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CLOSE THIS BOOKSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Stone Paving-Blocks - Quarrying, Cutting and Dressing (ILO - UNDP, 1992, 60 p.)
5. STORING AND TRANSPORTING STONE PAVING BLOCKS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex: Productivity norms for each tasks

Special Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Stone Paving-Blocks - Quarrying, Cutting and Dressing (ILO - UNDP, 1992, 60 p.)

5. STORING AND TRANSPORTING STONE PAVING BLOCKS

After quality control of the paving-blocks and their acceptance by the site foreman, the blocks are marked with paint on their road surface face and then stockpiled.

Paving-blocks are counted as they are being stacked. Stacks are made up of a given number of paving-blocks to make stock checks easy. Stacks should be no taller than one metre for safety reasons: stacks that are too tall might not be well-balanced and can fall over easily.


Correct stockpiling - Incorrect stockpilling which makes any stock control or evaluation impossible and results in damaged material.

Storage areas must be easily accessible to the means of transport which will supply the paving sites. In general, finished products are stored in the quarry itself. It is possible, however, that paving-blocks may have to be transported a few hundred metres from the dressing site to the storage area in the quarry. For this, a donkey and tipping cart may be used.


Figure

A tipping cart pulled by a donkey can transport between 60 and 75 paving-blocks, depending on the condition of the track, the animal's strength, and the distance. In general, animal carts can be appropriate for transport over distances ranging from 150 - 2000 m. Transport to road worksites at a distance of 500-8000 m can be done using tractors and trailers, and lorries can be used for distances over 1000 m. It is most important to choose an appropriate and manoeuvrable means of transport.


Edging curbstones being transported by tractor and trailer.

Annex: Productivity norms for each tasks

TASK/DESCRIPTION

METHOD

AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY (norm)

Quarry work

Quarrying of 0.15 to 0.25 m3 blocks from granite rock mass in benches up to 0.50 cm high, with many wide cracks.

Use of crowbar. Team of 3 workers who, using the crowbar as a lever, detach blocks from rock mass and help load them onto a hand cart.

4 m3/day, that is 1.3 m3/wd

Quarrying of 0.25 to 0.40 m3 blocks from compact granite rock mass with benches from 0.50 to 1 m high. No cracks in benches.

Use of plug and feathers, rock drill and drill bit. Work carried out by 2 workers with one rock drill. Blocks detached from rock mass, then split if necessary before loading.

1.8 m3/day, that is 0.9 m3/wd

Quarrying of 0.25 to 0.40 m3 blocks from compact granite rock mass with benches 0.30 to 1 m high.

2 workers make wedge-holes manually using grooving-chisel and club-hammer. Split blocks once more if necessary.

1 m3/day, or 0.50 m3/wd

Boring using pneumatic drill: diameter of drill-hole ¢ 34 mm. Compact rock.

2 workers work in shifts at drilling.

2 50-cm deep wedge-holes per hour

Boring holes for quarry wedges.

1 worker with grooving-chisel and club-hammer.

3 holes/hour

Boring holes for quarry wedges using pneumatic hammer drill.

2 workers work in shifts using hammer drill.

7 holes/hour

Quarrying of 0.50 to 1 m3 blocks from compact granite rock mass with benches over 1 m high.

Use of calmmite or black powder explosive. Drilling of blast-holes using pneumatic drill. 2 workers. One blasting officer for placing and firing explosives or placing and covering calmmite.

6 m3/day, or 2 m3/wd

Cutting of 0.50 to 1 m3 blocks to make 0.25 to 0.40 m3 blocks.

Use of quarry wedges. Wedge-holes bored using hammer drill. Two workers in shifts.

Team cuts 3 m3/day, or 1.5 m3/wd

Use of quarry wedges. Wedge-holes made manually. One worker.

Volume cut: 1 m3/wd

Dressing

Secondary cutting stage of 0.25 to 0.40 m3 blocks into 14 cm thick slabs.

Use of quarry wedges. Drilling of wedge-holes using hammer drill. Two workers in shifts.

2.5 m3/day, or 1.25 m3/wd

Use of quarry wedges. Manual boring of wedge-holes. One worker.

0.8 m3/wd

Dressing of large paving-blocks from 14 cm thick slabs.

Use of pneumatic hammer drill fitted with chisel end. Edges dressed by means of chisel. One worker.

40 paving-blocks/wd

Manual method: grooves cut using grooving-chisel and club-hammer. Edges dressed by means of chisel. One worker

20 paving-blocks/wd

Dressing of edging curbstones.

Edges dressed using chisel, faces corrected using grooving-chisel. One worker.

4 Im/wd

Clearing, over radius of 50 m, of stone debris resulting from squaring of paving-blocks.

Transported by wheelbarrow, loaded by 8-pronged fork.

1 worker for 20 paving-block masons

Handling

Loading and transporting blocks.

Team made up of:

· 4 unskilled workers

· 1 gang leader

Handling and transporting, over 10-20 m, approx. 2 m3/wd

Transport of paving-blocks 50 m from dressing site to storage area.

Transported by wheelbarrow. Paving-blocks stacked in piles at storage site.

400 paving-blocks/wd

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