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CLOSE THIS BOOKClimate Responsive Building - Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions (SKAT, 1993, 324 p.)
5. Appendices
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.1 Physical data
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.2 Literature
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.3 Solar ecliptic charts
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.4 Conversion factors to SI units
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5.5 List of possible plant species

Climate Responsive Building - Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions (SKAT, 1993, 324 p.)

5. Appendices

5.1 Physical data

The data provided in the following tables are approximate only and serve as a basis for comparing different materials. For exact calculations the properties of the specific material must be considered, which may differ from the data provided here. The data are compiled from various sources.

5.1.1 Density, thermal conductivity, specific heat

PLEASE WIDEN YOUR TEXT SCREEN FOR OPTIMAL VIEW


Density

Thermal conductivity (k)

Specific heat ( Q )


kg/m³

W/mK

Wh/kgK

a) Natural stone and earth (moist)




Granite, marble

2800

3.5

0.26

Sandstone, limestone

2600

2.3

0.22

Sand

1700-2000

1.4


Earth

1800

2.1


b) Sand and earth (dry)




Sand, gravel (loose filling)

1800-2000

0.7

0.22

Clay massive (adobe)

1000-2000

0.2-1.0

0.23

c) Concrete




Solid concrete (RCC)

2400

1.8

0.33

Gas concrete

1000-1700

0.3-1.0


d) Plaster




Cement plaster

2200

1.4

0.3

Lime-cement plaster

1800

1.0


Gypsum plaster

1200

0.6

0.26

e) Timber




Softwood

450-500

0.15

0.55-0.66

Hardwood

600-800

0.18-0.22

0.55-0.66

f) Boards




Gypsum

1000

0.40

0.22

Asbestos cement

1700-2000

0.48

0.24

Woodwool, cement bound

700

0.12

0.42

Wood fibre, hard

800

0.17

0.7

Wood fibre, porous

200-400

0.06

0.7

Wood chips

650

0.11

0.75

Plywood

600

0.44

0.75

g) Masonry




Hollow brick

1200

0.47

0.26

Solid brick

1800

0.8

0.26

Cement stone

2000

1.1

0.3

Gas concrete

500-700

0.16-0.21

0.3

h) Insulation materials




Mineral wool, glass wool

20-120

0.04

0.17

Slag wool

30-70

0.06

0.17

Grass board

200-300

0.06

0.17

Coconut matting

50-200

0.05

0.17

Hemp mat

50-200

0.05

0.17

Cork board extruded

110-140

0.04

0.42

Cork coarse

80-160

0.06

0.42

Foamglass

125

0.045

0.22

Perlite with pressed fibre

170-200

0.06

0.17

Polystyrene extruded

20-40

0.04

0.39

i) Various materials




Steel

7850

60

0.13

Copper

9000

348

0.1

Aluminium

2700

200

0.26

Glass

2500

0.81

0.22

Water 10°C

1000

0.58

1.16

Ice

820-920

2.23


Snow 0°C

100

0.05


Air (theoretical case of still air)

1.2

0.02

0.28

5.1.2 Thermal transmittance (U-value), time lag values, solar heat gain factor

a) Homogeneous materials


Thickness in cm

Time lag
(O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Stone

20

5.5



30

8



40

10.5



60

15.5


Sand

30

13.4


Solid concrete

5

1.1



10

2.5



15

3.8

9


20

5.1



30

7.8

7



40

10.2

Solid brick

10

2.3



20

5.5

10


30

8.5



40

12


Stabilized soil, mud

10

2.4



15

4.0



20

5.2



30

8.1


Wood

1.5

0.2



2.5

0.45



5

1.3



10

3.0



30

17.4


Aluminium sheet (new)


0.5

10

Corrugated galvanized iron sheet (new)


0.5

20

Corrugated galvanized iron sheet (rusty)


0.5

34

Corrugated asbestos cement sheet (ACC)


0.5

16

Insulating board

1.5

0.1



2.5

0.23



5

0.77



10

2.7



15

5


b) Roof constructions


Thickness in cm
(U) W/m²K

Time lag (O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Thin sheets without ceiling (Alu, CGI, ACC)

8 - 9

0.5

see above

Alu sheet + cavity+ asbestos sheet

1.9

1

4.5

ceiling ditto + 50 mm fibre glass in cavity

1.3

1

3

Rusty CGI sheet + cavity + thin sheet

1.9

1

8

ceiling ditto + 50 mm fibre glass in cavity

1.3

1

5

Concrete slab, 300 mm

2.5

9.2

7

Concrete slab, 150 mm

3.3

4

9

ditto + 50 mm woodwool slab internally

1.13

4.5

3

ditto + external and internal insulation

0.75

13.5

2

ditto + whitewashed externally

3.3

4

4

ditto + 50 mm woodwool + whitewashed ext.

1.13

4.5

1.5

ditto + ext. and int. insul. + whitewashed ext.

0.75

13.5

1

c) Wall constructions


Thickness in cm
(U) W/m²K

Time lag (O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Hollow concrete block, 250 mm, rendered on both sides

1.7

11

5

ditto + whitewashed externally

1.7

11

2

Window with single glazing

4

0

85

Open window

-

0

100

Solid brick wall, 230 mm

2.7

8

10

ditto + whitewashed externally

2.7

8

3.5

Brick wall 280 mm incl. 50 mm cavity

1.7

10.5

6

ditto + whitewashed externally

1.7

10.5

2

Corrugated asbestos cement sheet

8

0.5

16

ditto + 50 mm woodwool slab + cavity

1.2

0.5

2.5

5.1.3 Reflectivity and emissivity of main materials

Surface

% Reflectivity of solar radiation (6’000°C)

% Emissivity of thermal radiation (10 to 40°C)

a) Natural materials

Sand, white

59


White marble

54

95

Limestone

43

95

Wood, pine

40

95

Grass

20


Sand, grey

18


b) Concrete and masonry walling

Cream brick

50 - 70

40 - 60

Yellow and buff brick, stone

30 - 50

85 - 95

Concrete

35 - 45


Red brick, stone

25 - 45

85 - 95

Asbestos cement, aged 1 year

29

95

c) Paints

Whitewash

80


White lead paint, light grey

71

89

Light green paint

50

92

Medium grey, yellow

45

92

Aluminium paint

45

55

Dark color ( brown, grey, red)

35

92

Deep dark brown, dark red, dark green

10

92

Black, non-metallic

2 - 15

90 - 98

Black, matt

3

95

d) Metal

Silver polished

93

2

Polished aluminium, chromium

60 - 90

2 - 8

Bright aluminium, gilt, bronze

50 - 70

40 - 60

Polished brass, copper

50 - 70

2 - 5

Dull brass, aluminium

35 - 60

20 - 30

Aluminium anodized

33

92

Galvanized iron, aged (oxidized)

10

28

e) Plaster

White

80

97

Orange

45

97

Light green

40

97

Light brown

35

97

Brown

32

97

Dark brown

17

97

f) Glass

Reflecting glass

50


Clear glass

10

90 - 95

Note:

- The higher the reflectivity of the surface of a material, the less is the heat load received by radiation and, after the heat has been transmitted through the material, the heat load in the interior.

- The higher the emissivity of a surface, the more a building cools down at night.

5.2 Literature

5.2.1 Selected bibliography

1. Alsayyad Nezar, ed. “The Design and Planning of Housing”, College of Environmental Design, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1984

2. Baker N.V., “Passive and Low Energy Building Design for Tropical Island Climates”, Commonwealth Secretariat Publications, London, 1987

3. Brown G.Z., “Sun, Wind, and Light”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985

4. Doswald Fritz, “Planen und Bauen in heissen Zonen”, Baufachverlag AG Zrich, Dietikon, 1977

5. Golany Gideon S., ed., “Design for Arid Regions”, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1983

6. Golany Gideon S., ed., “Urban Planning for Arid Zones”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978

7. Hillmann G., Nagel J, Schreck H., “Klimagerechte und Energiesparende Architektur”, Verlag C. F. Mller, Karlsruhe, 1983

8. Koenigsberger O. H., Ingersoll T.G., Mayhew A., Szokolay S.V., “Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part 1, Climatic Design", Longman Inc., New York, 1974

9. Konya Allan, “Design Primer for Hot Climates”, The Architectural Press, London, 1980

10. Lechner Norbert, “Heating, Cooling, Lighting”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991

11. Lippsmeier Georg, Bearb. Mukerji Kiran, “Tropenbau - Building in the Tropics”, Callwey Verlag, Mnchen, 1980

12. Niles Philip, Haggard Kenneth, “Passive Solar Handbook”, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, 1980.

13. Olgyay Victor, “Design with Climate”, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1963

5.2.2 References

100. Ackerknecht Dieter, “Factors of Change in Islamic / Arab Cities and Approaches to the Preservation of the Architectural Heritage”, in: Proceedings of Conference on "The Preservation of Architectural Heritage of Islamic Cities", Arab Urban Development Institute, Riyadh, 1987

101. Adamson B. et al, “Construction de logements en climat chaud et sec - Une tude mthodologique faisant appel l’energie passive”, LCHS report No 10, Lund University, Lund, 1983

102. Alp Ahmet, “Vernacular Climate Control in Desert Architecture”, in: Washburn Brooks, ed., “Contemporary and Traditional Arabian Design, Review 1987”, College of Environmental Design, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1987.

103. Archibook, ed., “Architektur und Energie”, Solar 4, Amerika Haus, Berlin, 1981

104. Ba-Cohen Avram, “Space Cooling and Thermal Control by Skyward Radiation”, in: Golany Gideon, ed., “Arid Zone Settlement Planning”, Pergamon Press, New York 1979.

105. Bahadori M. N., “Natural Cooling in Hot Arid Regions”, in: Sayish A. A. M., ed., Solar Energy Application in Buildings, Academic Press Inc., New York, 1979.

106. Beckman Richard, “Contemporary Applications of Passive Solar Technology in Housing: The Traditional Context”, in: Alsayyad Nezar, ed., “The Design and Planning of Housing”, College of Environmental Design, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1984.

107. Bianca Stefano, “Architektur und Lebensform im Islamischen Staatswesen”, Artemis Verlag, Mnchen, 1975

108. Binz Armin, “Energiebewusstes Bauen mit dem Klima und der Sonne”, Schweizerische Energie - Stiftung, Zrich, 1988

109. Bowen A., Eugene C., Kenneth L., “Passive Cooling, Proceedings of the International Passive and Hybrid Cooling Conference”, American Solar Energy Society, 1981

110. Burgess Hugh and Mumma Stanley A., “Integrated Architectural and Mechanical Design for the Arizona State University Energy Efficient House and Laboratory”, in: Proceedings of 1979 Western Conference/ACSA, Host Institution, Arizona State University, Tempe Arizona.

111. Cain A., Afshar F, Norton J., Daraie MR., “Traditional Cooling Systems in the Third World”, The Ecologist Vol. 6, No 2, Feb. 1976.

112. Clark Kenneth N, Paylore Patricia, ed., “Desert Housing”, The University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies, Tuscon, 1980

113. Competition for the design of residential commercial complexes in Abu Dhabi, “Madinat Zayed , An Islamic City”, Technical Report, Abu Dhabi, 1982

114. Dakhil F. H., Ural O., Tewfik M, F., eds., “Housing Problems in Developing Countries”, Vols. I and II, Proceedings of IHAS International Conference at the University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1978

115. Department of Planning and Housing in the Third World, “Institutional Buildings in the Third World”, Examples from Mozambique, School of Architecture, Aarhus, 1984

116. Dethier Jean, ed., “Down to Earth, Adobe Architecture”, Facts on File Inc., New York, 1982

117. Egli Ernst, “Climate and Town Districts, Consequences and Demands”, Verlag fr Architektur, Erlenbach, Zrich, 1951

118. Eichler Friedrich, Arndt Horst, “Bautechnischer Wrme- und Feuchtigkeitsschutz”, Verlag fr Bauwesen, Berlin, 1989

119. Erat Bruno, “Manual Passive Solar Energy in Bhutan”, HABITAT, Thimphu, 1985

120. Evans M., “Housing, Climate and Comfort”, Architectural Press, London, 1980

121. Fanger P. O., in: "Energy and Building" 3/1985

122. Fathy Hassan , “Architecture for the Poor”, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973

123. Fathy Hassan , “Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot-Arid Climates”, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1986

124. Gabriel Paul, “Housing Design in Desert Regions”, in: Alsayyad Nazar, ed., “The Design and Planning of Housing”, College of Environmental Design, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1984, p. 54 - 65

125. Germeraad Pieter W., “Open Space in Human Settlements: The Lesson from the Islamic Tradition”, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, 1990

126. Gibbs Phillip, “Building a Malay House”, Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1987

127. Givoni B., “Man, Climate and Architecture”, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, 1969

128. Golany Gideon S., “Earth-Sheltered Habitat: History, Architecture and Urban Design”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1983

129. Golany Gideon S., ed., “Desert Planning”, The Architectural Press, London, 1982

130. Golany Gideon S., ed., “Housing in Arid Lands”, The Architectural Press, London, 1980

131. Golany Gideon S., “Planning Urban Sites in Arid Zones: The Basic Considerations”, in: Golany Gideon, ed., “Urban Planning for Arid Zones”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.

132. Grandjean Etienne, “Ergonomics of the Home”, Taylor & Francis Ltd., London, 1973

133. Grondzik Walter T., “Environmental Control In Arabian Buildings”, in: Washburn Brooks, ed., “Contemporary and Traditional Arabian Design, Review 1985”, College of Environmental Design, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1987.

134. Grunlow J., “Luftaustausch in der Grossstadt”, VDi-Zeitschrift 8011, 1936

135. Gut Paul, “Architecture in the National Parks of Nepal”, National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Department, Kathmandu, 1980

136. HABITAT and CSC, “Passive Solar Architecture Report of the Training Workshop”, London and Nairobi, 1983

137. Hauri H.H., Zrcher Ch., “Moderne Bauphysik”, Verlag der Fachvereine, Zrich, 1984

138. Hay Harald, “The Skytherm Roof Pond”, in: Hillmann G., Nagel J, Schreck H., “Klimagerechte und Energiesparende Architektur”, Verlag C. F. Mller, Karlsruhe, 1983

139. Hopman Fred, “Basic Principles of Passive Solar Building Design”, Kathmandu, 1978

140. Institut fr Stdtebau, ed., “Stadtplanung in der 3. Welt”, Seminarbericht, Lehrstuhl und Institut fr Stdtebau, Wohnungswesen und Landesplanung, Technische Universitt, Braunschweig, 1979

141. Kaizer Talib, “Shelter in Saudi Arabia”, Academy Editions, St. Martin's Press, London, 1984

142. Kleinert Christian, “Haus- und Siedlungsformen im Nepal Himalaya unter Bercksichtigung klimatischer Faktoren”, Hochgebirgsforschung Vol. 4, Mnchen, 1973

143. Knowles Ralph L., “Sun Rhythm Form”, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, 1981

144. Koenigsberger O. H., Lynn R., “Roofs in the Warm Humid Tropics”, Lund Humphries, London, 1965

145. Kriken John Lund, “Town Planning and Cultural and Climatic Responsiveness in the Middle East”, in: Golany Gideon, ed., “Design for Arid Regions”, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1983, p. 97 - 120

146. Krusche P. and M., Althaus D., Gabriel I., “Oekologisches Bauen”, Umweltbundesamt, Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden and Berlin, 1982

147. Kuhn Michael, “An Architect’s Experience at the Dead Sea” in: Golany Gideon, ed., “Arid Zone Settlement Planning”, Pergamon Press, New York, 1979, p. 87 - 109

148. Labs K., “Terra Types: Underground Housing for Arid Zones”, in: Golany G., ed., "Housing in Arid Lands", The Architectural Press, London, 1980

149. Lewcock Ronald, “Traditional Architecture in Kuwait and the Northern Gulf”, Art and Archeology Research Papers (aarp), London 1978

150. Mayer E., “Thermische Behaglichkeit in Rumen, neue Beurteilung und Messmglichkeiten”, Manuscript, Zrich.

151. Mazria Edward, “The Passive Solar Energy Book”, Rodale Press, Emmaus Penn., 1978

152. Nazer M. O. ed., “Proceedings of the Second Saudi Engineers Conference”, University of Petroleums & Minerals, Dhahran, 1985

153. Pandean T. P., “Klimaangepasster Wohnungsbau in Indonesien”, Fachbereich Architektur, Universitt Hannover, 1983

154. Rapoport Amos, “House Form and Culture”, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall International Inc., London, 1969

155. Roaf Susan, “Windcatchers of the Middle East”, in: Germen Aydin, ed., “Islamic Architecture and Urbanism”, Symposium Proceedings, College of Architecture and Planning, King Faisal University, Dammam, 1983.

156. Rosenlund Hans, “Design of Energy Efficient Houses in a Hot and Arid Climate”, LCHS, Lund University, Lund, 1989

157. Rosenlund Hans, Ouahrani Djamel, “Experimental Building Ghardaia, Evaluation of climate measurements”, LCHS, Lund University, Lund, and CNERIB, Algeria, 1988

158. Sagelsdorff Ralph, Frank Thomas, “Wrmeschutz und Energie im Hochbau”, Schweizerische Ziegelindustrie, Zrich, 1990

159. Sanjay Prakash, “Solar Architecture & Earth Construction in the Northwest Himalaya”, Development Alternatives, Har-Anand Publications, New Delhi 1991

160. Sanjay Prakash, “The Headquarters Building”, Architecture + Design, Vol V, No 6, p. 80 - 89, New Delhi, Sept.-Oct. 1989

161. Stulz Roland, “Elements of Solar Architecture”, SKAT, St Gallen, 1980

162. Stulz Roland, Mukerji Kiran, “Appropriate Building Materials”, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1988

163. Suter P., “Haustechnik in der integralen Planung”, Impulsprogramm Haustechnik, EDMZ, Bern, 1986

164. Ullah M.B., Al-Harari W. and Benson H.R., “An Analysis of Climatic Variables for Thermal Design of Buildings in Dhahran”, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol 7, No 2, 1982.

165. Washburn Brooks ed., “Contemporary and Traditional Arabian Design, Review 1987”, College of Environmental Design, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1987

166. Winterhalter C.P., “Environmental Control in the Indigenous Architecture of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia”, in: “The Journal of Science and Engineering”, Vol 7, No 2, 1982.

5.3 Solar ecliptic charts


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure

5.4 Conversion factors to SI units

Various units Imperial units Obsolescent units etc.

Conversion factors

Metric/Siunits

a) Length



Units: inch(in)

1 in = 25.4 mm

Units: millimetre(mm)

foot(ft)

1 ft = 30.48 cm

centimetre(cm)

yard (yd)

1 yd = 91.44 cm

metre (m)

mile(mile)

1 mile = 1.6093 km

kilometre(km)

12 in = 1 ft


10 mm = 1 cm

3 ft = 1 yd


100 cm = 1 m

1760yd = 1 mile


1000 m = 1 km

b) Area

Units: square in (sq in;in²)

1 in² = 6.4516 cm2

Units: square mm (mm²)

square ft (sq ft; ft²)

1 ft² = 0.0929 m²

square cm (cm²)

square yd (sq yd; yd2)

1 yd² = 0.8361 m²

square m (m²)

acre

1 acre = 4046.86 m²

hectare (ha)

square mile (sq mire)

1 mile² = 2.59 km²

square km (km²)

144 in² = 1 ft²


100 mm² = 1 cm²

9 ft² = 1 yd2


10000 cm² = 1 m²

4840 yd2 = 1 acre


10000 m² = 1 ha

640 acre = 1 sq mile


100 ha = 1 km²

c) Volume

Units: cubic in(cu in; in³)

1 in³ = 16.3871 cm³

Units: cubic cm(cm³)

cubic ft (cu ft; ft³)

1 ft³ = 28.32 dm³

cubic decimetre (dm³)

cubic yd (cu yd; yd³)

1 yd³ = 0.7646 m³

cubic m (m³)

1728 in³ = 1 ft³


1000 cm³ = 1 dm³

27 ft³ = 1 yd³


1000 dm³ = 1 m³

100 ft³ = 1 register ton



d) Capacity / volume of liquids and gases

Units: fluid ounce(floz)

1 floz (UK) = 28.4 ml

Units: millilitre (ml)

gill (UKgill)

1 gill (UK) = 142 ml

cubic cm (cm³, ccm, cc)

gill (USgill)

1 gill (US) = 118.3 ml

cubic dm (dm³)

pint (UK pt)

1 pint (UK) = 568 ml

litre (l)

pint(USpt)

1 pint(US) = 454 ml

kilo litre (kl)

quart (UK qt)

1 qt (UK) = 1136 ml

cubic m (m³)

quart (US qt)

1 qt (US) = 909

ml

gallon(UK gel)

1 gal (UK) = 4.546 l


gallon (US gal)

1 gal (US) = 3.785 l


barrel

1 barrel = 158.9 l


5 floz = 1 UK gill


1 ml = 1 cm³

4 floz = 1 US gill


1000 nil = 1 l

4gill = 1 pt (UK, US)


1 l = 1 dm³

2pt = 1 qt (UK, US)


1000 l = 1 kl = 1 m³

4 qt = 1 gal (UK, US)



1 UK gal= 1.2 US gal



e) Weight

Units: ounce(oz)

1 oz = 28.35 g

Units: milligram(mg)

pound(lb)

1 lb = 0.454kg

gram (g)

stone (stone)

1 stone = 6.35 kg

kilogram(kg)

hundred weight (cwt)

1 cwt = 50.8 kg

ton(t)

long ton (UK ton)

1 Ukton = 1.016 t


short ton (US ton)

1 Uston = 0.907 t


16 oz = 1 lb

1000 ml = 1 g


14 lb = 1 stone

1000 g = 1 kg


8 stone = 1 cwt

1000 kg = 1 t


112 lb = 14 stone = 1 UK ton



100 lb = 1 US ton



f) Density

Units: lb/cu ft (lb/ft3)

1 lb/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m³

Unit: kg/m³

lb/UK gal

1 lb/UK gal= 100 kg/m³


lb/US gal

1 lb/US gal= 120 kg/m³


g) Force

Units: lbf

1 lbf = 4.448 N

Units: newton (N) [kgm/s²]

tonf

1 tonf = 9.964 kN

kilonewton (kN)

h) Pressure

Units: lbf/in² (psi)

1 psi = 6895 Pa

Units: pascal (Pa)

tonf/ft² (UK)

1 tonf/ft2 = 107 kPa

kilopascal (kPa)


1 tonf/ft² = 0.107 Mpa

megapascal (MPa)



newton/mm² (N/mm²)



bar (bar)



1 Pa= 1 N/m²



1 kPa= 1000 N/m²



1 bar= 0.1 N/mm²

i) Energy, work, heat

Units: British thermal unit (Btu)

1 Btu = 1055 J

Units: joule (J) [kgm²/s²]

calorie (cal)

1 cal = 4.186 J

kilojoule (kJ)


1 cal = 0.000293 kWh

kilowatt hour (kWh)

barrel (crude oil)

1 barrel = 1700 kWh

watt second (Ws)



newton metre (Nm)



pascal cubicmetre (Pam³)



1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws = 1 Pam³



1 kWh = 3600 kJ

k) Power, energy flow rate

Units: Btu/h

1 Btu/h = 0.293 W

Units: watt (W) [kgm²/s³]

ftlbf/s

1 ftlb/s = 1.356 W

joules/second (J/s)

horsepower (hp)

1 hp = 736 W

hp metric

550 ftlbf/s = 1 hp


1 W = 1 J/s

2545 Btu/h = 1 hp


735.5 W = 1 hp metric

l) Thermal conductivity (k)

Units: Btu/ft2h°F

1 Btu/ft2h°F = 0.144 WmK

Unit: W/mK

kcal/mh°C1

kcal/mh°C = 1.163 W/mK


0.124 kcal/mh°C = 1 Btu/ft2h°F



m) Thermal transmittance (U)

Units: Btu/ft2h°F

1 Btu/ft2h°F = 5.678 W/m²K

Unit: W/m²K

kcal/m²h°C

1 kcal/m²h°C = 1.163 W/m²K


n) Density of energy flow rate, intensity

Units: Btu/ft2h

1 Btu/ft2h = 3.155 W/m²

Unit: W/m²

kcal/m²h

1 kcal/m²h = 1.163 W/m²

langley/h

langley/h

1 langley/h = 11.63 W/m²


o) Thermal capacity

Units: Btu/°F

1 Btu/°F = 1899 J/K

Unit: J/K

kcal/°C

1 kcal/°C= 4187 J/K


p) Specific heat

Units: Btu/lb °F

1 Btu/lb °F = 4.187 J/kgK

Units: J/kgK

Btu/ft³ °F

1 Btu/ft3 °F = 67 kJ/m³

KJ/m³K

kcal/kg °C

1 kcal/kg °C = 4.187 kJ/kgK


kcal/m³ °C

1 kcal/m³ °C= 4.187 kJ/m³ K


kcal/l °C

1 kcal/l °C= 4.187 MJ/m³ K



Density x specific heat (J/kgK) = specific heat (J/m³ K)


q) Velocity

Units: ft/s

1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s

Units: m/s

miles/h (mph)

1 mph =1.609 km/h

km/h

knot (kn)

1 kn = 1.85 km/h



= 0.51 m/s




1 m/s= 3.6 km/h

r) Temperature

Unit: degree Fahrenheit (°F)

1 °F = 0.5556°C

Units: degree Celsius or Centigrade (°C)


1 °F = 0.5556 K

Kelvin (K)



1 K = 1°C



K = °C + 273



0°C = water freezing point *



100°C = water boiling point *



(* at air pressure of 101 kPa)

Conversion of temperature level °F - °C:

°F = 9/5 x °C + 32
°C = 5/9 ( °F - 32 )

Fahrenheit

Celsius

212 °F =

100 °C

194 °F =

90 °C

176 °F =

80 °C

158 °F =

70 °C

140 °F =

60 °C

122 °F =

50 °C

104 °F =

40 °C

80 °F =

30 °C

68 °F =

20 °C

50 °F =

10 °C

32 °F =

0 °C

14 °F =

- 10 °C

- 4 °F =

- 20 °C

- 22 °F =

- 30 °C

- 40 °F =

- 40 °C

5.5 List of possible plant species

Source:Kaiser Talib [-++-]

Scientific Name

Common Name

Characteristics / Uses

a) Shading trees, windbreaks

Acacia seyal

Acacia

Thorny tree, soil binder for rocky sandy soil

Albizzia julibrissin

Siris

Rapid growth, shade, timber-yielding

Casuarina equisetifolia

She-oak

Evergreen, ideal windbreak, salt tolerant

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

River

Red-GumTall evergreen windbreak, soil binder

Eucalyptus citriodora

Lemon-scented gum

Evergreen, multi-trunk, windbreak

Ficus bengalensis

Banyan tree

Excellent shade, dust control, windbreak

Ficus altissima

Pipal

Deciduous, compact crown, cool shade, dangerous roots for buildings

Melia azedarach

China-berry

Deciduous, cool shade, dust erosion control

Prosopis juliflora

Mesquite

Small deciduous tree, deep-rooted soil binder

Tamarix aphylla

Tamarisk

Evergreen, excellent soil binder, salt resistant

b) Ornamental shrub-trees

Caesalpinia pulcherima

Barbados pride

Spiny shrub, screen, erosion control

Lawsonia inermis

Henna

Evergreen, soil binder, wind and salt resistant

Ficus nitida

Ficus

Evergreen, crown compact, windbreak

Hibiscus rosa sinensis

China rose

Erosion control, drought tolerant, ornamental

Moringa peregrina

Drumstick

Deciduous, soil binder, erosion control

Nerium oleander

Common oleander

Excellent screen, hedge, windbreak

Parkinsonia aculeata

Jerusalem Thorn

Evergreen, drought resistant, soil binder

Plumeria rubra

Frangipani

Succulent shrub, light shade, erosion control

Terrminalia catappa

Indian almond

Deciduous, soil binder, dust control

Thevetia nerifolia

Yellow oleander

Poisonous, soil binder, heat tolerant

c) Palms

Phoenix dactylifera

Date palm

Evergreen, erosion, dust and glare control

Phoenix canariensis

Canary Island palm

Dwarf form, erosion and reflection control

Washingtonia filifera

Washingtonia palm

Dust control, avenue tree, slow grower

Washington robusta

Washingtonia palm

Dust control, avenue tree, slow grower

d) Ground covers

Asparagus sprengeri

Asparagus

Evergreen creeper, soil binder, glare control

Bougainvillea spectabilis

Bougainvillea

Thorny timber, erosion & reflection control

Carissa grandiflora

Natal plum

Excellent erosion control, moisture retainer

Clerodendron inerme

False jasmine

Ideal hedge, slope stabilizer etc.

Dodonaea viscosalinn

Clammy hopseed

Woody shrub, ideal hedge, windbreak

Ipomoea pescaprae

Morning glory

Trailing vine, ideal soil binder, ground cover

Jasminum azoricum

Azores jasmine

Shrubby twiner, reflection and heat control

Ocimum basilicum

Sweet basil

Aromatic, ideal for erosion control

e) Cacti / succulents

Agave americana

Century plant

Ideal slope stabilizer for sandy soil

Americana marginata

Caribbean Aloe

Rock plant, checks glare & erosion

Aloe vera

Aloe

Medicinal, noise and erosion control

Mesembryanthemum sp.

Ice plant

Excellent ground cover, natural desalinator

Opuntia fiscus indica

Prickly pear

Thornless cactus, slope stabilizer, fruit edible

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