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CLOSE THIS BOOKSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
Week 7: Training
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-86: Introduction to fisheries economics and marketing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-87: ''Gyotaku'' fish art special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-88: Fund raising - special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-89: Economic data sheets
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-90: Transportation systems - special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-91: Fish cooperatives special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-92: Simple accounting techniques
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-93: Reef survey preparation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-94: Artificial reefs and floating tire breakwaters - special project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-95: Resources/proposal writing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-96: Reef survey
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-97: Interviews
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-98: Fish issues - special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-99: Ecology and conservation - special group project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSession T-100: Report writing

Small-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)

Week 7: Training

Week 7, Sessions 86 Thru 100

Session T-86: Introduction to fisheries economics and marketing

Time: 7:30 AM


· For trainees to become aware of the various economic activities in which small-scale fishermen are involved

· To bring the individual volunteer's role as a development worker into perspective

· For trainees to become knowledgable of the basic components in the decision-making process and procedures necessary to make a sound decision


This session begins by explaining the basic economic concepts fishermen must contend with in their daily lives. Possible solutions are brought out, and the role of the fisheries extensionist as an agent of change is discussed. The decision making apparatus is explored, and its economic relationship to the fishermen is discussed - as well as the logical five-ate? process to better decision making.


1. Fishery Economics/Economic Activities:
a. definitions of economic activities (see appendix 1);
b. natural fisheries (see appendix 2);
c. economic treadmill (see appendix 3).

2. Development Role Play

3. Decision-Making in Fishery Economics


· flip chart, markers, handouts, Appendix 1, 2, 3

Trainer's Note:

We felt it was important to keep the human perspective when dealing with economics. We kept in mind that trainees would be transferring basic economic/marketing skills to people who would not be impressed with flow charts, graphs or analysis tables.


· The Fisherman's Business Guide Smith, Fred. Oregon State University

Press. Corvallis, Oregon 97331

EXERCISE 1 - Fishery Economic Activities

Total Time: 2 Hours Goal 5

· To give definitions of economic activities
· To help trainees understand basic concepts of economics


In this session trainees are exposed to the basic concepts of fish economics. The general economic condition of small-scale fishermen is the focus.


· flip charts, markers, tape, Appendix 1, 2, and 3 drawn on flip chart paper




15 Minutes

1. Talk on economic activities (using flip chart drawing of appendix 1)

a. definition of economics

b. production and services

c. consuming and using

d. costs of production, market availability

10 Minutes

2. Natural Fisheries. Technical trainer uses flip chart drawing of appendix 2, and covers the following topics:

a. artisinal

b. industrial

c. needs of artisinal fisheries development

d. cash income for increased standard of living; production of protein

10 Minutes

3. Technical trainer now asks trainees for questions they may have. Points out that this is a western economic concept. Asks trainees how they think these concepts may be in conflict with cultures they are going to work in Trainer lists replies on newsprint.

15 Minutes

4. Technical trainer now continues with Economic Treadmill using appendix 3 drawn on flip chart paper.

a. what is a treadmill - beast of burden inside going nowhere

b. artisinal fishermen are caught up in an economic treadmill benefiting others more than themselves

c. fish merchant prospers

d. ice plant owner prospers

e. engine Salesmen prosper

f. fuel agent prospers

g. fishermen stay the same, remain at bottom of social scale in terms of income, housing, education, health care

h. money advanced by merchants or money lenders to keep boat, gear, in repair

i. interest rate is so high, by the time money is repaid for a loan, fishermen need another loan to carry them through

Trainer points out that once western economics/marketing, fishing technology and equipment are Introduced to developing countries, western economic problems are introduced at the same time.

10 Minutes

5. Technical trainer returns to newsprint of conflicts generated during step 3. Given these conflicts and the economic realities presented in step 4, what are the possible solutions to the dilemma?

10 Minutes

6. Technical trainer responds to solutions on news print and goes into the following:

Role of Fisheries Extensionist

a. cooperative marketing

b. injection of credit with easier repayment


c. improvement on productivity

d. improved catch quality

10 Minutes

7. Trainees are asked to list on paper how they, as fisheries extensionists, envision becoming part of the solution.

35 Minutes

8. The trainees now form into small groups, share their lists, and on flip chart paper list what they think are the most feasible solutions that an extensionist can be part of. These are presented to larger group.

5 Minutes

9. Technical trainer responds to small group presentations, and leads into next exercise.


Economic Activity
Every person has his own definition for Economics:
Economics affects our everyday life in many ways; what we eat, where we live, where we work, what we do in our spare time.
All these above examples are economic activity.
Any act of producing or servicing a product is an economic activity:
Fish farming, building, teaching.
In the same way any act of consuming or using a service is an economic activity: Buying, transporting, learning.
We can now see that fishing, fish farming, transporting fish, buying fish, are all economic activities.
In Economics we look at the costs of production and availability of markets.


In Natural Fisheries we look at two levels of fishing:

A. Artisanal i.e. low scale
B. Industrial i.e. large scale
- here bigger boats, more crews and sophisticated gear are used

We will concentrate on artisanal fisheries since they need extension work.

There are two kinds of artisanal fisheries:

(a) Subsistence Fishing - only interested in catching fish for the pot

(b) Commercial Fishing - concerned with earning income

Just like in other types of fishing there are subsistence fishermen and commercial fishermen and we must try to encourage more subsistence fishermen to become commercial fishermen so they will (1) earn a higher income and gain a better standard of living and (2) produce valuable protein which will improve the health of the whole population.

So for both fishermen and fish farmers it is important to encourage the motivation for a higher income.

All of us want to exchange something we produce with other items to consume. This is very difficult. We cannot say how many bags of rice are worth a pair of shoes.

Therefore we use money. Our money is dollars and cents. We sell fish for $15.00. We buy a pair of shoes.

Economists look at fish mainly as a food product. Fish is popular because it tastes good, it gives plenty of protein, it normally is cheaper than meat. All these points make up the demand for fish.


Economic treadmill

EXERCISE 2 - Development Role Play

Total Time: 1 1/2 Hours


· To introduce different points of view about development
· For trainees to envision possible frustrations they will have as a PCV
· For trainees to conceptualize different strategies that could be used in development work


In this exercise trainees try to conceptualize their role as a PCV, the possible frustrations that could arise around economic issues, and strategies that they could employ to overcome resistance to development.


· flip charts, markers, Development Story

Trainer's Note:

Immediately after Exercise 1, trainer asks for two volunteers to do a role play for this exercise. The two volunteers are given 15 minutes to prepare before exercise starts.




15 Minutes

1. Trainees present role play.

15 Minutes

2. Trainer asks the following questions posted on newsprint:

a. What would you have done differently?

b. What was the development worker really trying to do?

20 Minutes

3. Trainees break into two or three groups and prepare their own role plays based on previous discussion. (role plays 5 to 8 minutes)

20 Minutes

4. Trainees present skits.

3 Minutes

5. Trainer processes each skit.

15 Minutes

6. Trainer asks if trainees can envision frustrations they might have as development workers. Trainer has trainees get in touch with the feelings that were generated during role play. Lists the feelings on newsprint.


There is the old story about a fisheries expert with an international development organization who was extremely keen to promote increased fish production and improve the economic status of subsistence fishermen. He was walking the beach on a South Pacific atoll one calm, sunny morning when he came across an islander sitting under a palm tree, obviously relaxing and letting the world go by. There was a fine looking small runabout with an outboard motor anchored a short way offshore so the expert struck up a conversation that went something like this:

"Good morning. Is that your runabout out there?"

"Good morning. Yes it is."

"Do much fishing with it?"

"Not too much. Only what I need for the family and to sell a few fish to pay for petrol."

"Well look here. I know a village a couple of miles down the coast that is always short of fish so there is a good market, and if I were you I'd go into fishing full time to satisfy that market."

"Why should I? I really don't have to fish full time."

"But man, look what you could do for your family with some extra cash. You could buy them better clothing, some luxury items, provide your children with better education - there's really no limit on what you could do to improve your standard of living."

"O.K. Suppose the money does start coming in and my standard of living improves, what happens then?"

"Well, in time you could probably afford a larger boat and spend more time catching fish, and perhaps employ some of your people to fish with you."

"Alright. What happens then?"

"Well, after more time you will probably pay off the boat, start a savings account, and eventually you will be able to enjoy a comfortable retirement."

"So what do you think I'm enjoying now?"

At the risk of committing heresby, one would be less than honest not to admit that there are times when the islander's philosophy is much more appealing than our own.

EXERCISE 3 - Decision-Making in Fishery Economics Total Time: 1 Hour


· To make trainees aware that decision-making is an important part of business management
· For trainees to understand the procedures in making a logical decision; the five-step process


Trainees as extensionists, will have to present data to help others make decisions. They need to be clear about their own participation in this decision-making process.


· flip chart, markers




10 Minutes

1. Trainer makes opening remarks

a. What is decision-making?

and asks the following questions:

b. How does it work?

c. Is decision-making a necessity in a fishing environment?

Trainees respond to questions and discuss premises.

10 Minutes

2. Technical trainer presents the

a. make observation and obtain ideas

following five steps in decision-

b. analyze your observations


c. make the decision - yes or no

d. take action

e. accept responsibility

25 Minutes

3. Trainees break into small groups and come up with a process by which they can work with fishermen to use the five steps in decision-making. They list process on newsprint and present to large group.

10 Minutes

4. Trainer comments on each presentation, pointing out areas that are clearly working with someone and areas that are doing something for someone. It must be clear that local fishermen must make their own decisions.

5 Minutes

5. Trainer wraps up session by talking

a. the fisherman as a businessman

briefly about:

b. fishing as a business

c. decisions which face a businessman

Link to future session.

Session T-87: ''Gyotaku'' fish art special project

Time: 4 PM


· For trainees to learn the step-by-step process of Gyotaku, or Japanese fish art
· For trainees to think about ways of income generation for fishing families, i.e. arts and crafts
· For trainee assigned this project to be able to transfer skills and technology to others


This session is a special project. Trainee presents this project as an income generating technique which can be passed on to fishing families, women's groups, youth groups and fishing associations.




2 Hours

1. Trainee gives brief history of Gyotaku.

2. Trainee demonstrates

a. wipe all excess moisture from the fish, using paper towels

Gyotaku techniques as

b. clear the gills and the anus of any residue, and stuff cotton into the anus


c. set the fins so that they will be clearly defined in the print; do this by inserting pins at the base of the spines until they are erect (you'll have to poke around for the right spot)

d. apply the paint (or speed ball ink) to the fish, making sure it isn't too runny

e. place the paper lightly on the fish letting it adhere to the fish (if the paper wrinkles to the touch it has absorbed too much)

f. remove the paper very carefully so that it does not tear one fish can produce many prints. Gyotaku can be used on T-shirts as well as paper.


· Flip chart, markers, several fish of various sizes, ink (speed ball is best), alcohol, cotton, long pins, cloth/paper towels

Trainer's Note:

During pilot program we had trainees make graduation invitations during this session.

3. Trainees now all try their hand at producing Gyotaku prints.

Gyotaku fish

Session T-88: Fund raising - special group project

Time: 7:30 PM


· To introduce possible fund raising ventures applicable to those countries where trainees will be working

· To provide opportunity for trainees assigned to the special group project to build on communication technology transfer skills


This session is done as a special group project by trainees. The SPG leader researches and presents as many forms of fund raising/income generating projects as possible. The importance of locally-raised funds is emphasized, since outside money is not regarded as belonging to the community; "ownership" of a project may be questioned. Fund raising of entirely local money may take much longer than ever anticipated, but the project would then be by the community - for the community.


· flip chart, markers




30 Minutes

1. Trainee leader gives orientation

a. traditional income generation

to fund raising:

b. non-traditional income generation

c. women, youth, fishing groups d. cultural considerations e. other

15 Minutes

2. Trainees brainstorm various income generation/fund raising activities. Group leader makes list on newsprint.

30 Minutes

3. Trainees present various schemes for fund raising, using props or visual aids.

Session T-89: Economic data sheets

Time: 7:30 AM


· For trainees to become acquainted with a profit analysis format that they will be able to use when working with small-scale fishermen


In this session trainees become conversant with Marine Economic Data Sheets and their purposes.


· Marine Economic Data Sheet, flip chart, markers




30 Minutes

1. Technical trainer introduces Marine Economic Data

Sheet using following outline:

What are Marine Economic Data Sheets?

a. MEDS are single-sheet summaries of costs and returns for different types of marine businesses - commercial fishing, boatyards, charter fishing and marinas.

MEDS have these purposes:

a. to illustrate a proper profit-analysis procedure that can be used in a fishing business

b. to provide costs and returns data for comparison with other fishermen's costs and returns

c. as an indicator of potential profitability in a marine business

Presentation of sample chart on newsprint (see appendix 1)

a. explanation of each section:

- boat, equipment and fishery

- gross returns

- variable costs

- fixed costs

- opportunity costs operator labor and management

- opportunity costs total business involvement

- return to operators labor, management and total investment

- return to operators labor and management

- return to total investment

- net cash available

15 Minutes

2. Discussion of sample MEDS

a. How could it be modified for use in developing countries.

b. Would this information be useful to small-scale fishermen

30 Minutes

3. Trainees are now broken into small groups of 3-4 and asked to develop their "own" MEDS, one which they perceive would be beneficial in-country. They will report back to the large group.

20 Minutes

4. Trainee groups present "low-tech" MEDS to entire group. Technical trainer comments about points brought out and possible points missed.

30 Minutes

5. Technical trainer now extracts key elements from each groups MEDS and "builds" a low-tech model which all trainees have an interest in.

10 Minutes

6. Wrap-up by technical trainer. Trainees are asked to write down finished MEDS.




30 feet by 10 feet, fiberglass hull, $33,000 market value, 330 hp gasoline engine.


Hydraulic net reel, 7 floating nets, 2 diving nets, CB, fathometer.

Fishery a/

54 days fishing coho and chinook salmon, production of 7 tons (14,000 pounds) at an average price of $2,820 per ton ($1.41 per pound).

Gross Returns



(1) Total gross returns


Variable Costs b/Boat and engineer repair


Gear repair








(2) Total variable costs


Fixed Costs c/Insurance




Drift rights maintenance




Union dues




(3) Total fixed costs


Understanding and Using Marine Economics Data Sheets

This report explains the purpose and use of Marine Economics Data Sheets. The explanation begins at the right and continues on page 4. Pages 2 and 3 illustrate both sides of a Marine Economics Data Sheet and describe its parts.

by Frederick J. Smith Extension Marine Economist Oregon State University

Oregon State University
Extension Marine Advisory Program
A Land Grant / Sea Grant Cooperative
Special Report 500 November 19

Capt Mark is a Charleston shrimp boat, similar to the one described in Marine Economics Data Sheet SR 500-20, shown and explained on pages 2 and 3.

What are Marine Economics Data Sheets?

Marine Economics Data Sheets (MEDS) are single-sheet summaries o costs and returns for different types o marine businesses - commercial fishing, charter fishing, marinas, and boatyards. MEDS have been a service of Oregon State University's Extensio Marine Advisory Program since April 1969. All MEDS have a similar format and general plan, even though the costs and returns vary considerably.

MEDS have these purposes:

to illustrate a profit-analysis procedure that you can use in your own business;
to provide costs and returns data for comparison with your own costs and returns; and
to indicate the potential profitability of different marine businesses.

Is the information accurate?

The National Marine Fisheries Service and various universities have conducted studies of "sample" marine businesses. Some MEDS use the results of these studies. Most MEDS are based on studies conducted by the Marine Advisory Program staff, especially for the purpose of developing MEDS.

From three to six local marine business managers are selected on the basis of their knowledge, success and similarity among their businesses A MAP staff person then interviews the group, obtaining a consensus on each of the items the planned MEDS will illustrate. These and other marine business managers then review draft. of the MEDS to verify accuracy.

Data developed in this manner represent only the business involved. However, since the marine business managers participating in the studies are usually more successful than the average, MEDS usually represent an above-average marine business in all aspects.

For each MEDS, the data source is indicated in a footnote

1. Boat, equipment, and fishery

Each MEDS gives first the physical description and market value of business equipment and property. Depending on the nature of the marine business, volume of sales, and production, this item also provides effort expended and expected prices.

2. Gross returns

This is the total value of all goods and services sold, before any deductions.

3. Variable costs

These include all costs that vary as the volume of the business varies. The value of unpaid family labor [excluding the operator) is included, as is the net cost of labor (crew). Some costs, such as equipment and repair, may not vary exactly with the volume of business but are included under the "Variable costs" category for simplicity.

4. Fixed costs

These are all costs that remain constant, regardless of the volume of business. Interest on any debt is not included in this category as it is considered under item 7, "Opportunity costs: Total investment."

5. Opportunity costs:

Operator labor and management

This is the estimated value of the operator's time, or the amount the operator could have earned managing and working in another, similar business. The manager gives up this salary because it is the manager's own business. Therefore, it is an opportunity cost.

6. Opportunity costs:

Total business investment

This is the estimated fair return (interest) to the total investment, regardless of actual debt.

Marine Economic Data Sheet SR 500 20 (Front)

7. Return to operator's labor, management, and total investment

This is what the owner/operator earned for the time, skill, risk, decision-making, and money invested in the business. All costs have been covered except costs of the operator's labor, management, and total investment.

8. Return to operator's labor and management

This is what the operator earned for the time, skill, risk, and decision-making he invested in the business. Ail costs (including opportunity costs of total business investment) except the operator's labor and management have been covered.

9. Return to total Investment

This is what the total investment earned in the business. All costs except the opportunity cost of investment have been covered This can be compared with item 6 above "Opportunity costs: Total business investment," in measuring the financial success of this business.

10. Net cash available for personal outlays and debt service

Depreciation and interest are added back to "Return to operator's labor, management, and total investment," as calculated above (item 7). This is not a measure of profitability but a measure of this business' ability to meet cash needs.

11. Footnotes

These explain the technicalities of some of the costs, and they provide other necessary supporting information.

Charleston Shrimp and Crab Fishing Business (Back)

Now do you use your MEDS?

Study the breakdown of the sample MEDS provided on pages 2 and 3 of this report. Note the organization o' costs and returns. Note, too, that this arrangement is not appropriate for tax reporting or crew settlement.

Once familiar with the way MEDS work, you will find it useful to develop similar information and analysis of your own marine business. This new information and the MEDS can be used in the following way:

1. Compare your costs with those shown on the MEDS. Are some of yours too high?

2. Take your costs and returns data, and the MEDS, to your lender. Can you get better credit terms?

3. Use your costs and the MEDS to determine "break-even" prices.

4. Use MEDS to project profit or loss for a new boat, new fishery, etc.

MAP is here to help you

Your Extension marine agent can provide further assistance, and he will usually have other publications that will be useful to you.

There are four Extension marine advisory offices on the Oregon coast (listed here from north to south):

Astoria 97103 Clatsop County Extension Office Post Office (P.O. Box 207) phone: (503) 325-7441, ext. 50

Tillamook 97141 Tillamook County Extension Office Courthouse phone: (503) 842-5511, ext. 372

Newport 97365 Lincoln County Extension Office Courthouse (225 W. Olive) phone: (503) 265-5376

Coquille 97423 Coos County Extension Office 290 N. Central phone: (503) 396-3121, ext. 242

SR 500 is a revision of SG 24, November 1973, by the same author.

Extension Service, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Henry A. Wadsworth, director. This publication was produced and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension work is a cooperative program of Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Oregon counties. Extension's Marine Advisory Program is supported in part by the Sea Grant Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Extension invites participation in its activities and offers them equally to all people, without discrimination.

Session T-90: Transportation systems - special project

Time: 10 AM


· To acquaint trainees with different transportation systems and the problems associated with them in developing countries

· For trainees to develop strategies for alleviating transportation bottlenecks, particularly those affecting the marketing of food produce from rural areas to population centers

· For the trainee assigned the special project to build on communication/technology-transfer skills


One of the major problems that marine fisheries extensionists will face in their programs are transportation bottlenecks which hinder the flow of fish (fresh, smoked, dried) to markets. In some cases, PCV's may need to lay the ground work by identifying middlemen to transport fish from rural areas to population centers (i.e. taxi drivers, truckers, etc.); PCVs may also need to seek out inland markets with potential demand for processed fish. In this session, trainees look at their role as catalysts in boosting outside demand for their communities' fish products.


· flip charts, markers, tape




10 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the special project delivers a short lecture on the importance of good transportation systems for the successful marketing of quality fish products.

40 Minutes

2. Trainee acts as facilitator and divides the large group into groups of four or five. Each group is assigned a transportation system, either land or water. The small groups identify problem areas within each system, and possible solutions. Groups report out to the large group. Trainee turns session over to technical trainer.

15 Minutes

3. Trainer processes the group report outs, drawing on own personal experiences and knowledge of transportation and marketing problems in developing countries, Trainer emphasizes the volunteer's role as a catalyst in boosting outside demand for their communities' fish products.

5 Minutes

4. Trainer draws closure to the session, linking back to the extension and community analysis sessions.

Trainer's Note:

For a large training group, it may be better for the trainee assigned the special project to write up specific land or water problems for each group, and have the group identify possible solutions.

Session T-91: Fish cooperatives special group project

Time: 4 PM


· To become familiar with cooperatives
· To become familiar with the functions of a cooperative
· To become familiar with the organizational prerequisites of a cooperative


This session is to be done as a special group project by trainees. The importance of cooperatives throughout the developing world should be stressed in this session. By tying in the marketing and economic needs of a small fishing community the trainees get a clearer picture of the needs for cooperatives.


· flip chart, markers




1 Hour 30 Minutes

1. Trainee leader offers introduction using following outline:

A. Introduction - What are examples of some cooperatives?

B. The cooperative principle

C. Functions of a fishery cooperative

D. Organizing cooperatives

- Needs or wants to be provided?

- Potential profitability?

- Volume of business to be expected?

- Money required to operate, organize the cooperative?

- Managerial requirements.

- Can the cooperative be profitable?

E. Initial capital can be obtained in many

- Membership stock


- Preferred stock

- Borrowing from a bank

- Membership fee

F. The Board

- Operation of long range planning

- Policy making body

F. The Manager

- Day to day operation of cooperative

Trainer's Note:

This is a group project. It is up to the trainee leader to cover all material and involve other team members.


· Peace Corps, ICE, Resource Packet #5

S. G. Number 19
Commercial Fishing Publication

Organizing and Operating
A fishery cooperative one
Part One


The organization and operation of a successful fishery cooperative requires a knowledge and understanding of cooperative management and marketing concepts.

This publication provides information about cooperative organization, management, and legal instruments used in organizing and operating a cooperative. It is available in two parts. This portion, part one, provides an overview of cooperative organization and operation. Part two provides greater detail about the legal instruments and requirements of a fishery cooperative.

Questions or suggestions about fishing cooperatives should be directed to the Oregon State University marine economics extension specialist, Department of Agricultural Economics, Oregon State University, or to any of the marine extension agents in Oregon.

Part two (S. G. Number 19a) of this publication is available from Bulletin Mailing Services, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.


A fishery cooperative consists of a group of individual fishermen acting together for mutual benefit and is designed to accomplish group objectives. Through the cooperative members jointly perform or obtain services which individuals usually could not accomplish alone.

Fishermen members own the cooperative by owning capital stock or by paying membership fees Each member usually has only one vote, in contrast to non. cooperative corporations In a non-cooperative corporation, votes are based upon the number of shares (stock) held by an individual

Therefore, in a cooperative, ownership and control are equally vested in each cooperative member, guaranteeing equal voice in the affairs of the organization Management is usually placed in the hands of persons selected by the board of directors who, in turn, are elected by members.

A cooperative consists of a group of Individual fishermen acting together to accomplish group objectives.

The cooperative can be incorporated or organized as an unincorporated association. If the unincorporated association is used, it can be further organized under one of the following:

"i. General partnership - A partnership is an association of two or more persons who engage in business for profit. Each partner may bind his co-partner to obligations of the business and each partner is personally liable for business debts.

2. Limited partnership - This is the same as a general partnership except the liability of one or more partners is limited.

An incorporated cooperative has the advantage of providing limited liability to members, providing a business life independent of the individual members', and encouraging a more business-like organization and operation.

Fishery cooperatives must incorporate under state laws, but they can utilize the protective provisions of the Federal Fishery Cooperative Marketing Act of 1934 in their interstate and foreign commerce activities. This protection is gained through the assistance of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U. S. Department of Commerce. The provisions of this Act require the cooperative to provide one vote per member, eight percent maximum dividend payment on capital stock, and that the cooperative's business with non-members be less than with members.

The organizing fishermen should obtain copies of state statutes regulating the establishment of a cooperative and a corporal-ion and should employ the services of an attorney and a certified public accountant - one preferably familiar with cooperative law and taxation. A simple mistake in organization or accounting procedures can cause problems in operations. Part two of this publication provides some sample fishery cooperative by-laws.

Once the initial capital requirements are determined, there are three ways to obtain the necessary capital. The initial capital may be provided by members who buy stock (shares) in the cooperatives - or it can be provided from membership fees. In addition, capital may be obtained from outside sources (nonmembers) by sale of preferred stock or by borrowing a portion of the required initial capital. Capital is also frequently borrowed from cooperative members as well as nonmembers.

When determining the initial capital requirements, allowance should be made for at least a year or more of operation with costs exceeding revenues. (It usually takes some time for the cooperatives to get established and develop efficient operating procedures.) Therefore, it is necessary that more capital than required for the initial buildings, inventory, equipment, land purchases, and normal operating needs must be provided.

The board of directors is the range planning and policy making body of the cooperative. The salaried manager is responsible for the day to day and week to week decisions, and is accountable to the board of directors, who represent the fishermen members.

Election of the board of directors is regulated by the cooperative by-laws, but they are usually fellow fishermen elected by members at annual meetings.

The board is responsible for hiring the manager, defining his duties, and setting his salary. The board is also responsible for such things as audit of the cooperative's books, execution of purchase, and sales agreements with members. The board creates and has control of special committees dealing with such things as finance and membership.

The manager is placed in charge of business operations. He controls the daily flow of funds and is accountable to the board of directors for those funds. The manager maintains records and periodically presents a business report to the board of directors and the cooperative members. He also has full responsibility for cooperative employees. The manager of a fishery cooperative must be a man of many talents and should be paid accordingly.

Good membership and public relations should be established and maintained It the cooperative is to be successful.

The creation of a fishery cooperative must be based upon a real economic need. For example, cooperatives may be created to:

stabilize income from season to season,
improve quality control,
pool funds to finance fishing operations at lower interest rates,
reduce cost of fishing supplies and equipment,
transport fish products more efficiently,
establish a competitive market for fish products,
provide a market for processing waste, and
provide special harbor and dockside facilities and services.

A single cooperative may perform a number of different functions or may specialize in just one. For example, the more than 75 fishery cooperatives in the United States presently perform one or more of the following functions:

transportation of fish products to processors or other markets,
operation of vessel servicing stations,
operation of vessel repair shops,
rental of trucks and other equipment to members,
negotiation with buyers on prices,
marketing of member's products,
purchasing of supplies and equipment for members,
arranging for financing,
operation of retail outlets,
operation of freezer and cold storage warehouses,
provision of docking facilities, and
operation of seafood processing plants.

In most states there are very few limitations on the functions of a fishery cooperative. However, the functions must be legal.


Interested fishermen should thoroughly discuss their common problems and needs. If the fishermen can agree on some common objectives that can be accomplished best by cooperative effort, they should then clearly define the purpose and functions of the proposed cooperative.

From this group of fishermen, a smaller group can proceed to investigate whether it would be economically sound to organize a cooperative with the desired functions and investigate the procedures of establishing a cooperative.

Much assistance can be obtained from the Cooperative Extension Service, Oregon State University Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program, National Marine Fisheries Service, Small Business Administration, some local attorneys, accountants, and financial institutions.

The smaller study group should find at least partial answers to the following questions:

What services do fishermen need or want in their particular geographical area that are not now being provided adequately by existing business?

What is the potential profitability of providing such services to fishermen?

What volume of business can be expected?

How much money will be required to organize and operate the cooperative?

What are the managerial requirements of operating the cooperatives?

Can competition be met and the cooperative remain profitable over an extended period of time?

Answers to these questions will assist the larger group of interested fishermen in deciding whether to go ahead and organize a cooperative.

It is important to remember that a cooperative is a non-profit business only from the legal and accounting standpoint. A cooperative will surely fail if it does not provide services of economic value and its costs are greater than its revenues.

When it has been determined that a cooperative should be organized and its services are identified, consideration should then be given to its legal, capital, and operational structure. The fishery cooperative must organize under state laws and comply with the provisions of the Federal Fishery Cooperative Marketing Act of 1934.

A cooperative must guard against hiring a manager from the membership simply because he's a good fellow and needs a job!

This information is published by Oregon State University as part of the Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program.

Cooperative Extension work in agriculture and home economics, Lee Kolmer, director, Oregon State University and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May and June 30, 1914.

A 1970 survey of seven successful fishery cooperatives showed that, with one exception, the selection of the manager was the key element in the success of a fishery cooperative, and all surveyed indicated that business experience and business management ability was the key to being a good manager.

Although fishing knowledge is useful and should be acquired by any person managing a fishery cooperative, the cooperative must guard against hiring a manager from among the membership primarily because he is a good fisherman, or even because he is a poor fisherman but a good fellow and needs a job! The same survey also indicated that the board of directors should give the manager enough authority so that he can successfully exercise his managerial ability.

A regular audit and periodic financial reports and analysis of the cooperative are a crucial part of operation. These records will indicate the financial success of the cooperative from one time period to the next, give an indication of the efficiency of the operation, and provide information for more effective control of the organization's activities.

In many cases, the cooperative will be competing with large, aggressive, and well managed private firms that specialize in processing, marketing, and selling supplies and services. The fishery cooperative, on the other hand, depends heavily on the voluntary support of members, and occasionally a contribution of some members' time (serving on committees or the board of directors), and members' capita!. The benefits of the cooperative must more than offset the negative effect of these contributions upon the members' first business - fishing. Therefore, an efficient and financially successful cooperative is not an "extra," it is a necessity!

A marketing cooperative may use a variety of methods to pay members who deliver fish. These include:

Outright purchase plan - Under this arrangement, the fisherman is paid the current market price at time of delivery.

Pool payment plan - A plan whereby all catches are delivered to the cooperative and each fisherman is paid on the basis of the average prices over each pooling period for each pool.

Direct payment plan - The terms of each sale are arranged by or subject to approval of the cooperative.

The outright purchase plan usually causes less confusion. The pool payment plan is especially beneficial when landings are seasonal and of mixed species, or the marketing is erratic over an extended time period. The direct payment plan allows the cooperative to evaluate the market situation and cooperative financial picture before payments are finally made to fishermen.

The disposition of profit at year end depends on whether the cooperative is stock or non-stock. For a stock corporation cooperative, dividends are first distributed to preferred stockholders and then to common stockholders. The balance may then be returned to patrons based upon their rate of patronage. Adequate reserves must be maintained within the cooperative, not only to meet emergencies, but to provide for business expansion.

Another important factor in operating a fishery cooperative is membership relations. An educational program that will keep membership informed of cooperative policy, financial condition, and operational and personnel changes will contribute much to cooperative success. In addition, procedures should be established to keep the cooperative in close touch with the current and changing needs of members. Cooperative members are not only the primary investors, they are also the patrons. They are, in fact, the cooperative, and it succeeds only to the extent that the members are committed to the cooperative's success.

Session T-92: Simple accounting techniques

Time: 7:30 AM


· To introduce simple accounting techniques
· For trainees to learn to read and use simple accounting forms


The use of Marine Economic Data Sheets and the simple accounting forms introduced in this session are all that is necessary to set-up a fishery station and operate it efficiently with adequate record keeping.


· Flip charts, markers, copy of Accounting Formats, Fish Stock Analysis (see Appendix 1 and 2)




5 Minutes

1. Technical trainer starts session by reviewing MEDs.

15 Minutes

2. Presents simple accounting format as follows:

a. Income

b. Unpaid accounts

c. Accounts paid

d. Summary

10 Minutes

3. Trainer introduces fish stock analysis format:

a. Incoming Stock

b. Outgoing Stock

30 Minutes

4. Trainer now passes around sample forms. Gives trainees information based on fictitious fishing operation. Trainees put information in proper places. Trainer checks for accuracy.

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Session T-93: Reef survey preparation

Time: 8:30 AM


· To provide orientation to coral reefs and the marine flora and fauna
· To acquaint trainees with skin diving/snorkeling techniques and the buddy system
· To acquaint trainees with the necessary preparation details essential to a reef dive and survey


This session is the preliminary to session 96. An orientation is essential as most trainees are not familiar with open water skin diving/ snorkeling. Also, the trainees should be aware of associated dangers whenever working on a reef system. A special emphasis is placed on the necessity of the buddy system when diving. A theme of safety is a requirement for this session.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, markers, masks, snorkles, fins, marine flora/fauna identification guides Procedures:



2 Hours

1. Technical Trainer gives presentation using following outline posted on flip chart paper:

A. Reef survey preview

- Departure time early enough to travel to reef area, dive and return

- Type of diving snorkel only (for safety considerations)

- Personal gear

PFD, proper clothing, gloves, hat, sunglasses, tennis shoes, knife, swim suit with t-shirt, mask, snorkel, fins, dive knife/tool, sun block lotion (NO SPEARGUNS OR SPEARS ALLOWED)

- Food to prepare protein types water fruits

- Miscellaneous first aid kit ice, ice box

- Assigning of groups to prepare food miscellaneous ice box/ice

- Orientation to Coral Reef flora and fauna dangerous marine organisms poisonous and toxic marine fish (see Session T-51)

- Skin diving/snorkeling prerequisite to diving equipment buddy system

- Survey skills ability to recognize and identify coral types, reef fishes, other marine animals locate and identify beche-de-mer (Sea cucumbers) (see SPC Booklet on South Pacific Beche-de-mer) check reef area for dead, dying corals from siltation, identify other ecological damage

Session T-94: Artificial reefs and floating tire breakwaters - special project

Time: 4 PM


· To enlighten trainees regarding the design and function of artificial reefs and floating tire breakwaters

· To construct an artificial reef

· To provide technical transfer and workshop skills to the trainee conducting the session


This session is done by a trainee as a special project. The protection of estuarine habitats is becoming an important consideration in developing countries.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip charts, markers, used tires, monofillament twine, knives, handsaw




2 Hours

1. Trainee gives presentation on floating tire breakwaters and their uses.

2. A scale model of a floating tire breakwater may be constructed if materials and time permits

3. Trainee gives a presentation on artificial reefs, habitat development and possible construction materials.

4. A construction project utilizing used tires for an artificial reef is conducted by the trainee. Ample materials for all trainees' involvement and understanding is a prerequisite.

Trainer's Note:

During pilot program, local fishermen assisted trainees in the construction of tire breakwater and artificial tire reef structures, and utilized them afterwards. References:

· Ross, N. University Rhode Island, Narragansett, R.I. 02882 USA

URI Peace Corps Training Program

Floating tire breakwater

Goodyear Design

For more information write: Neil Ross, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, R.I.. 02882, USA

Session T-95: Resources/proposal writing

Time: 7:30 PM


· To restate the importance of local resources so that trainees can register this approach again
· To identify local resources, where to find them, how to approach them
· To identify national and international resources and look at how best to approach them
· To acquaint trainees with the elements of a well presented proposal


This session reinforces previous extension and community analysis learnings by once again stressing the concepts of community self-reliance and the importance of relying on local resources when initiating community projects. As important as a new bridge or well might be for the long term welfare of a community, equally important is the degree of local 'capacity-building' that results. Could the community build another bridge or well without the volunteer's assistance? As a result of the bridge or well, has the ability of individuals and communities to identify and seek out their own problem-solving information, learning needs and resources been strengthened? This session explores the implications of bringing in outside resources and the where, who and how of locating funds and writing small grants proposals.


· Article by E.F. Schumacher, Catalogs, guidelines, newsletters from funding sources for display and perusal by trainees




30 Minutes

1. The trainer gives a lecture on resources using the following outline posted on newsprint.

A. Do you really need outside help?

o Have you exhausted local solutions?

o What are the implications of outside help?

- dependency

- non-support of local potential (capacity building)

- creativity

B. If you really need help:

o What resources are available?

- financial

- material

- technical

o What sources?

- Local private: clubs, service organizations, professional associations, churches, etc. government: local, national

- National

- International USAID, Peace Corps (ICE, Partnership Program), CARE, Catholic Relief Services, FAO, World Bank, IITA, etc.

C. Elements of a good proposal:

o A clear description of the problem.

o A description of the proposed solution.

o A statement of what is needed in terms of funds.

o A simple budget showing the items to be purchased.

o The name of the organization to whom the grant is to be made.

20 Minutes

2. Trainer passes out a short excerpt from E.F. Schumacher's Small is Beautiful. Trainees take 20 minutes to read the article.

30 Minutes

3. Trainees break into their country-specific groups and are told to put on newsprint those points from the article which will most likely have impact on their own programs. Groups report out to the large group. Trainers relate personal experiences from their own programs in developing countries.

10 Minutes

4. Trainer draws closure to the session by again stressing the importance of capacity-building goals as an integral part of any community project.

Trainer's Note:

Draw comparison between 'capacity-building' and Schumacher's 'evolution' before trainees read the excerpt Development.


· Forestry Training Manual

DEVELOPMENT by E.F. Schumacher (from: Small is Beautiful) A British Government White Paper on Overseas Development some years ago stated the aims of foreign aid as follows:

To do what lies within our power to help the developing countries to provide their people with the material opportunities for using their talents, of living a full and happy life and steadily improving their lot.

It may be doubtful whether equally optimistic language would be used today, but the basic philosophy remains the same. There is, perhaps, some disillusionment: The task turns out to be much harder than may have been thought - and the newly independent countries are finding the same. Two phenomena, in particular, are giving rise to world-wide concern - mass unemployment and mass migration into cities. For two-thirds of mankind, the aim of a "full and happy life" with steady improvements of their lot, if not actually receding, seems to be as far away as ever. So we had better have a new look at the whole problem.

Many people are having a new look and some say the trouble is that there is too little aid. They admit that there are many unhealthy and disrupting tendencies but suggest that with more massive aid one ought to be able to overcompensate them. If the available aid cannot be massive enough for everybody, they suggest that it should be concentrated on the countries where the promise of success seems most credible. Not surprisingly, this proposal has failed to win general acceptance.

One of the unhealthy and disruptive tendencies in virtually all developing countries is the emergence, in an ever more accentuated form, of the "dual economy," in which there are two different patterns of living as widely separated from each other as two different worlds. It is not a matter of some people being rich and others being poor, both being united by a common way of life: It is a matter of two ways of life existing side by side in such a manner that even the humblest member of the one disposes of a daily income which is a high multiple of the income accruing to even the hardest working member of the other. The social and political tensions arising from the dual economy are too obvious to require description.

In the dual economy of a typical developing country, we may find fifteen percent of the population in the modern sector, mainly confined to one or two big cities. The other eighty-five percent exists in the rural areas and the small towns. For reasons which will be discussed, most of the development efforts goes into the big cities, which means that eighty-five percent of the population are largely bypassed. What is to become of them? Simply to assume that the modern sector in the big cities will grow until it has absorbed almost the entire population--which, is of course, what has happened in many of the highly developed countries--is utterly unrealistic. Even the richest countries are groaning under the burden which such a maldistribution of population inevitably imposes.

In every branch of modern thought, the concept of "evolution" plays a central role. Not so in development economies, although the words "development" and "evolution" would seem to be virtually synonymous. Whatever may be the merit of the theory of evolution in specific cases, it certainly reflects our experience of economics and technical development. Let us imagine a visit to a modern industrial establishment, say a great refinery. As we walk around in its vastness, through all its fantastic complexity, we might well wonder how it was possible for the human mind to conceive such a thing. What an immensity of knowledge, ingenuity, and experience is here incarnated in equipment! How is it possible? The answer is that it did not spring ready-made out of any persons mind-it came by a process of evolution. It started quite simply, then this was added and that was modified, and so the whole thing became more and more complex. But even what we actually see in this refinery is only, as we might say, the tip of the iceberg.

What we cannot see on our visit is far greater than what we can see: The immensity and complexity of the arrangements that allow crude oil to flow into the refinery and ensure that a multitude of consignments of refined products, properly prepared, packed and labelled, reaches innumerable consumers through a most elaborate distribution system. All this we cannot see. Nor can we see the intellectual achievements behind the planning, the organizing, the financing and marketing. Least of all can we see the great educational background which is the precondition of all extending from primary school to university and specialized research establishments, and without which nothing of what we actually see would be there. As I said, the visitor sees only the tip of the iceberg; there is ten times as much somewhere else, which he cannot see, and without the "ten", the "one" is worthless. And if the "ten" is not supplied by the country or society in which the refinery has been erected, either the refinery simply does not work or it is, in fact, a foreign body depending for most of its life on some other society. Now, all this is easily forgotten, because the modern tendency is to see and become conscious of only the visible and to forget the invisible things that are making the visible possible and keep it going.

Could it be that the relative failure of aid, or at least our disappointment with the effectiveness of aid, has something to do with our materialist philosophy which makes us liable to overlook the most important precondition of success, which are generally invisible? Or if we do not entirely overlook them, we tend to treat them just as we treat material things--things that can be planned and scheduled and purchased with money according to some all-comprehensive development plan. In other words, we tend to think of development, not in terms of evolution, but in terms of creation.

Our scientists incessantly tell us with the utmost assurance that everything around us has evolved by small mutations sieved out through natural selection. Even the Almighty is not credited with having been able to create anything complex. Every complexity, we are told, is the result of evolution. Yet our development planners seem to think that they can do better than the Almighty, that they can create the most complex things at one throw by a process called planning, letting Athene spring, not out of the head of Zeus, but out of nothingness, fully armed, resplendent, and viable.

Now, of course, extraordinary and unfitting things can occasionally be done. One can successfully carry out a project here or there. It is always possible to create small ultra-modern islands in a pre-industrial society But such islands will then have to be defended, like fortresses, and provisioned, as it were by helicopter from far away, or they will be flooded by the surrounding sea. Whatever happens, whether they do well or badly, they produce the "dual economy" of which I have spoken. They cannot be integrated into the surrounding society, and tend to destroy its cohesion.

We may observe in passing that similar tendencies are at work even in some of the richest countries, where they manifest as a trend toward excessive urbanization, toward "megalopolis", and leave, in the midst of affluence, large pockets of poverty-stricken people, "drop-outs," unemployed and unemployables.

Until recently, the development experts rarely referred to the dual economy and its twin evils of mass unemployment and mass migration into cities. When they did so, they merely deplored them and treated them as transitional. Meanwhile, it has become widely recognized that time alone will not be the healer. On the contrary, the dual economy, unless consciously counteracted, produces what I have called a "process of mutual poisoning," whereby successful industrial development in the cities destroys the economic structure of the hinterland, and the hinterland takes its revenge by mass migration into the cities, poisoning them and making them utterly unmanageable. Forward estimates made by the World Health Organization and by experts like Kingsley Davies predict cities of twenty, forty and sixty million inhabitants, a prospect of "immiseration" for multitudes of people that staggers the imagination.

Is there an alternative? That the developing countries cannot do without a modern sector, particularly where they are in direct contact with the rich countries, is hardly open to doubt What needs to be questioned is the implicit assumption that the modern sector can be expanded to absorb virtually the entire population and that this can be done fairly quickly. The ruling philosophy of development over the last twenty years has been: "What is best for the rich must be best for the poor." This belief has been carried to truly astonishing lengths, as can be seen by inspecting the list of developing countries in which the Americans and their allies and in some cases also the Russians have found it necessary and wait to establish "peaceful" nuclear reactors--Taiwan, South Korea, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Portugal, Venezuela--all of them countries whose overwhelming problems are agriculture and the rejuvenation of rural life, since the great majority of their poverty-stricken peoples live in rural areas.

The starting point of all our considerations is poverty, or rather, a degree of poverty which means misery, and degrades and stultifies the human person; and our first task is to recognize and understand the boundaries and limitations which this degree of poverty imposes. Again, our creduly materialistic philosophy makes us liable to see only "the material opportunities" (to use the words of the White Paper which I have already quoted) and to overlook the immaterial factors. Among the causes of poverty, I am sure, the material factors are entirely secondary-such things as a lack of infrastructure. The primary causes of extreme poverty are immaterial; they lie in certain deficiencies in education, organization, and discipline.

Development does not start with goods; it starts with people and their education, organization and discipline. Without these three, all resources remain latent, untapped, potential, There are prosperous societies with but the scantiest basis of natural wealth, and we have had plenty of opportunity to observe the primacy of the invisible factors after the war. Every country, no matter how devastated, which had a high level of education, organization, and discipline, produced an "economic miracle". In fact, these were miracles only for people whose attention is focused on the tip of the iceberg. The tip had been smashed to pieces, but the base, which is education, organization and discipline was still there.

Here, then, lies the central problem of development. If the primary causes of poverty are deficiencies in these three respects, then the alleviation of poverty depends primarily on the removal of these deficiencies. Here lies the reason why development cannot be an act of creation, why it cannot be ordered, bought, comprehensively planned: Why it requires a process of evolution. Education does not "jump") it is a gradual process of great subtlety. Organization does not "jump"; it must gradually evolve to fit changing circumstances. And much the same goes for discipline. All three must evolve step by step, and the foremost task of development policy must be to speed this evolution. All three must become the property not merely of a tiny minority, but of the whole society.

If aid is given to introduce certain new economic activities, these will be beneficial and viable only if they can be sustained by the already existing educational level of fairly broad groups of people, and they will be truly valuable only if they promote and spread advances in education, organization, and discipline. There can be a process of stretching--never a process of jumping.

If new economic activities are introduced which depend on special education, special organization, and special discipline, such as are in no way inherent in the recipient society, the activity will not promote healthy development but will be more likely to hinder it. It will remain a foreign body that cannot be integrated and will further exacerbate the problem of the dual economy.

It follows from this that development is not primarily a problem of economists, least of all for economists whose expertise is found on a crudely material philosophy. No doubt, economists of whatever philosophical persuasion have their usefulness at certain stages of development and for strictly circumscribed technical jobs, but only if the general guidelines of a development policy to involve the entire population are already firmly established.

The new thinking that is required for aid and development will be different from the old because it will take poverty seriously. It will not go on mechanically, saying: "What is good for the rich must also be good for the poor." It will care for people - from a severely practical point of view. Why care for people? Because people are the primary and ultimate source of any wealth whatsoever. If they are left out, if they are pushed around by self-styled experts and high handed planners, then nothing can ever yield real fruit.

Session T-96: Reef survey

Time: 6 AM


· To provide fundamentals in coral identification, reef fish identification and coral reef topography

· To allow trainees the opportunity to acquire basic snorkeling/ diving techniques

· To acquaint trainees with survey techniques in which to properly assess the carrying capacity of a given reef in as short a time as possible


This session is particularly useful to the marine fisheries PCV. They have a need to understand the dynamics of change affecting coral reefs. For the PCY to be able to survey a reef for potential exploitation of underutilized fish species and assess the carrying capacity is also important. In addition, the role of the PCV as a coral reef ecologist providing extension workshops on conservation to fishing communities, underutilized species exploitation or implementation of artificial reefs will greatly assist the development of small-scale fisheries in the PCV specific country.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, markers, diving gear (mask, snorkel, flippers, diving knife/tool, storage bag) small boat 8-12 feet with outboard, or large Diesel vessel for bigger group.

Trainer's Note:

This session can be supplemented with tie-ins to other small-scale fishing sessions. Orientation to Poisonous/Toxic Marine Fish- Special Project should be conducted prior to this session.




12 Hours

1. The following areas are covered during reef survey:

a. introduction to surveys

- visual sightings

- classification of marine life

b. orientation to coral reefs

- corals identification

- reef fishes identification

- coral reef topography

c. equipment (snorkeling)

- hardware

- software

d. survey of a living coral reef

- buddy system

- group system

e. survey of a dying/dead coral reef

- analysis of cause

- solutions

f. data aquisition

- visual

g. potential markets

- underutilized species

- processing

Trainer's Notes:

Care should be taken to insure an adequately stocked first aid kit, innertubes for diver floats, and fresh drinking water. Most trainees will be entering an environment which is new to them, an environment with hidden dangers, i.e. sea urchins, coral cuts, shark menace, sunburn--the list goes on. Caution and safety must be stressed at all times. Again, spearguns and spears should not be allowed on the trip.

Session T-97: Interviews

Time: 7:30 AM

Trainer's Note:

Although throughout training, net mending and interviews have been conducted simultaneously during this session we have deliberately omitted net mending. Our experience has been when trainees have been out on the boat for long periods of time, i.e. reef survey, they are extremely tired the next day.

Interviews are conducted the same as in previous interview sessions.

Session T-98: Fish issues - special group project

Time: 1 PM


· To look at fishing issues that marine fisheries extensionists may encounter in their work, particularly those involving the local economy and local and international politics

· To look at various approaches and methods that a marine fisheries extensionist can use to raise the consciousness of a community and assist them in dealing with fishing issues

· To look at specific approaches and methods for different audiences i.e., a fishermen's cooperative, government officials, officials from an international organization, such as FAO

· For the trainee assigned the special project to build on leadership, communication and technology transfer skills.


The local economy of many third world fishing communities is being adversely affected by the advanced fishing technology of trawlers from developed countries fishing off their coastal waters. This issue and other issues, such as tribal and family fishing rights, are often very politically-charged. Marine Fisheries PCVs may come face to face with one or more of these issues. In this session, trainees look at various approaches to dealing with these issues at the local, national and international level, approaches which are appropriate to the PCV development worker. Trainers have the opportunity as well in this session to relate personal experiences and knowledge of these issues.


· flip chart, markers




15 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the special group project gives a mini-lecture on current fishing issues in developing countries, particularly as they relate to the local economy and local and international politics. The difficulties PCVs and other "outsiders" encounter in dealing with these issues at the community level is also discussed.

1 Hour

2. Trainees assisting the group project leader give three presentations: each presentation is directed at a different "audience", i.e., a fishermen's cooperative, government officials, a village meeting; and a different fishing issue is the topic of the presentation. After each presentation, the group project leader processes the points made and the approach used, and gives trainees a list of suggestions for working with that particular audience.

5 Minutes

3. Trainee group leader draws closure to session by linking back to extension and community analysis sessions.

Trainer's Note:

As in the session on ecology and conservation issues, the training program may or may not have access to country-specific fishing issues. It's important to keep in mind that the major learnings of this session are not the issues, but rather the approaches used in presenting these issues to particular audiences.


· Marine Fisheries Case Studies, Peace Corps.

Session T-99: Ecology and conservation - special group project

Time: 2:30 PM


· To look at ecology and conservation issues that marine fisheries extensionists may encounter in their work

· To look at various approaches and methods that a marine fisheries extensionist can use to raise the consciousness of the community around ecology and conservation issues

· To look at specific approaches and methods for different audiences, i.e., a women's group, school children, fishermen's cooperative, etc.

· For the trainee assigned the special project to build on leadership, communication and technology transfer skills


There are many problems associated with good ecology and conservation practices in developing countries which trainees need to be aware of: many ecology issues are complex and abstract; good practices may conflict with the livelihood of local fishermen; ecology and conservation problems are often "invisible"; and the government may be indifferent. In this session, these issues and problems are discussed, and trainees look at ways ecology issues could be presented to a community. Trainers also have an opportunity to talk about their own experiences in developing countries, and to point out that until the basic needs of third world people are met, good ecology and conservation practices have little chance of succeeding.


· flip chart, markers




15 Minutes

1. Trainee assigned the group project asks trainees to define ecology and conservation. Trainee then gives a mini-lecture on current areas of concern: marine fisheries ecology and conservation-related issues. The difficulties in introducing good environmental practices are also presented to the group.

1 Hour

2. Trainees assisting the group project leader give three presentations: each presentation is directed at a different "audience", i.e. women, trap fishermen, school children; and a different ecology issue is the topic of the presentation. After each presentation, the group project leader processes the points made and the approach used, and gives trainees a list of suggestings for working with that particular "audience."

5 Minutes

3. Trainee group leader draws closure to session, linking back to previous sessions on extension, WID and community analysis.

Trainer's Note:

The training program may or may not have access to country-specific ecology and conservation issues. It's important to keep in mind that the major learnings of this session are not the issues, but rather the approaches used in presenting these issues to particular audiences.

Sample report developed during pilot program follows:

TEACHING ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION Papua New Guinea * Sierra Leone * Tonga


1. What is ecology?

Ecology is the study of the intraspecific and interspecific interactions of organisms in and with their environment and the interactions of environmental elements with each other. Ecological problems are generally problems of imbalance.

2. What is conservation?

Conservation is the preservation, management and/or wise use of resources. Conservation involves careful planning. Conservation problems are generally problems of exploitation.

3. What areas of concern may be confronted in marine fisheries work?

Overfishing of particular species (i.e. lobster in Puerto Real, bonga in Sierra Leone) and/or areas (i.e. within the barrier reef in Tonga). Destruction of habitat - pollution of harbors and estuaries by silt, sewage and agricultural run-off. Destruction of reefs by suffocation (silt), lysis (fresh water) and extraction for use as building material. Conflict of usage (i.e. fish productivity vs fuel consumption in mangrove estuary). Deforestation (silting, erosion). Introduction of exotic species which results in imbalance. Introduction of environmental policy/management concepts.

4. What are some problems of introducing ecology and conservation in a developing nation?

Ecological concepts are complex and abstract and may be difficult to comprehend for individuals with limited educational backgrounds. Ecologically sound conservation practices may conflict with the livelihoods of some fishermen. Ecology and conservation occupy advanced positions in the hierarchy of needs and will be of little concern to individuals who have not met their safety needs. The results of ecologically sound conservation practices are generally delayed, taking long periods of time to become apparent. The symptoms of environmental problems may be subtle. Why deal with an "invisible" problem? The government may be indifferent to problems of ecology and conservation. The source of an ecological or conservation problem may be external to a village or its resources (i.e. Japanese tuna fishing vessel). Greed runs rampant and international law is difficult to enforce.


1. The extensionist meets a group of village women while fetching water at the well. She discovers that their husbands, the local fishermen, are having difficulty catching bonga, a popular variety of fish, but are catching large quantities of trigger fish, a variety which, at present, is not marketable. She explains that if they can develop a market for trigger fish (by filleting it or preparing it in a desirable manner) and sell all the trigger fish that their husbands catch, they can make more money and leave more "room" in the water for bonga.

Suggestions for working with women:

a. Tie concepts into their daily lives and activities: family, making money, etc.

b. Remember high illiteracy rates and low levels of formal schooling.

c. Keep in mind demands on time.

d. Utilize pre-existing groups or gathering spots.

e. Elicit responses and ideas.

2. The extensionist meets informally with a group of trap fishermen who are having difficulty catching lobsters because divers from a neighboring village are exploiting the lobster population. She explains that it is important to release female lobsters with eggs and young lobsters if there are to be lobsters when their children are grown. She then facilitates the fishermen's decision to meet with the divers and to share the importance of this practice with them.

Suggestions for working with fishermen:

a. Organize fishermen - either informally or formally.
b. Keep topics simple and relative to fisherman's daily life.
c. Discuss benefits and drawbacks of techniques or topics to be discussed
d. Discuss monetary gains and losses
e. Relate effects to family, both immediate and future generations.
f. Assess time spent- both long term and short term.
g. Review existing legislation and discuss possible legislation which may affect fishermen and fishing.

3. The extensionist is invited to talk with a group of school children. Upon arrival, she distributes tags which bear the names of the sun, man and several organisms which live in a mangrove swamp to the children. She then shares with them the two types of webs found in a mangrove swamp: spiders' webs and food webs. To show how the food web is weakened when some of its components are eliminated, she has the children construct a "food web" using string to connect related "organisms" and then has some of the "organisms" drop their strings. To show the flow of energy through the food web, the extensionist has the children play a special variety of tag in which "organisms" tag what they eat and are tagged by what eats them. (energy is individually wrapped candies or peanuts. Plants get their energy from the sun. If an "organism" is tagged, he gives one piece of "energy" to his tagger and one to "used up energy.") Finally, she facilitates analysis of the distribution of energy by the children.

Suggestion for working with children:

a. Limit your presentation or program to just a few key ideas, and keep those ideas simple.

b. Use examples which are part of the childrens day-to-day experiences.

c. Use questioning strategies to help children formulate the desired information themselves.

d. Remember that children have short attention spans and that it is best for them to learn actively (have fun!).

e. If active learning is to take place, an informal setting is usually best. Environment is important!

f. Be aware that many of the children may have basic needs which have not been met. It is difficult to learn when you are hungry!

g. Use the children's names often.

h. Do not underestimate the importance of working with children; they are tomorrow's decision-makers.

Addendum 1. Food Web Game - Components of mangrove food web and what takes their energy:













Session T-100: Report writing

Time: 7:30 PM


The purpose of this session is for the trainees to evaluate the training program in the format of an official memorandum.




1 Hour 30 Minutes

1. The trainer presents the following report format and content outline, and tells trainees to write a three to five page memorandum to a Peace Corps/Washington official, i.e. Fisheries Specialist or Director, OPD.

Trainer's Note:

Trainer may want to suggest that trainees do a draft during the session, and hand in the final copy at the end of the next day.



TO: Fisheries Specialist or Director, OPD

FROM: Trainee

SUBJECT: Marine Fisheries Training Program

Content Outline

1. List out your major learnings in this training program.

2. Which dimensions of this training program will have the most impact on your success as a Peace Corps Volunteer?

3. How do you see your competence/confidence level as a marine fisheries extensionist?

4. In what ways do you feel you have met your personal learning goals for this training program?

5. The training site and facilities.

6. Other - optional.

7. Conclusion/summary of report.