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CLOSE THIS BOOKFibre and Micro-Concrete Roofing Tiles - Production Process and Tile-Laying Techniques (ILO, 1992, 172 p.)
ANNEXES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX I GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX II AGENCIES TO BE CONTACTED FOR INFORMATION ON FIBRE CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX III BIBLIOGRAPHY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTQUESTIONNAIRE

Fibre and Micro-Concrete Roofing Tiles - Production Process and Tile-Laying Techniques (ILO, 1992, 172 p.)

ANNEXES

ANNEX I GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

Additive:

A product which, added to mortar, alters its qualities or improves performance.

Aggregate:

Inert materials used to make mortar (sand, gravel, etc.).

Alkaline:

Having the properties of a base (chemistry) (see pH).

Bare (or margin):

Part of tile which remains visible after laying.

Batten (or lath):

A thin, long strip of wood placed on the rafters and supporting the tiles.

Bulking:

The quality of a material to increase in volume, in particular by trapping air between its particles.

Channel (of tile):

The concave part of the tile serving as a gutter for run-off water.

Clay:

A soil composed mainly of hydrated aluminium silicates in combination with other substances derived from the decay of water-absorbing, impermeable and soft feldspaths. Particle size under 0.002 mm.

Clinker:

Vitrous material collecting the impurities from the gangue which forms at the surface of molten ore.

Cohesion:

The capacity of the components of a material to hold together.

Compacting:

Packing densely the components of a material.

Curing:

Period during which optimal environment conditions (temperature and moisture) are maintained in order to enable a process to. reach its final stage. In this technical memorandum this refers to the mortar setting process, which should take place in an environment devoid of excess moisture.

Defibration:

Removing the fibres from a plant, essentially by stripping the pulp.

Fibre concrete:

A composite of mortar (sand + cement) and reinforcing fibres. The fibre acts as a reinforcement, particularly when the mortar is subjected to differential strains during setting.

Filler:

Micro-particles (in the order of 1 micron).

Granulometry:

Measurement of particle or grain size and shape. A method for grading particles according to size.

Hip rafter (tile):

A piece of timber forming the edge of a roof. A tile covering the edge of a roof.

Interface:

A flexible polethylene sheet used as a support for the mortar and as a separation between the mortar and the vibrating table or frame.

Lean-to:

A single-pitch roof resting on or against a wall and supported by pillars or posts.

Lime:

There are 2 types of lime: Calcium oxide (CaO) resulting from limestone calcination, and calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2] obtained by adding water to quicklime.

Main rafter:

Pieces of timber forming the angle of a truss. The 2 main rafters support the roof sides.

Margin:

Edge of a roof. A margin overhang is the extension of roof sides beyond the gable.

Micro-concrete:

A composite of mortar (sand + cement) and reinforcing aggregates.

Milk (of cement):

A cement highly diluted in water.

Mortar:

A mixture composed of a binder, aggregate and water. This technology uses sand (0.06-2) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC).

Mould:

A solid object on which a pliable substance is applied in order to take its shape; a solid hollowed-out object in which a mouldable or liquid substance is poured in order to acquire the shape of the cavity.

Nib:

A small protruding part at the lower edge of the tile with which the tile is fixed to the roof battens.

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC):

A hydraulic binder composed of lime, silica, aluminium and iron oxide. Portland cement is made by heating limestone and clay.

Overlap:

That part of the tile which is covered by a neighbouring tile.

Overhang:

A roof part, generally lean-to, jutting out over an open-air area in front of an opening, facade, etc.

Permeability:

The quality of being penetrated or soaked through by a liquid.

pH:

A symbol signifying the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. If the pH is over 7, the solution is alkaline. Under 7, the solution is acid.

Pitch (or slope):

Angle of roof sides measured in degrees or percentage.

Plasticity workability:

The quality of a material to change its shape - pliant, flexible, malleable, workable.

Porosity:

The quality of a material to absorb a liquid. (A material which is full of pores, or small holes.)

Pozzolana:

A volcanic soil formed of loose slag.

Purlin:

Cross-piece of timber resting on main rafter and supporting the rafters. Intermediate purlin, ridge purlin, wall-plate.

Rafter:

A piece of timber placed at the same angle as the truss, resting on the purlin and supporting the covering material. Rafters usually rest on the ridge and wall-plate.

Ratio:

The relation between two dimensions, two quantities of raw materials.

Rejects:

When grading an aggregate, that part of the material which does not pass through the mesh.

Ridge beam:

A horizontally placed piece of timber forming the tip of a roof structure.

Rim (of tile):

Curved (convex) part of the tile overlapping with the next tile.

Sand:

Small grains resulting from the breaking down of sedimentary rocks (quartz, silica). (Particle size 0.02-6 mm, British Standard.)

Screeding frame:

A metal frame of varying depth (6, 8 or 10 cm) used for screeding and vibrating the mortar. The shape of the vibrated mortar screed follows the shape of the screeding frame.

Screen (or sieve):

Round or square-meshed grid used to grade aggregates.

Setting (of cement):

A chemical process (hydraulic binding) inducing the hardening of mortar.

Settling:

Sinking of matter suspended or dissolved in a liquid to the bottom of a vessel.

Shrinkage:

Contraction, reduction of mortar volume.

Sisal:

A fibre obtained from agaves.

Slag:

Non-metallic waste matter obtained when ore is smelted (clinker). Volcanic clinker-like substance resulting from the cooling down of lava.

Slope(s):

The side(s) of a roof.

Span:

The distance between the two resting points of a piece of timber supporting a load or a pressure.

Truss:

An assembly of wood (or metal) beams supporting the ridge, purlins and rafters in a roof structure. Trusses are usually assembled in triangular shape. They are placed in a vertical plane across the roof length. Triangulation consists in spreading the load by dividing the total span.

Valley:

A concave angle formed by the intersection of two roof slopes.

Valley tile:

A concave tile or lead flashing used as gutter for rain-water.

Volumic mass:

Weight of one volume unit of raw material.

Wall-plate:

A horizontal piece of timber placed on top of the front supporting wall of a roof slope. The roof wall-plates are placed perpendicular to the trusses and support them.

Water content:

Quantity of water contained in a substance.

ANNEX II AGENCIES TO BE CONTACTED FOR INFORMATION ON FIBRE CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

International Labour Office (ILO)
Technology and Employment Division,
CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)
Vienna International Centre,
P.O. Box 300,
A-1400 Vienna, Austria

Bangladesh

Housing and Building Research Institute,
Darus-Salam Mirpur,
P.O. Box 2953
Dhaka 18

Bangladesh Cottage and Small Enterprises Corporation (BSCIC)
Malek Mansion
128 Motijheel Com. Area
Dhaka 1000

Belgium

Centre de dveloppement industriel (CDI)
26-28, rue de l'Industrie,
1040 - Bruxelles

UNATA
131, Gvd Heuvelstraat,
3140 - Ramsel

APPRO - TECHNO
Rue de la Rieze, 24
B 5660 Couvin

Burkina Faso

Cellule de Technologie Approprie (CTA)
Office National de la Promotion de l'emploi (ONPE)
01 BP 4575 Ouagadougou 01

Chad

Centre de Matriaux de Construction
BP 906
N'Djamena

Cte d'Ivoire

Centre d'assistance aux petites enterprises (CAPEN)
Immeuble La Pyramide,
Abidjan

Dominican Republic

CII-Viviendas/Cetavip,
Ciudad Ganadera,
Apartado Postal No. 20328,
Santo Domingo
Comunidad Los Boncos,
Barrio La Libertad,
San Juan de la Maguova

Germany

GTZ
Section 434
P.O. Box 5180
6236 - Eschborn 1

German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE)
Dag Hammarskjoldweg 1,
6236 - Eschborn 1

Ghana

Department of Rural Housing and Cottage Industry (DRHCI)
P.O. Box 55
Accra

Technology Consultancy Center (TCC)
University of Science and Technology - (UST)
Kumasi

Guatemala

Centre de Tecnologa Apropiada,
"Manuel Guaran",
Apartado 1779,
Ciudad de Guatemala

Haiti

Appui Technologique a la Production Artisanale
PNUD
BP 657
Port au Prince

India

Development Alternatives
B32 Institutional Area
New Mehranli Road, Hanz Khas
New Delhi 110 016

A.M.G. Leprosy Relief Project,
P.O. Box 18,
Titlagarh 767033,
Bolangir Dt., Orissa

Indonesia

Proyek Act Swiss,
Jalan Diponegoro,
Praya, Lombok-NRB

Kenya

Actionaid-Kenya,
P.O. Box 42814
Nairobi

Housing Research Development Unit (HRDU)
P.O. Box 30197,
Nairobi

I.T. Workshops
4th Ngong Avenue,
P.O. Box 45156,
Nairobi

Kenyatta University College,
P.O. Box 43844,
Nairobi

ONDUGU Society Kenya
P.O. Box 40417
Nairobi - Telephone: 540187

Madagascar

Centre national de l'artisanat malgache (CENAM)
Immeuble Somacodis,
Antananarivo

CENAM

67 Hectares,
Antananarivo

Malawi

Rural Housing Project
P.O. Box 30135 or P.O. Box 30548
Lilongwe

ECOSYSTEM
P.O. Box 938
Blantyre - Telephone: 620167

Mozambique

Projecto Telhas de Fibro Cimento,
C.P. 292,
Pemba, Cabo Delgado

Nepal

Development and Consulting Services
P.O. Box 8,
Butwal - Telephone: 073.20391

Nicaragua

Empresa Regional de Fibralix,
Gobierno Regional,
Granada

Sofonias,
Apartado 88,
Jinotepe,
Carazo

Peru

Meteco
Schell 319, Officina 906
Miraflores,
Lima

Philippines

Illigan Institute of Technology,
Mindanao State University,
P.O. Box 5644
9200 Illigan City

Regional Network in Asia and Pacific
for Low-cost building materials
Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council,
10th floor, Allied Bank Center, Ayala Avenue,
Makati

Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc.
102 P. del Rosario Extension
Cebu City

Antonia Cbro Grobenciong
Labrador
Dwu, Tacloban City

Solomon Islands

St. Dominics R.T.C.
P.O. Box 22,
Gizo

Sri Lanka

Institute for Construction Training and Development (ICTAD)
"Savsiripaya"
123 Wijjerama Mawatha
P.O. Box 1973
Colombo 7

Swaziland

Ministry of Natural Resources,
Land Utilisation and Energy, Housing Branch,
P.O. Box 1173
Mbabane

Sweden

Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation (SAREC),
Birger Jarlsgatan 61,
10525 Stockholm

Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute (CBI),
Drottning Kristinasvaeg, 26
100-44 Stockholm

Switzerland

Building Advisory Service and Information Network (BASIN) (see SKAT)

Swiss Centre for Appropriate Technology (SKAT),
Basin (Building Advisory Service and Information Network)
2 Tigerbergstrasse
CH-9000 St. Gallen

United Kingdom

Building Research Establishment
(Overseas Division),
Bucknalls Lane, Garston,
Watford WD2 7JR

Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG),
Myson House, Railway Terrace,
Rugby CV21 3HT

Intermediate Technology Workshops,
J.P.M. Parry and Associates Ltd.,
Over end Road,
Cradley Heath B64 7DD

United Republic of Tanzania

Building and Research Unit,
P.O. Box 1964,
Dar es-Salaam

United States

A.T. International
1331 'H' Street N.W.,
Washington DC 20005

Zambia

Steffen Knak-Nielson,
P.O. Box 30500, Lusaka

Zimbabwe

Department of Appropriate Technology,
Hlekwewi Friends Rural Service Centre,
P.O. Box 708, Bulawayo

ANNEX III BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ayaar, T.S.R. - Mirihagalla, P.K.
Elephant grass fibres as reinforcement in roofing sheets,
School of Engineering, University of Zambia, 1979

2. Baradyana, J.S.
Sisal fibre concrete roofing sheets,
Dar-es-Salaam, Building Research Unit, 1986

3. Baris, D.
Toitures en zones tropicales arides,
Paris, Groupe de recherche et d'changes technologiques (GRET)

4. Berhane, Z.
Durability of mortar roofing sheets reinforced with natural fibres,
A review of the present state of the art,
Addis Ababa, Faculty of Technology, 1987

5. Brys, G.
Cration d'units de production de tuiles en fibromortier,
Rapport de mission a Madagascar,
Genve, BIT, 1987

6. Brys, G.
Cration d'une unit de production de tuiles en fibromortier,
Rapport de mission en Cte d'Ivoire,
Genve, BIT, 1987

7. Coughlin, P.
Steel versus tile roofing, What's appropriate for Kenya,
Nairobi, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985

8. Dubuisson, B.
Encyclopdie pratique de la construction et du btiment,
Paris, Quillet, 1959

9. Gorisse, F.
Essais et contrles des btons,
Paris, Eyrolles, 1978

10. Gram, H.E. - Persson, H. - Skarendahl, A.
Natural fibre concrete, report from SAREC,
Stockholm, Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation (SAREC), 1984

11. Gram, Parry, Rhyner, Schaffner, Stulz, Wehrle, Wehrli
Fibre concrete roofing,
St.-Gall (Suisse), Swiss Centre for Appropriate Technology (SKAT) and Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), 1986

12. Gram, H.E. - Nimityongskul, P.
Durability of natural fibres in cement based roofing sheets,
Stockholm, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, 1987

13. Grimwood, Brian E.
Coconut palm products,
Rome, FAO, Tropical Products Institute, 1975

14. Gurin, L.
Principles directeurs pour l'emploi de la terre crue,
Genve, BIT, 1985

15. Intermediate Technology.
Standards and specification for local building materials,
Report of the African Regional Standard Organisation (AROS) and United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS) Workshop,
Nairobi, 16-24 March 1987.
London, IT Publication, 1987

16. Jorgensen, Niels O.
The market for F.C. tiles in Kenya,
Nairobi, December 1985

17. Kanene, C.M.
Outils d'aide une conception bioclimatique en zone tropicale,
Tizi Ouzou (Algrie), Institut de gnie civil et architecture, 1986

18. Mezure, J.J.
Conditions de cration d'une unit de briqueterie-tuilerie,
Genve, BIT, 1986

19. Mezure, J.J.
Creation d'une tuilerie a Antananarivo,
Paris, Bureau central d'tudes pour les equipements d'outre-mer, 1987

20. Mwangi, S. - Bonner, R.
Fibre-cement tiles,
Nairobi, Action Aid, 1986

21. National Academy of Sciences
Roofing in developing countries. Research for New Technologies
Washington DC, National Research Council, 1974

22. Nilsson, L.
Reinforcement of concrete with sisal,
Stockholm, Swedish Council for Building Research, 1975

23. Paamand, K.
Sisal Cement Roof Sheets. Manual,
Bulawayo (Zimbabwe), Department of Appropriate Technology, 1986

24. Parry, J.
Fibre concrete roofing. Textbook,
Cradley Heath (United Kingdom), Intermediate Technology Workshops, 1985

25. Parry, P.
ITW Fibre Concrete Tiles. Production manual,
Cradley Heath (United Kingdom), Intermediate Technology Workshops, 1986

26. Peltier, R.
Manuel du laboratoire routier.
Paris, Dunod, 1969

27. Swiss Centre for Appropriate Technology (SKAT)
FCR fibre concrete roofing feasibility, and market study guides,
St.-Gall (Suisse), SKAT, 1981

28. Stulz, R.
Appropriate building materials,
St.-Gall (Suisse), SKAT, 1981

29. UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
UNCHS - United Nations Centre for Human Settlement
Sisal-cement handbook.
A guide to sisal cement roofing application,
Ministry of Natural Resources, Swaziland, 1985

30. UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
Rice-husk ash cements. Their development and application,
Vienna, ONUDI, 1985

31. UNIDO - UNDP
Appropriate industrial technology for construction and building materials,
Monographs on Appropriate Industrial Technology,
New York, UNDP, 1980

32. Van Winden, J.
Rural building, vol. 1, Reference book
Amsterdam, TOOL, 1986

PHOTOGRAPH (p. 21)

33. FAO
Members of DINKA tribe cutting sisal leaves (Tonj district, Sudan, April 1963)

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Name .....................................................................

2. Address ..................................................................

3. Profession (Please check appropriate box)

Manager of tile-production unit ....................................../_/
If so, please specify production capacity ................................

Official of State agency .................................................../_/
If so, specify your position .............................................

Official of financial institution ....................................../_/
If so, specify your position .............................................

Member of university or research centre ....................../_/
If so, specify name of university or centre .....................

Employee in technological institution .........................../_/
If so, specify name of institution .......................................

Employee in training institute ........................................../_/
If so, specify .......................................................................

Other (Specify)
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................

4. How did you obtain a copy of this technical memorandum?
Specify whether purchased or obtained free ...............................

5. Was this memorandum helpful in (please check):

Learning about the technology of fibre or micro-concrete tile production ............................................................................................................................................................................/_/

Estimating unit production costs for various production capacities .........................................................................................................................................................................../_/

Ordering the equipment required for local production .............................................................................../_/

Improving your current production technology .........................................................................................../_/

Reducing your production costs .................................................................................................................../_/

Improving tile quality .................................................................................................................................../_/

Deciding on the appropriate plant capacity for a fibre concrete tile production unit .........................................................................................................................................................................../_/

Drawing up recommendations for the construction industry ....................................................................../_/

Estimating credit lines for the setting up of a fibre concrete production unit ............................................................................................................................................................................/_/

Ensuring training requirements ......................................................................................................................./_/

Improving advice to counterparts on fibre concrete tile technology ........................................................................................................................................................................../_/

6. Is this memorandum sufficiently detailed as regards:

- Description of technology

(Yes) /_/

(No) /_/

- Information concerning costs

/_/

/_/

- Assessment of socio-economic impact

/_/

/_/

- Bibliography

/_/

/_/

If you have given any negative answers, please explain why below or on a separate sheet:
....................................................................................................................................................

7. What improvements would you suggest for a second printing of this memorandum?
....................................................................................................................................................

8. Please complete and send this questionnaire to:

Entrepreneurship and Management Development Branch
International Labour Office
CH-1211 Geneva 22
Switzerland

9. Should you require additional information on any of the issues dealt with in this memorandum, the ILO and UNIDO will do their best to forward it to you.

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