for whom this is a special project, to practice transference of skills in communication and technology

This session is done by a trainee as a special project. The important concepts to be covered are: the use of clean fresh water in fish processing and the need to demonstrate filtration systems to the community if clean fresh water is not readily available.

The following outline was used in the pilot Small Scale Marine Fisheries Program.

Water Filtration

1. Water treatment includes a number of quality control processes by which impurities found in natural waters are reduced to acceptable levels.

A. Disinfection of water is the adequate destruction of water-borne pathogenic microorganisms.

1. Water-borne diseases include typhoid fever and bacillary and amoebic poliomyelitis (viruses) and salmonella - caused diarrhea.

2. Heating water to a temperature of 140° F for 15 minutes or boiling it for 10 minutes is sufficient for disinfecting.

3. The most reliable type of disinfectant for small-scale applications is chlorine or a chloric compound.

a. Chlorine stock solutions are generally prepared using calcium hypochlorite or chlorinated 1-ime and should not exceed 10% chlorine by weight (5% is typical of common laundry bleach).

b. The required concentration of chlorine in solution for adequate disinfection is about 1 to 5 parts per million (ppm).

c. The volume of water that can be disinfected by a specific volume of stock chlorine solution is given by the following equation:

Vw = 10,000 * PV * c1/C

where V is the volume of water to be disinfected (gallons); Vcl is the volume of stock chlorine solution (gallons): P c is the percent, by weight, of chlorine in the solution; and C is the concentration of chlorine in the final mixture (ppm).

B. Filtration, probably the oldest and most easily understood process of water treatment available, is used to remove suspended particles and some bacteria from water.

1. The filtration process is inexpensive and makes use of readily available materials (i.e., sand, gravel, screen, ceramic filter candles, burnt rice husks, coconut fibers).

2. The filtration process has a variety of applications in developing areas.

a. It can be used to provide water supplies of acceptable quality for drinking and general use in towns and villages and for ice making.

b. It can be used in pollution control, bringing effluents to a condition allowing discharge into rivers

c. It can be used in fish farming, providing clean water (both salt and fresh, free from parasites), especially for rearing fry.

d. It can be used to abstract water from harbors for use in washing fish, boxes, boats and fish markets. e. It can be used to provide bulk supplies of clean sea water for marine laboratories and aquariums.

3. The filtration process takes place in two parts.

a. The physical cleaning of the water occurs on the surface layer of the filter where a mat forms.

1) Running the system to waste for 15 minutes will establish it and form a good filter surface. 2) Particles down to about 203 microns (excluding the larval forms of parasites) and approximately 80% of the bacteria are removed.

b. As oxygenated water is drawn through the bed, the zone becomes aerobic and a biological filter forms.

1) The biological filter requires between 8 and 10 days to build up in tropical regions. 2) Total bacteria is reduced by 95% and ammonia and BOD are reduced by 70-90%.

II. Sand/gravel filtration systems, such as the Sea Water Supplies (SWS) village unit, the SWS mini unit, the horizontal prefilter and the upward flow sand filter are perhaps the most commonly used.

A. The SWS village unit utilizes gravel and sand bed rivers, streams and sea shores by abstracting water which has been cleaned by passing through the water bed.

1. The site can be simply and easily assessed, and artificial beds may be used if the natural bed is not suitable.

2. Relatively polluted rivers or streams can be utilized.

3. Physical filtration takes place at the layer on the top of the river bed.

4. The biological filter is created as oxygen laden water is drawn through the bed to the filter box from a six meter radius.

5. A manual or power pump is used to abstract the water.

6. During the first hour's operation after installation, fine particles are evacuated through a slotted septum filter plate, thus ensuring that the filter box is filled with coarse gravel.

7. The village unit has a capacity of approximately 20,000 liters/hour.

SWS village unit

II. B. The SWS mini unit is used in situations requiring only small volumes of water or where it is not possible to use an existing gravel bed.

1. Any strong plastic bucket or barrel (50-100 liter capacity) may be used to contain the filter.

2. Layers of fine sand (5 cm layer on surface), fine gravel (2 to 5 mm) and coarse gravel (15 to 20 mm) serve as the filter medium

3. The mini unit is not involved in the abstraction process.

4. The mini unit has a capacity of approximately 1000 liters/hour.

SWS mini unit

C. A horizontal prefilter is used to prevent the clogging of a filtering system by inorganic materials.

1. Because it is horizontal, the prefilter allows both coarse crushed stone and gravity to remove large organic and inorganic materials.

2. Approximately 60-7% of solid matter is removed by the prefilter.

3. The prefilter/filter combination has been shown to remove much but not all of the non-fecal coliform organisms present in untreated water.

Horizontal prefilter

D. The upward flow sand filter involves relatively simple preparation, assembly and operation at a very low cost.

1. A 44-gallon drum will make a filter able to treat 230 liters (50 gallons) per hour.

2. The top of the drum is removed, trimmed to fit inside the drum and pierced with 2 to 3 mm holes at 5 cm intervals all over.

3. The drum is pierced to fit the inlet pipe, drain pipe and delivery pipe (optional - water may simply be removed from the filter drum as needed).

4. All the inside metal surfaces of the drum are painted with bituminous paint to prevent rusting (alternative - cement slurry).

5. The filter is assembled as shown in the diagram and a 25 to 30 cm layer of 3 to 4 mm grade sand is added.

6. Water is allowed to filter at up to 230 liters per hour.

7. The filter should be backwashed occasionally by stopping the flow, removing the drain plug and allowing the dirt to flow out.

Upward flow sand filter


· Appropriate Technology Sourcebook, Volume I. Darrow and Pam. 1978.
· Appropriate Technology Sourcebook, Volume II. Darrow, Heller and Pam. 1981.
· More Other Homes and Garbage. Leikie, Masters, Whitehouse and Young. 1981
· Report on Second Regional Consultancy Low-Cost Water Filtration. Cansdale. 1979.

- Marilyn Berry , PCV Sierra Leone

Session T-34: Community analysis - Part II

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to explore the 14 social cybernetic subsystems on the community level
· For trainees to share their learnings about the community that they have lived in for the last four weeks


In the session which introduced trainees to the 14 social cybernetic sub-systems they wrote their own autobiographies: it is essential for trainees to see themselves as a system before they can begin to see a community as one. In community analysis - Part II, trainees take a look at their last four weeks living in the community and at how much they know (or don't know) about the community.




15 Minutes

1. Trainer assigns 1 sub-system to each trainee. The trainee lists on newsprint all information he/she has learned about the community. An additional sub-system is assigned to those trainees finishing up early.

2. Each trainee reports out his/her sub-system. Trainees as a group add additional information to the newsprint.

Sub-Systems Kinship Maintenance Affinity

Birth, sex, marital status, ethnic groups, habitation, migration, family, relatives, demography, population. Health Hygiene, infirmity, hospitals, campaigns, nursing, pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, sanitation, public health, mortality. Consumers, bars, stores, hotels, diets, food/drink, clothing, warehouse, malnutrition. Friendship, love, hate, association, clubs, unions, coops, federations, societies, solidarity, integration.


Tourism, holidays, games, free time, music/songs, diversions, sports, hobbies, exhaustion, relaxation.


Trips, transportation, accidents, languages, newspapers, broadcast stations, telecommunications, networks.


Culture, teachers, didactics, research, study, school, library, education, academics, teaching.


Public/private property, possessions, assets, wealth/salaries, rich/poor, distribution of wealth, stock market GNP.

Extra Ag-IND-ART

Manufacture, enterprises, firms, specialists, departments, arts, technologies, farming, energy, extractive industry.


Creeds, beliefs, participation, churches, ministers, rites, congregations.


Police power, combativity, defense, attacks, crimes, violence/war, armed forces, military operations, fear.


Public power, planning, political parties, bureaucracy, regime, public administration, government.


Laws, justice, rights, duties, courts, codes, legal process, jurists.


Prestige, respect, merit, competition, privilege, titles, excellence, elites, "who's who", nobel prize, monuments.

Trainer's Note

He have used this model because it is all inclusive of social sub-systems used in social planning in the Americas. You may wish to use a shorter version called KEEPRAH, Holistic Model, developed by Phil Donohue and used in the early 1960's at Peace Corps Training Center, Escondido, California.

1 1/2 Hours

3. Trainer now states that if you were doing a community analysis, you would formulate a series of questions under each sub-system, then try to find the answer to the question by going into the community and seeking information Ask the group to break into small groups of 5 or 6, and brainstorm questions in each area: for example, write these examples on flip chart as follows: Kinship (This has to do with family patterns, relations and organization)

1. How big are families?

2. Is the mother or the father the decision maker, land owner, bread winner, etc.?

3. Who raises the children? etc.


1. What is the average grade that children achieve in school?

2. Are there schools? Etc.

Trainer's Note

You have several choices here. Each group may do all sub-systems or may select one or more then share results with the other groups.

30 Minutes

4. Bring the group together. If appropriate, share questions. If not appropriate, move on to asking people how they plan to find out the answers to their questions. Hint: There are several methods of gathering data and the group should try out a variety of ways: sitting in one place and watching what goes on (flow analysis); asking questions; looking for anything written if it exists; conducting a non-threatening interview; observations, etc. Each person should think about how he/she is going to gather data. Stress that each person must keep notes and write down findings in their journals.

10 Minutes

5. Trainer closes session with short wrap - up on how inter - realted the 14 sub-systems are. Change cannot be made in one without changing or affecting all of the others. Cultural change takes a long time; PCV's need to analyze the possible impact on all systems when interventions are made.

Trainer's Note:

Newsprint reflecting data collected and questions should be saved for Community Analysis III Session T-37.

Session T-35: Fish handling and care III - Cleaning and processing on the fishing boat

Time: 7:30 AM


· For trainees to be introduced to procedures used while on fishing boat for cleaning of fish
· For trainees to understand the importance of icing fish after cleaning


In this session local fisherman describes how fish are cleaned at sea, the reasons, the process, and disposal of fish viscera at sea. Trainees learn about icing of fish.


1. Lecturette by local fisherman on fish cleaning at sea.
2. Iced fish in transit.


· Flip chart paper, markers, tape, newsprint of tables for ice usage

Trainer's Note:

You will need to look around to find which fisherman's fish are in really good condition when they arrive at the pier. We were very fortunate -the fisherman we used followed our presentation format and used newsprint drawings

EXERCISE 1 - Lecturette: Cleaning and Processing of Fish At Sea


· For trainees to have contact with local expert
· For local expert to transfer knowledge about fish cleaning and processing at sea


This session is a preparatory session for trainees as they will be cleaning fish and processing fish at sea during training. By using a local fishing expert, trainees have a chance to interact with community member and ask questions based on information they are receiving.




1 Hour

1. Local fisherman gives lecture on fish cleaning and processing while at sea, using newsprint diagrams to show techniques.

Trainer's Note:

You will want to go over outline for session with lecturer, and you may have to assist in the drawing of newsprint diagrams.

Lecturette should include the following items. a. cleaning and gutting of fish. b. proper icing procedures. c. disposal of viscera at sea.

15 Minutes

2. Trainer encourages trainees to ask questions after lecture. Trainers should also be prepared to surface through questions items that may have been overlooked or not mentioned by lecturer.

10 Minutes

3. Trainer now wraps up session and leads into next exercise.

EXERCISE II - Iced Fish in Transit


· To acquaint trainees with formulas in which to determine rate ice melts
· For trainees to be able to accurately determine the amount of ice needed to chill fish while fish is in transit


In this exercise simple tables are introduced that will allow trainees to be able to estimate the amount of ice needed to keep fish chilled while in transit. During future session trainees will need to determine proper icing amounts.




30 Minutes

1. Technical trainer gives following lecture with Table 1 and Table 2 posted on newsprint.

Table 1. shows the weight of ice needed to chill 10 kg. fish from various starting temperatures at 0°C.

Table 1. Weight of ice needed to chill 10 kg. of fish

Starting temperature of fish (°C)

Weight of Ice (kg)











The necessary amount of ice is diminshed by 81.5% when ice-packing fish at 5°C instead of 30°C.
obviously, to store or distribute fish at 0°C, more ice has to be used than what is required for simply cooling it down. However, the advantages in chilling the fish before they are packed, are to reduce the amount of ice required during the journey, and to reduce spoilage before dispatch.

It is not easy to estimate how much extra ice is needed to keep the fish chilled in transit. This depends on the length of the journey, the side temperature, and the degree of protection given the cargo by insulation and refrigeration of the transport vehicle or container. The position of the boxes in the load will also affect the amount of heating it is subjected to. For example, a box on the floor of the truck needs more ice than one in the middle of the load.

Table 2 gives a rough estimate of the amount of ice melted in two different sizes of wooden box by heat from outside. When the box is surrounded by others, the meltages may be only half or a quarter of these amounts.

From Table 1 and 2 it is easy to calculate the amount of ice needed in a box of fish.

Table 2. Melting time of ice in a simple wooden box

Outside Air Temperature

Weight of Ice melted in 12 hours

in a 10 kg box

in a 40 kg box


4.0 kg

9.2 kg


3.5 kg

7.8 kg


3.0 kg

6.4 kg


2.5 kg

3.0 kg


2.0 kg

3.5 kg

Let us consider a couple of examples:

Example 1. The chilling practice of the port merchant is poor. The fish start the journey at 30°C. The country is a tropical one; the outside air temperature is 30°C. How much ice is needed in the 10 kg box for a 12 hour journey?

A. For chilling fish (Table 1) 3.8 kg
B. To make up for melting by outside air temperature (Table 2)
3.8 kg Ice + 4 kg Ice = 7.8 kg Total amount of Ice


If the journey, instead of 12 hours, would last 24 hours, the amount of ice would have been 11.8 kg.

15 Minutes

2. Trainees are asked to record in their journals Tables 1 and 2 for their own use In the future.

30 Minutes

3. Technical trainer wraps up the fish handling and care segment by reviewing all sessions. Links to introduction to fish preservation on following day.

Session T-36: Weather for the mariner special project

Time: 4 PM


· For trainee for whom this is a special project to expand on communication/technology transference skills
· To provide trainees with basic information about weather
· For trainees to become aware of the importance of weather to the fisherman both when at sea and on shore


This session is a special project for one of the trainees. Trainee will continue to report on the weather for the remainder of the training program.

Trainer's Note:

It's important that the trainee restrict his presentation to information and resources 'appropriate' to the small-scale fisherman in less developed countries, (i.e. the barometer and how it works may not be the best topic for the presentation).




1 Hour

1. Trainee presents lecturette on weather patterns, cloud formations, and weather danger signals. An example follows.

Weather for the Mariner

"How is it possible to expect mankind to take advice when they will not so much as heed warnings."
--J. Swift 1667-1745

My favorite quote is: "The Price of Safety is constant vigilance"
--Author unknown

Together they offer a sound formula for success and safety on the ocean. The formula would be thus:

Constant vigilance and knowledge of warnings = safety at sea. There is nothing smaller than a boat at sea. Boats and ships somehow shrink considerably when the weather worsens. Distances to be travelled stretch to the end of the universe and time becomes the existential dilemma.

It has been said many times and places that a boat or ship starts sinking the minute it is launched. Whether they sink, are skuttled, or are dismantled, the boats life is affected in no small degree by the condition of the seas it has travelled. The sea is mindless and moldable. It is mostly a reactionary element and it reacts positively with the weather.

There is, of course, 100% weather everyday. The good weather is taken for granted by nearly everyone and quite often so by the successful fisherman.

You are not a successful fisherman if you do not tie your boat up to the dock for an equal amount of time that you untie it to go to sea. If all other variables (mechanical, collision, etc.) are controlled, the one that the mariner cannot control is the weather.

Local Knowledge

There are many, many names for the one ocean. Her, there, and beyond are a few important ones. A good, or at least adequate, analogy is to compare the "one" ocean with the human body. The mind is yours of course. If you are floating, proudly, on the outstretched palm of your left hand does it matter that the right big toe was just crushed by a stone? However, if you normally hung out in the vicinity of the right instep and happened to consciously look up and see a stone falling you would try to get at least to the knee if not further. In this instance the left inner ear would be ideal.

This is the essence of local knowledge. Hurricane "Bula" will not be significant to you if it is eight thousand miles away. On the other hand if you are twenty miles to sea and the wind goes from a balmy eight (8) knots at 10:00 AM to a fresh, crisp 25 knots by 2:30 PM, it will no doubt cross your mind that there must be an easier way to earn a living.

Local knowledge is acquired, primarily, in two ways; (1) Personal experience and (2) the experience of others. It goes without saying at length, that a mariner new to an area should acquire as much information as possible about local weather phenomena before untying the dock lines.

As a "new" mariner/fisherman it should be noted that unless you are at the open-information sharing level your fellow mariner/fishermen are quite often willing to let you leave the harbor to live the sequel to "The Longest Day." This will go into your "personal experience" file and, since you made it back, you will have gained a degree of respect from the others in the "business."

Ask, look for yourself, ask again, evaluate all information about the conditions and then if it reasonably seems right, do it. There is also the event that will take that degree of respect from others away and that is always being the last boat on the fishing grounds.

It might occur to you the question, "How might produce and aggressiveness live so close together?" The answer is simple: they must. The fisherman most often chooses and enjoys his way of making a livelihood. All fishermen are aware that an element of risk is involved and make it a part of their "business" to daily (and more often) check the "weather" so that they minimize the risk element. There is no other way but to make it your business as well if you are to be a mariner.

on all VHF (marine wand) radios can be found the symbols "WX". This indicates the weather frequency. It is an "international" frequency as such and it will give projections of swell height, visibility, air temperature as well as notices to mariners pertaining to adverse weather. It is normally updated every six (6) hours. All effort should be made to obtain this basic information. It is more regional in scope and should be used in conjunction with local knowledge.

The following tables and graphics are taken from Weather for the Mariner. 1977. William J. Kotsch, R.A. U.S.N. (retired).

For our purposes it is overly comprehensive at first glance. The reader should, however, avail him/herself of the manuscript at an early date if possible. The examples used here are only bits and pieces of a much bigger puzzle, the weather. Have an on-going educational process in mind when you attempt to master the weather: It is loaded with surprises even for the experts. Good luck to you all and good fishing!
-- Fred Gibson, PCV Papua New Guinea

Table 3. Partial BeauFort Wind Scale

Table 4. Schematic of a Thunderstorm, including the distribution of electric charge

1. Lightning flash observed at 4:25:10 PM 2. Thunderclap heard at 4:25:45 PM 3. Divide (sec.) time interval by 5 4. 35 = 755. You are approximately 7 miles from storm

Session T-37: Community analysis - part III interview skills - spatial relationships

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to learn how to prepare for an interview
· To learn the actual steps In interviewing
· To plan an interview
· For trainees to understand the importance of knowing their community on a personal level


In the session on Community Analysis Part II, trainees took a look at the data they have gathered in the last four weeks of living in the community where training is being conducted and at how much they know about the community. In this session trainees have an opportunity to hear from a community member familiar with the community to validate some of trainees learnings and to clarify some data that may be confused or misconstrued by trainees. Trainees explore the process of interviewing, learn how to plan for an interview and conduct the interview in order to obtain data or verify data they have already obtained.


· Flip chart paper, magic markers, tape




45 Minutes

1. Community member goes over 14 social sub-systems and data collected by trainees in previous Community Analysis session listed on newsprint. Community member goes over data, validates and/or clarifies trainees' learnings or general assumptions.

30 Minutes

2. Community member asks trainees to each draw a map of the community putting in key places and residences of community members with the names of key people, their titles, and locations also placed on map. Community member goes over each map with the group pointing out the importance of knowing the names of people who work and live in these places. For maps with very little information, trainer suggests to trainee that he/she draw up a street map when they get to their new communities, and ask colleague or friend to help fill it in. Newsprint showing incomplete or misunderstood data is gone over, and trainer leads into interviews.

15 Minutes

3. Trainer now introduces guideposts and suggestions for interview preparation and implementation posted on newsprint.

Guideposts and Suggestions For Interview Preparation and Implementation

Preparing for the interview:

1. Decide what is to be accomplished.

2. Know the interviewee as much as possible.

3. Make appointments.

4. Practice taking the interviewee's point of view.

5. Know your own personality, prejudices, filters.

6. Plan thoroughly:

A. Prepare the environment
1) Comfortable and private
2) Free from distractions and interruptions

B. Prepare whatever aids you will need for the interview.
1) Gather necessary and relevant data
2) Prepare a checklist of points to cover

C. Plan the opening of the interview.
1) Opening remarks to build rapport
2) Clarify the "why" and "what" of the interview
3) Make sure that the opening is consistent with the objectives of - the interview

D. Choose a strategy. Consider your objective and the situational factors to determine whether your strategy should be:
1) Directive, in which you get or give specific information a. It is highly structured; interviewer follows outline or plan closely and has tight control of the process b. Closed questions are used frequently c. Interviewer does most of the talking
2) Non-directive, in which interviewer is encouraged to talk freely
a. Assumes that person will say what is on his/her mind
b. Listening skills are important
c. Non-authoritarian; interviewer has a purpose, but no rigid outline
3) A mixture of directive and non-directive

E. Plan the close of the interview.
1) Review or summarize to avoid misunderstanding
2) Agree on the next step, or action plan; set up a report-back process


7. Establish a relationship of confidence.

8. Establish appropriate atmosphere.

9. Help the interviewee to feel at ease and ready to talk.

10. Listen.

11. Allow enough time.

12. Don't waste time; don't "dawdle".

13. Keep control of the interview.

14. At the close of the interview, watch for additional information or new leads in the casual remarks of the interviewee.

30 Minutes

4. Trainer now refers to the incomplete data from newsprint previously generated by trainees. Trainees are asked to identify community person they feel they could interview and obtain pertinent date from. Trainer now introduces the interview planning guide and each trainee plans his/her interview. Interview planning guide is posted on newsprint.

Interview Planning Guide

WHO is to be interviewed? (Know as much about him/her as possible.)

WHAT do you already know about the interviewee?

WHERE did you get the information?

WHY are you interviewing him/her?

From your perspective, the desired result is: (Having completed this interview, I should know...)
From the interviewee's perspective, the desired result is: (Having completed the interview, he/she should know...)

WHAT information do you need from the interviewee in order to meet your desired objective?


WHAT do you plan to do with the information received from him/her?

WHEN do you plan to hold the interview?

WHAT is on your checklist of important points to cover?

HOW do you plan to organize question topics?

HOW do you plan to word some of your most important questions?

WHAT strategy do you plan to use in this interview?

HOW do you plan to open the interview? (remarks, clarifying objectives) HOW do you plan to close the interview? (review, next steps)

WHAT questions do you expect from the interviewee?

15 Minutes

5. Trainees are instructed to conduct an interview the following day, or no later than the day after that, as there will be follow up.

Session T-38: Introduction to fish preservation

Time: 7:30 AM to 9:30 AM


· To acquaint trainees with various fish preservation techniques using salt as a curing agent, natural air drying, hot and cold smoking


This session introduces the fish preservation sessions. Fish drying, salting and smoking are closely intertwined. This session is involved with salt usage. After this session fish will be ready to be used in drying and smoking sessions.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart paper, markers,
· Container designed for drainage of brine, weights for lid of container, brine solution, rock salt, fish (previously cleaned in Session T-35)




20 Minutes

1. Technical trainer gives lecture on fish preservation using following outline:

Why is there a need for fish preservation?

a. storage for future use

b. taste, culture, habit

c. marketability

d. spoilage

e. health

Types of preservation

a. salting

b. brine solutions (sugar, salt)

c. natural air dry

d. solar air dry

e. hot smoking

f. cold smoking

g. pickling

30 Minutes

2. Technical trainer gives trainees instructions for preparing brine. Trainees prepare brine and soak fish cleaned in previous sessions.

30 Minutes

3. While fish are soaking in brine solution technical trainer gives directions for salting fish using wet method/dry method:

a. Step by step

Step 1 - one part salt-three parts fish too much salt may burn fish too little allows fermentation

Step 2 - thin layer of salt on bottom of containers enough to completely cover bottom

Step 3 - arrange fish, skin side down scatter thin layer of salt

salt heavy over thickest portion of fish

Step 4 - finish filling containers with alternate layers of fish and salt top layer is skin side up

Step 5 - brine will drain away in dry salting place a loose cover over top of container weighted down with rocks brine will make itself

Step 6 - keep container covered and off ground to protect from insects

Step 7 - keep container in cool place

Step 8 - let fish stay in solution from 2 days to a week dry salting goes farther when weather is warm large fish must stay in solution longer

Step 9 - remove fish, wash thoroughly in clean, fresh, strong brine solution 3-4 cups salt to 1 gallon water drain 15-20 minutes fish is now ready for either drying or smoking

30 Minutes

4. Trainees remove fish from brine solution and using wet/dry method, salt fish. Fish will be ready for future smoking and drying sessions the following week. Trainer links to smoking and drying sessions.

Trainer's Note

There should be time allowed for discussion of techniques. Trainers need to resist taking part in salting of fish.

Preparation of salt brines for the fishing industry
by Kenneth S. Hilderbrand, Jr., Extension Seafood Technologist, Oregon State University

Oregon State University Extension Marine Advisory Program A Land Grant / Sea Grant Cooperative
SG 22 Reprinted January 1979

The use of salt brine for refrigerants and fish curing is common in the seafood industry. It is important to understand a few basic principles In order to make and use brines properly. This bulletin attempts to point out some basic concepts and principles and provides some charts which are useful to anyone who uses brines frequently.


When added to water, salt lowers the freezing point of water by a known and predictable degree, making it useful as a secondary refrigerant (freezing solution). Figure 1 shows the relationship of a brine's freezing point to its concentration of salt Note that the lowest freezing point obtainable in a salt-water mixture is about -6°F at 23.3% salt. This is called the eutectic point and any concentration of salt above or below this point will result in a solution with a freezing point higher than -6°F. Table 1 gives specific data on freezing point, concentration, and relationships useful in preparing salt brines.


After selecting the desired brine concentration for any desired purpose, use Table 1 to determine how much water and salt are needed. Column 2 in Table 1 gives freezing points while Column 3 is computed in percent salt by weight. Salometer degree (°SAL) is a useful way of describing and measuring brines and is explained later under "MEASURING SALT SOLUTIONS."

An easy way to prepare a brine solution of any given strength is to refer to Column 4 in Table 1 and then add the proper amount of salt per gallon of water. Salt will increase the volume of the solution, however. Thus, if an exact quantity of brine is needed, use Columns 5 and 6 to determine the weight of salt and volume of water needed to make a gallon of brine at the desired concentration.

Be sure to mix thoroughly

Figure 1. Freezing point of salt brine mixtures.


About twenty (20) gallons of brine are needed at 15.8% sat (60°SAL) to brine salmon for smoking. If it isn't necessary to have exactly 20 gallons, simply find 60°SAL (15.8% salt) in Column 1 and note that 1.568 pounds salt/gallon of water (Column 4) is needed. Put 20 gallons of water in a tank and dissolve 31 1/3 pounds of salt (20 gallons x 1.568 pounds salt/gallons water).

The result will be a solution which has exactly 15.8% salt by weight (60° SAL). It will be found, however, that the resulting solution is more than 20 gallons; it will be more like 21 gallons. This increase in volume is usually insignificant; if precision is needed and an exact quantity desired, use the data in Columns 5 and 6.

For example, if exactly 500 gallons of 88° SAL brine (-5.8F freezing point) is needed for a brine freezing tank on board a vessel, Column 5 in Table 1 will show that each gallon is SAL brine needs 2.279 pounds of salt and .904 gallons of water (Column 5). Adding 1140 pounds of salt (500 gallons x 2.279 pounds salt/gallon brine) to 452 gallons of water (500 gallons x .904 gallons water/gallon brine) would give exactly 500 gallons of brine at 88° SAL (23.3%) with a freezing point of -5.8°F.


Although careful attention to proportions will give good control of salt concentration in brine, the best way to be sure is to measure it. Sometimes, after a brine has been used and possibly diluted, it is useful to be able to measure its concentration.

Figure 2 shows the basic tools used to measure salt solutions. These may be purchased at most scientific supply houses for about $15. A salometer is a device that measures brine density saturation (26.4% salt at 60°F) on a convenient scale of 0 to 100. Each °SAL would therefore represent about .26% salt by weight as fully saturated brine contains about 26.4% salt.

To read a salometer, place it in a vessel, like the graduate cylinder shown in Figure 2, and allow it to float. The depth that it floats measures the brine concentration. Readings are taken by noting the point on the scale where the salometer emerges from the surface of the brine solution. These readings in °SAL can then be used with Table 1 to obtain data such as freezing point and percent salt by weight.

The thermometer is used to determine the temperature of the brine as it is being tested with the salometer. If the temperature varies more than a few degrees from 60°F, then a correction factor should be used for accurate work.

A rule of thumb states that for every 10°F the brine is above 60°F, one degree salometer should be added to the observed reading before using Table 1, which is standardized for 60°F. For each 10°F the brine is below 60°F, one degree salometer should be subtracted from.

Table 1: sodium chloride brine tables for brine at 60°F

The above table applies to brine tested at 60°F. For other brine temperatures the observed salometer readings must be converted before using them in the table. For practical purposes, add one degree salometer for each ten degrees above 60°F and deduct one degree salometer for each ten degrees below 60°F. ^ Approximate salinity range for sea water.

a Temperature at which freezing begins. Ice forms, brine concentrates and freezing point lowers to eutectic. b Eutectic point. For brines stronger than eutectic, the temperatures shown are the saturation temperatures for sodium chloride dihydrate. Brines stronger than eutectic deposit excess sodium chloride as dihydrate when cooled, and freeze at eutectic. c Saturated brine at 60°F.

the observed salometer reading. For instance, if a salometer reading was observed to be 80°SAL in a brine which was 40°F, the corrected salometer reading would be 78° SAL (subtract 1°SAL for each 10°F below 60°F).


Dissolving salt: Finely ground salt such as canner's salt or table salt dissolves much taster than coarsely ground salt (rock salt). It is essential that all salt added is dissolved if a solution is to have the proper strength.

Salt dissolves much faster in hot water than in cold water. It may take days for salt to dissolve in a brine freezer at 0°F.

Salt dissolves much slower as the salt concentration increases. The last bit of salt in a 90°SAL solution may take a long time to dissolve.

Agitation greatly increases the rate at which salt dissolves. A layer of salt on the bottom of a tank may take days to dissolve if left undisturbed.

In summary, try to dissolve salt in a warm, well agitated container or tank and make sure it is all dissolved before using it or measuring its concentration.

Figure 2. Equipment for measuring salt concentration in brine. Left, salometer; center, graduate cylinder: right, dial thermometer.

Brine refrigeration: Always make up a brine to be used for refrigeration so that its freezing point is well below the temperature you want to maintain. If you don't, it may freeze to the refrigeration coils or heat exchanger surfaces as they usually run 5 to 10°F colder than the operating temperature of the brine.

Using sea water for brines: Sea water may contain as much as 3 to 3.5% salt (12 to 14°SAL), which is equivalent to about .3 pounds of salt per gallon. Take this into consideration when making brine from sea water and deduct it from the amount of salt needed to make up a brine.

Adding salt to existing brines: If you want to increase the concentration of salt in a brine (decrease its freezing point), be sure to measure its strength and estimate its volume first. Then use the data in Table 1, Columns 5 and 6, to calculate how much more salt needs to be added.

Appendix. - Metric/customary conversion factors (approximate) for the units cited in this bulletin

To convert to multiply by













grams per liter

pounds per gallon


pounds per gallon

grams per liter


degrees Celsius (formerly Centigrade) degrees


9/5, then add 32

degrees Fahrenheit

degrees Celsius

519, after subtracting 32 01 -79/3M

Extension Service, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Henry A. Wadsworth, director. This publication was produced and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension work is a cooperative program of Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Oregon counties. Extension's Marine Advisory Program is supported in part by the Sea Grant Program National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce.

Extension invites participation in its activities and offers them equally to all people, without discrimination.

Session T-39: Ice box construction - special group project

Time: 10 AM to 2 PM


· To make trainees aware of the importance of ice to fishing
· To acquaint trainees with basic construction and design of fish boxes
· Introduce the "marine fisheries ice box" to
· Trainees to build on technology transfer skill


This session is done as a special group project. The trainee leader responsible for the initial design will have a team of trainees ready to construct a workable ice box. He/she will present a detailed plan and have all materials ready for execution of project.

Materials and Equipment:

· Marine plywood (treated), polystyrene, bronze nails or screws, woodworking tools (hammer, wood hand saw, rasp screwdriver, wood plane, level, tri-square, sand paper, paint brushes, fiberglass resin and fabric, acetone)

· Flip chart, pens, Ice (cubed, block)

Trainer's Note:

The amount of time necessary for this project necessitates early involvement of the group. An icebox 3/4 finished will furnish enough of the construction details so that the remaining time (3 hours approximately) can be spent in construction.




15 Minutes

1. Trainee gives lecturette covering Introduction to Ice:

a. importance of ice

b. minimizes changes in marketability waste, food spoilage

c. Slowing down of destructive process, care in handling, hygiene, cooling

15 Minutes

2. Trainee gives lecturette covering basic construction and design of fish boxes:

a. basic construction, gluing, taping, screws vs nails

b, design, insulation, framing, waterproof

c. fiberglass techniques, resins, fabric

2 Hours

3. Group project leader introduces partially completed

30 Minutes

"marine fisheries ice box" to trainees. Trainees complete construction after trainee leader goes over plans.

Insulated Fish Box

Corner Detail for Insulated Fish Box

Lid for insulated Fish Box

Bottom Corner Detail for Insulated Fish Box

Session T-40: Problem analysis

Time: 2 Hours


· Using same social cybernetic sub-systemsas used in Session 37, trainees do problem analysis
· Explore possible solutions measuring each solution for impact on 14 social sub-systems


Building on the previous session on community analysis, trainees should analyze problems using the 14 social cybernetic sub-systems to discover resources, patterns, and see how possible solutions affect other segments of the community. They may also discover possible support for solutions. In this session, trainees work further with the 14 social sub-systems to see how each problem and each solution impacts on subsystems other than the one with the original problem.




1 1/2 Hours

1. Trainer describes the following

a. problem identification

problem-solving system to group

b. information gathering

(place on newsprint).

c. Pre-conclusion (hypothesis)

d. diagnosis

e. brainstorming

f. decision making

g. planning

h. implementation stages

Trainer now gives the following directions:

a. We are going to give you some problems we have identified.

b. You will check problems with 14 sub-systems to see how many are affected.

c. You will come to some preconclusions and will have to include some assumptions on your part.

d. You will diagnose the problem.

e. You will brainstorm for possible solutions.

f. You will decide on one solution and once again see how solutions will affect other sub-systems.

g. You will decide how your solution could get implemented.

h. Try to look at what steps would have to be taken in implementation and what other sub-systems might be involved.

You will list all steps taken on newsprint. At the end of this exercise you will describe to the group your process. Each group will have a different problem on which to work.

2. Group now describes on newsprint the problems and process they used as a group.

3. Trainer summarizes, emphasizing that there is no way to affect just one sub-system with a solution, just as there is no problem that effects just one sub-system. In addition, most development projects that fail - no matter how large or how small - do so because of insufficient information gathering prior to the decision-making planning and implementation steps.

Trainer's Note:

For this session, the group was divided into groups of three and by country. With the start of week five trainees need to begin team-building with their own country group, as well as begin preparing emotionally for separation from friends going to other Peace Corps countries.

Problem 1

A group of fishermen come to ask your support in forcing a small fleet of government owned Tuna bait boats away from their tribal waters. It seems that the fishing has suffered a great deal since the bait boats first appeared three months earlier off tribal waters. The fishermen decided to come ask your assistance after one of them heard you speak about fisheries conservation during one of your recent workshops.

As it turns out after initial research on your part, the Department of Fisheries is promoting the capture of skip jack Tuna and sends its fisheries recruits out on the boats to assist in locating bait fish for the Tuna operation.

Problem 2

After six months of hard work in developing an interest in better fishing and marketing techniques, your project is going full speed. Seeing this success your counterpart is getting nervous and realizes he is going to have to spend more time on the project than anticipated, or else look very bad. He is planning a trip to headquarters to complain about you and suggest that you be changed to another site.

Problem 3

The head political person in town wants to start a sea cucumber project. He asks the PCV for advice and help in the project. At first it sounds like a good extension project, but it becomes clear that he intends to utilize the cash from the project for his own benefit and not for the community, and only wants the PCV as free labor to supervise the workers.

Session T-41: Fish silage - Special project

Time: 7:30 AM


· To make trainees aware of the need to utilize all fish waste materials
· To acquaint trainees with the various utilization techniques now possible for fish silage
· To build technology transfer skills


This is a special project session. The trainee who is responsible presents a design for construction of a fish silage cooker. Trainee will also describe the various operating components of manufacturing fish silage.

Materials and Equipment:

· Fish offal, carcasses, five gallon steel drum, propane stove/fire pit with fire, ladle, strainer for oil, flip charts, markers

Trainer's Note:

It is important to allow for collection of fish offal prior to session. Two weeks collection of fish offal should fulfill needs. It is important for trainee to initiate cooking of offal prior to class as process is time intensive.




1 Hour

1. Trainee gives lecturette using the following outline:

a. introduction to fish silage

b. uses of silage:

- animal feed

- bio-gas production

c. production techniques

d. actual demonstration of silage production

The following is a sample lecture on the use of fish silage.

Fish Silage Uses of Fish silage: Direct uses, Oil, Biogas, Fertilizers

Direct Uses:

I. Bait

A. Chum Bag = plastic bag with perforations to distribute odor to surrounding area. Guts and unused fish are placed in here.

B. Cut Bait = noncommercial species and guts are cut and distributed over bow.

II. Animal Feed

A. Direct Administration

1. Fish guts (offal) have a good consistency for livestock and are high in nutrients. Livestock tend to develop a fishy taste.

B. Mixed with meals

1. Cereal meal is added. When solar dried by itself fish offal loses nutrients since they are hydroscopic and are lost in evaporation.

C. Mixed with acids

1. Formic acid (or other acid) is added to offal to lower ph. This stimulates proteolitic enzyme activity which helps digest fish oils. Also postpones microbial invasion.

III. Miscellaneous

A. Commercial Cheese making

1. Digestive enzymes in fish stomach is similar to rennin which is found in the rumen of cattle. Rennin helps to curdle milk for cheese making.

Fish Oil Production:

Water is high in nutrients, offal is a good fertilizer after oil production 50% of volume of container is water offal added should be l/2 the water content

Water and offal are heated. Offal should be finely chopped to facilitate oil exchange. After mixture has boiled for about 20 minutes, remove heat and allow to cool. Oil should form a layer on the top which can be spooned off and filtered.

Uses for Fish Oil:

1. Cooking oil - makes a good cooking oil when fresh but tends to spoil rapidly.

2. Fuel oil - good use for stale cooking oil, burns well in lamps and oil stoves.

3. Oil based pesticides - 20% less than petroleum based pesticides. Also: Attracts beneficial predator insects, reduces shock from spraying, reduces spraying frequency.

4. Lubricants - used like any oil to increase lubrication and also a good metal protector.

5. Fertilizers - by-product of oil production water is high in nutrients and offal, makes a good fertilizer

Biogas Production:

Biogas is the by-product or decay of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. Biogas consists of methane (principle element), CO , Hydrogen Sulfide, N2 and CO. It is a valuable energy source where any other type of natural gas is used.

Biogas Methane Digester

Offal and other organic matter is place in 55 gallon drum and sealed. Within two-three days fermentation is pretty well along. Oxygen present in system should be bled off of gas to insure that no oxygen is present. The inner tube acts as a pressure regulation device. Burner units can range from simple bamboo pieces to very complex units.

Biogas Products:

Gas - Biogas - combustible gas Liquid-Scum - fertilizer Supernant - biologically active layer Solid Digested slurry - fertilizers Inorganic sediment - fertilizers

Uses for Biogas:

Raw materials for chemicals, carbon tetrachloride, etc., Heating Fuel, Cooking Fuel, Internal combustion fuel 1) cars, 2) boats

Fish Silage vs Fish Meal



Capital Cost



Processing Skills




None or pleasant

Greater problem


Expensive (bulky)

Cheap (light weight)


Unknown product

Established channels

Storage Facilities

Plastic container

Packing material and dry storage room

Capacity required


Big capacity


The Mother Earth News - Handbook of Homemade Power by the Staff of the Mother Earth News 1974 Bantom Books A Chinese Biogas Manual, edited by Arlane Von Baren, Science Publishing House, 1976, China Fishery in Japan, Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd, printed in Japan

Intermediate Technology and Alternative Energy Systems for Small Scale Fisheries - by David B Thompson, South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Program, Manila, Philippines, November 1979
--Alan Friedlander, PCV Tonga

Session T-42: First aid afloat

Time: 8:30 AM


· For trainees to become aware of the need for proper safety precautions at sea

· To acquaint trainees with simple procedures in emergency treatment of wounds, burns, heat exhaustion/stroke and infections

· To provide a guide to a properly stocked medical kit for the marine fisheries volunteer


This session is devoted to medical emergencies encountered by fishermen. The marine fisheries PCV will be out of reach of medical assistance a good deaf of the time. This session covers emergency first aid only.




1 1/2 Hours

1. Trainer gives lecture and demonstrates techniques. Where possible have trainees practice demonstrated techniques. The following areas should be covered:

a. Survival in water: One of the dangers faced by fishermen is falling into the sea or being swept overboard by a wave, particularly at night. If you fall into the sea, air trapped in your clothes will keep you afloat for a short time. But as air bubbles dissipate the weight of your clothes will drag you down deeper into the water making it difficult to keep afloat and breathe. Discard your seaboots or shoes and outer garments as quickly as possible. Footwear is best removed in a face-under-water position, one knee at a time being drawn up nearly to the nose so each boot or shoe can be removed. Clothes should be removed while you are treading water or in a floating position. If you are wearing a heavy overcoat shed it first, then remove lower garments. Clothes that have to be pulled up over the head should first be gathered up under the armpits then taken off with the head tipped forward. Alternatively withdraw one arm from the garment, then the head, then the other arm. If a person is rescued from the water unconscious, artificial respiration must be applied immediately. See section on artificial respiration.

b. Burns and Scalds: Knowing how to treat burns and scalds quickly and effectively can save a lot of pain and can reduce the danger of later infection. For superficial burns there is reddening of the skin and minor blister formation: Treatment - Wash copiously with cold water for up to 20 minutes. Sea water will do if fresh water is not readily available. Apply ice if it is available. Apply a sterile dressing or the cleanest material available and bandage firmly to exclude air and reduce risk of infection. Burnt tissue swells, so be prepared to loosen the bandage if it becomes uncomfortable. Deep Burns: Remove or cut away clothing over the burned area but leave clothing that is stuck. Wash liberally with cold water. Cover burned area with sterile cloth or cleanest material available and bandage firmly, loosening if it becomes uncomfortable. Cover large burns with sheet or towel. Do not apply any lotions, ointments or oil dressings. Do not prick blisters. Obtain medical assistance immediately. If the casualty is thirsty or if there is a long delay getting medical help give him small amounts of tea, providing he is conscious. When medical aid is not readily available, treat patient for shock. Sunburn: Prolonged exposure to the sun can result in painful burning. The most simple treatment is to apply clean cloth soaked in cold water. Treatment - rest in a cool place, give plenty to drink, if sunburn is serious and there is severe blistering seek medical help. Sunburn is best prevented by gradual exposure to the sun. Creams or lotions with ultraviolet screening oil may be helpful as preventive measure. Chemical or corrosive burns: Treatment - Wash off chemical immediately with large volume of water, plunge head in bucket of water if necessary. Remove contaminated clothing, but avoid contaminating yourself. Obtain medical help immediately. Eye injuries caused by chemicals should be flushed with water for 20 minutes or up to one hour if medical care is not readily available.

c. Bleeding: A severe gash can result in a hemorrhage. There are several types of hemorrhage:

Arterial - Bleeding from an artery. This comes in spurts

associated with the heart beats and the blood is red.

Capillary - Bleeding from the capillaries. Small in amount and flows with a gentle ooze.

Venous - Bleeding from the veins. There is a continuous flow and the blood is dark in color.

Treatment of serious cases - If bleeding is profuse or a dressing is not readily available grasp the sides of the wound and firmly squeeze them together.

Apply firm pressure with hand or fingers to the bleeding point. This method will tend to increase risk of infection but is justified when the hemorrhage is severe. Watch for shock and do not apply warmth. Normal treatment - Apply pressure to wound by placing large thick dressing over it, then bandage firmly. Do not remove dressing as this will dislodge blood clot which will form and lead to further hemorrhaging. A tourniquet must not be used. Rest patient. Elevate bleeding part if necessary with patient lying down. If bleeding continues, do not remove first dressing and bandage. Place additional ones on top.

d. Wounds and infection: Infection cannot be prevented at time of injury but keep a wound as clean as possible afterwards. Treatment - Clean and dress the wound using maximum care to avoid infection. Avoid use of antiseptics except those specially recommended. Wash the wounds outwards; do not swab from side to side. To do so will carry bacteria from skin to wound. Handle all wounds gently. Watch for and treat any signs of fainting.

e. Fainting: This can be caused by a nervous shock, an injury, standing still for a long time or sudden change in position, or from a hemorrhage. Treatment - If the casualty is in a sitting position and cannot lie flat, press his head down between his knees. If he can lie down, raise his legs and lower his head. Encourage deep breathing if he is conscious. Loosen clothing around neck, chest and waist. Ensure plenty of fresh air. Reassure the patient. If the patient is unconscious ensure breathing by keeping airway open (tilt head back). f. Shock: This is brought about when a state of collapse occurs. It can result in death if left uncontrolled. It can be caused by loss of blood, loss of serum following burns or through heart failure. Treatment - Start first aid immediately. Ensure plenty of fresh air. Control any bleeding. Relieve pain by 1) covering wounds, 2) splinting fractures. Do not give fluids to the patient if he is unconscious, or if there is a risk of immediate operation; he feels sick; or there is an internal injury. Do not give alcohol or attempt to warm body up (that can cause shock to worsen). Seek immediate medical care. G. Shark attack: Treatment - Immediate control of the hemorrhage. Attempt this in the water if practical by pressing hard right into or just above the spurting point with the fingers. As soon as the casualty is ashore or on board lie him flat with head down. Pack the wound with any available clothing. Maintain pressure until a firm bandage is applied. Elevate the injured part if possible. Summon medical aid. Do not move the casualty without medical advice. Transport and handling must be gentle to avoid worsening the shock. H. Marine stings: Marine creatures may inflict their stings by: injection of venom through puncture wounds; contact with tentacles bearing stinging cells. Treatment - Clean the wound with water. Remove any foreign bodies. Immerce the part in hot water. Treat for shock. Stings from Tentacles: Pour methlylated spirits or other alcoholic spirits over the area of the sting. This destroys undischarged sting cells. If no alcohol is available spread dry sand over the sting. Scrape off remaining tentacles. Do not rub the area...this causes more venom to be absorbed. Severe Stings: Keep the casualty at rest. Treat for shock. Sustain respiration. Sustain circulation. Send for medical aid.

I. Sprains: A sprained ankle or wrist is another occupational hazard for fishermen. Treatment - Rest the joint in the most comfortable position. Apply ice packs or cold compresses to the joint. In the case of an ankle, remove socks. Firmly bandage the joint. Remember that a sprain can easily be confused with a fracture. If a fracture or dislocation is suspected get medical help immediately. J. Fumes and Gases: A fisherman can be overcome by fumes or gas aboard his vessel. Treatment - Make sure the rescuer does not become the next casualty. Put on protective equipment immediately. Rescue must be carried out with extreme care, preferably by a person trained in rescue procedure. Get the casualty into the fresh air. If breathing is failing or has stopped start artificial respiration. Remove any contaminated clothing. Wash contaminated skin thoroughly. Treat for shock. Seek medical aid. Coral Cuts: Treatment - Clean cuts and scratches thoroughly with fresh water or open sea water (rather than lagoon). Cover with clean dressing and avoid exposure. Seek medical help if they do not heal quickly. Salt Water Boils: Treatment - Clean thoroughly with fresh plain water. Apply a non-soluble cream and protect from sun and exposure. K. Removing embedded fish hooks: Hooks embedded in the hand are one of the many occupational hazards faced by fishermen. Treatment - The most common method is to force the hook outwards until the point pierces the skin again. Then break or file off the barb and draw the curved part of the hook along the track of entry. This method can be extremely painful unless a local anaesthetic is ad ministered, but this is not normally within reach of the first aider. Another method is to flick the embedded hook out with a piece of string. String is made into a loop, the ends are wrapped firmly around the manipulator's right index finger, and the loop, some 18 inches long, is placed over the shank of the embedded hook. The fish-hooked finger is placed upon a firm surface, the eye pointing to the left of the manipulator, who then grasps the eye and shank with the thumb and index finger of his left hand which rests upon the patient's hand. He holds the shank rigid and depresses it. This disengages the barb and is painless, provided that the hook is not moved sideways. As a trial the string is slowly straightened out horizontally in the plane of the long axis of the shank. After the trial run the manipulator with the tip of his left third finger holds the central point of the loop of string against the juncture of the hook with the patient's finger. The manipulator's right hand is brought back to the hook and suddenly jerked away again, with full follow-through, in the same direction as in the trial run, spinning the hook back out of the finger without enlarging either the track or the hole of entry. For hooks larger than a size 1 whiting hook, a double loop and a loop length of 24 to 30 inches is used. L. Artificial respiration: Decide quickly the method of artificial respiration. Those who have been taught the Schafer, Holger-Nielson or Silvester methods of resuscitation will know what to do. The easiest and best known method is the mouth-to-mouth system. Mouth-to-mouth treatment - Lie casualty on his back, kneel beside head. Check mouth and throat and make sure they are clear of foreign matter. Remove false teeth. Hold head in both hands, one hand pressing downwards and backwards, the other pushing lower jaw upwards and forwards. Open your mouth wide and take a deep breath. Seal your lips around casualty's mouth. Pinch nostrils between your thumb and forefinger. Breathe out firmly into casualty's mouth and watch the chest rise. It should be similar to that in normal inspiration. Then remove your mouth. Allow chest to collapse. If the victim is an infant inflation should be gentle and at the rate of 20 times a minute. Time is vital, the first three or four inflations should be given as quickly as possible. For continued artificial respiration, inflations should be at the rate of 10 per minute. If chest does not fill with air, check the airway and check air seal of your mouth over that of patient. Mouth-tonose treatment - Where the mouth-to-mouth system cannot be used because of an obstruction or damage to the mouth - mouth-to-nose should be used. This method is often used in drowning cases. With the casualty on his back, kneel beside him. Position the head as for mouth-to-mouth. Take a deep breath and seal your lips widely on the casualty's face around his nose. Make sure your lips don't obstruct the nostrils. Close the casualty's mouth by placing your thumb on the lower lip. Breathe out and watch the chest rise. Remove your thumb, part the casualty's lips and allow the chest to collapse. Rate of inflation is the same as mouth-to-mouth. Points to Note: Air must pass in and out of the casualty's lungs. The chest must be seen to rise and fall or the expirations be heard. The head must be positioned correctly throughout. An airtight seal should be maintained during the operator's exhalation into the casualty's nose and mouth. The operator must turn his face away from the casualty's face to watch the chest and to take in fresh air for the next application. When the casualty starts to breathe again, the operator should continue with assisted breathing but he should try to keep In time with the patient's own attempts. Recovery is often accompanied by vomiting. Turn casualty on side with one arm underneath going through to the back, and face resting on the other. This assists with the breathing and allows any discharge to be easier. When the patient has recovered, obtain medical assistance, remove wet or contaminated clothing, promote warmth by blanket cover to prevent pneumonia. In certain emergencies breath can be given to a casualty who is still in the water, provided you can open an airway.

15 Minutes

2. Trainer emphasizes the seriousness of injuries at sea. Discusses what first aid supplies trainees feel should be taken with them on upcoming fishing trip and the contents of first aid kits they should have as PCVs.

5 Minutes

3. Trainer concludes session by linking to upcoming fishing trip and appointing trainee to be in charge of assembling medical kit.

Session T-43: Exploratory fishing trip I - Preparation

Time: 10:30 AM


· To allow trainees time to organize and prepare for the next day's trip
· To acquaint trainees with the necessary details essential to preparation


This session is the preliminary to session 47. The organization of the fishing trip is much too large a task for one individual. Also, the trainees need to be made aware of the time factor involved in preparing for a fishing trip, and the actual work making sure all is ready. By organizing the trainees into teams - food preparation, fish gear, fish processing, handling and care and miscellaneous - and making them responsible for the actual preparation, a better understanding of the role of a small-scale fisherman is achieved.


· Flip chart, markers, tape




1 Hour

1. Technical trainer gives fishing trip preview. Trainer

15 Minutes

should have "check-off list" prepared ahead of time to assist in the preparation procedure.

A. Departure time: early enough to travel to fishing grounds, fish and return.

B. Type of fishing for trip:

- handline (session T-22)

- deep line (session T-24)

- long line (session T-27)

- nets (session T-4)

C. Personal gear to bring:


- proper clothing

- gloves

- hat

- sunglasses

- tennis shoes

- knife

D. Food to prepare:

- protein types

- fruit

- water

E. Fishing gear to prepare: (see session T-21)

- extra hooks, lines, hardware

- fishing tools, pliers, clubs

- trolling gear

- hand lines

- deep line gear and reels long line gear and reels

- nets if involved in net fishery

F. Fish processing, handling and care preparation: (see sessions T-29, T-32, T-35)

- buckets

- scrub brushes

- knives

- ice box (see session T-39)

- ice (see session T-39)

G. Miscellaneous preparation:

- first aid kit (see session 42)

- hand cloths for cleaning tool kit for fish boat engine

- sun screen lotion

- sea sickness medication

H. Assigning of groups to prepare:

- food

- fishing gear

- fish processing, handling and care

- miscellaneous

5 Minutes

2. Technical trainer produces check-off list and wraps up session by underlining the importance of preparation to successful fishing trip.

Session T-44: Individual interviews/net mending

Time: 2:30 PM to 5:30 PM net mending 20 to 30 minutes per person for interview


· To give each trainee individual time with trainers
· To give feedback to each trainee on their progress
· To review assessment dimensions
· To introduce cutting and mending of nets
· To have trainees practice net mending


In this session trainees are once again given formal feedback by the staff, based on staff consensus. Trainees are asked if they have feedback for staff. Personal concerns that trainees may have are checked for. Cutting and mending are introduced by technical trainer at beginning of session.

Materials and Equipment

· flip chart, markers, pens; nets, twine, needles




20 Minutes

1. Trainees are given brief demonstration of net cutting and mending by technical trainer. They will practice this technique for rest of session.

2 Hours 30 Minutes

2. The following format is recommended for this week's interview:

o Any concerns you want to talk about.

o How much time outside of classroom is spent on:

- your special projects,

- your group special projects,

- pacing yourself?

o Where are you in your decision to go to?

o Anything you want to say to staff?

o We have the following feedback for you

Cutting and mending

Cutting out

ID a piece of netting each knot always has four bars leading to it, never three or two unless it is on the edge of the netting, and never five under any circumstances. When the starting knot is tied the twine on the needle forms the lourth her to the knot. On half mesh, pick up and side knots, the twine on the needle forms one her as it is brought to the knot and another as it leaves alter the knot is tied. In the finishing knot the twine on the needle forms one bar as it is brought to the knot and tied.

Therefore, when cueing out a hole, preparatory to mending it, the knot to which the starting knot is to be tied must have three bars leading to it, only one of the normal four bars being cut away (Fig. 28). All the other knots tied in mending the hole, except the finishing knot, must be tied to a knot with only two bars ;leading to it, requiring two bars to be cut away. The finishing knot is tied to a knot with three bars leading to it, so only one bar is cut away.

Fig. 28

Fig. 29

The procedure for cutting out i. therefore:

1. Arrange and support the net 50 that it is pulling in the right direction with the rows of knots in line (Photo 1). Select the starting knot at the highest point of the hole (Fig. 29-1) and cut away one bar, !leaving three bars to the knot.

3. Work down the left hand side o the hole cutting away two bars from each knot, leaving two bars (Fig. 29-2 to 11) to within a few meshes of the bottom of the hole.

4. Starting at the top again, immediately to the right of the starting knot, work down the right band side of the hole, cutting away two bars from each knot and leaving two bars (Fig. 29-12 to 21) to within a few meshes of the bottom of the bole.

5. Cut two bars away from each remaining knot alternately on the left then the right hand side of the hole (Fig. 29-22 to 24) until a finishing knot ([fig. 29-25) remains, when only one bar is cut sway.

The hole is then ready for mending. With large holes or rips in the net it is often easier to cut out on each side for the first five to 10 meshes from the starting point. Mend this in then cut out a further section and mend it in, so progressing from cutting to mending until the job is completed.


Mending is a straight forward procedure once the hole has been prepared by cutting out.
However, there arc five simple rules to follow and it is essential that the mender does not deviate from them.

1. With the exception of the starting and finishing knot, every knot formed must complete a mesh with four equal sides. (Fig. 30 and 31, half mesh knot; Fig. 32 side lino.; rig. 33 pick up knot.) When the starting knot is made no mesh is formed; when the finishing knot is made two meshes are formed.

2. Each half mesh row, whether moving from right to left or left to right across the hole, must be completed before the next is started.

3. Each change of direction across the hole, at the end of each row, is made by progressing to a side knot.

4. With one exception, after making a side knot the next knot will be a half mesh knot (Fig. 34), a pick up knot followed by a half mesh knot, (Fig. 35) or a finishing knot.

5. A side knot cannot follow a side knot on the same side of the hole (Fig.. 36). This would entail progressing down the hole by a full mesh (two rows) instead of the specified half mesh (one row).).

The exception to rule 4 is when only one bar of a mesh is needed to join the two edges of the hole. Side knot then follows side knot but each successive knot is on the opposite side of the hole and each involves a change of direction (Fig. 37).

Fig. 34

Figs. 30-33

Figs. 35-37

Fig. 38 shows a .simple mend in which all the knots are used The curved arrows indicate that a half mesh (two bars) is formed to complete a mesh. Moving from left to right from the starting knot 1, two meshes are completed with half mesh knots at 2 and 3. these are followed by a side knot 4; the direction is changed to right to left and a pick up knot made at S. Half mesh knots arc made at 6 and 7 on the loops left when knots 2 and 3 were made. Eight 8 is a side knot followed by a change of direction to a risk up knot 9, a half mesh knot 10 then the finishing knot 11.

Fig. 38

Fig. 39

Session T-45: Star charting special project

Time: 7:30 PM


· To acquaint trainees with proper observation techniques when viewing celestial bodies
· To familiarize trainees with major star bodies and procedures on locating and identifying them
· To utilize technical transfer and presentation skills


This session is to be presented by a trainee as a special project. By focusing trainees on the practicality of star charting and its present day application in small-scale fisheries, in case the fishing vessel is disabled, etc. There is a need to identify traditional styles and technologies. The PCV focuses on the practicality of star charting and present day small scale fishing applications.


· Flip chart, pens, guide to star gazing




10 Minutes

1. Introduction to star charting

A. overview of traditional navigation techniques(see reference)

10 Minutes

2. Major celestial bodies

A. planets ) northern hemisphere

C star gazers) southern hemisphere

25 Minutes

3. Identification of celestial bodies (rest of presentation to be out of doors to bring realism into session)

Trainer's Note

You will have to provide star map of your location to trainee.

Session T-46: Navigation and seamanship

Time: 8:15 PM to 9 45 PM


· To acquaint trainees with basic navigation systems utilized by small-scale fishermen
· To familiarize trainees with simple navigation devices and their proper usage
· To introduce to the trainees the navigational chart


The purpose of this session is to provide trainees basic navigation skills. In the following session (47), when trainees are on a fishing vessel, they should have a rudimentary knowledge of navigation, be able to distinguish direction and understand the navigational chart.

Materials and Equipment:

· flip chart, markers, compasses (hand held), local navigation charts




20 Minutes

1. Introduction to navigation

A. Charts

B. Basic Tools

C. Currents and Tides

20 Minutes

2. Introduction to compass usage

A. Bearings and deviation

20 Minutes

3. Chart usage

A. Local/inshore navigation

B. Off-shore

C. Nautical mile measurement

D. Tool usage

20 Minutes

4. Navigation of a fishing vessel

A. Steering the course

B. Understanding bearings

C. Use of the navigation chart

10 Minutes

5. Celestial (See session 45)

Trainer's Note:

This session is a preliminary to the fishing trip, session 47. It is important that this session be held prior to the first fishing trip. If the trainer does not feel competent in navigation, an outside resource person should be brought in to assist in the session.

Session T-47: Small scale fishing trip I

Time: 4:30 AM to 4:30 PM (approximately 12 hours)


· To allow all trainees the opportunity to utilize skills learned in formal and special project sessions

· To acquaint all trainees with proper small-scale fishing techniques: trolling, hand-line, deep-line and long-line

· To give all trainees the opportunity to navigate a small-scale Diesel fishing vessel

· To give all trainees the opportunity to operate and be responsible for a small Diesel marine engine

· To allow all trainees the opportunity to follow fish handling and care techniques with fresh caught fish

· To give trainees opportunity to experience deep sea fishing on a small-scale fishing vessel


This session is held at sea. The trainees will practice techniques previously learned. They will have the experience of using different types of fishing gear, and processing fish at sea.

Materials and Equipment:

· Personal floatation devices (PFD), fishing gear, food for X people, ice for fish, fish handling and care equipment, fillet and cleaning knives, drinking water, first aid kit, radio am/fm for weather, blankets for seasick trainees

Trainer's Note:

Very important to utilize boats which are appropriate to small-scale fishery. The trainer should offer guidance, but not interfere with the trainees. If the trainees have been properly trained up to this point, very little input is needed other than suggestions for safe handling of more dangerous species, i.e., shark, barracuda. A team system for fishing and navigating is helpful and allows fuller use of the trainees time and makes them responsible for their actions on board the boat. It is prudent to have the operation/owner of the boat along on the session.




12 Hours

1. Technical trainer does very little during this session which includes the following:

a. fishing trip

- trolling with shava-shava to the fishing grounds

- handline

- long-line reel

- deep-line reel

- nets

b. navigation (see session 46)

- chart course

- compass orientation

- helmsmanship

c. Diesel

- maintenance; oil, water

- power systems, shaft

d. fish handling and care

- cleaning of fish

- proper icing techniques

Trainer's Note:

For many trainees this will be the first time they have been at sea in a small fishing vessel. If the sea is rough you can expect some trainees to become seasick.

SHAVA SHAVA "The Artificial Bird"


Shava Shava skips across top of water when trolled from behind boat. When a fish strikes the lure the Shava Shava is pulled the water surface.


Shava Shava body of single piece of wood with wooden wing

Size varies, but is approx. 16-20 inches with a wing span of approx. 6-8 inches.

Four variations: