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CLOSE THIS BOOKFibre and Micro-Concrete Roofing Tiles - Production Process and Tile-Laying Techniques (ILO, 1992, 172 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFOREWORD
VIEW THE DOCUMENTACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. OBJECTIVE
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGY
III. COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF MAJOR ROOFING MATERIALS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.1 Wood
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.2 Bamboo
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.3 Grass - Straw - Thatch - Reed - Papyrus
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.4 Corrugated sheet
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.5 Clay tiles
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.6 Brick and stone: arches
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.7 Fibre or micro-concrete
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. PRODUCTION SCALE
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV. CONTENTS OF TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI. TARGET AUDIENCE
CHAPTER II RAW MATERIALS AND MORTAR
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
I. SAND
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.1 Granulometry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.2 Grain shape
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.3 Clay content: sand equivalent
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.4 Impurities
II. AGGREGATE - GRAVEL
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.1 Rationale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.2 Characteristics and selection
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII. CEMENT
IV. FIBRE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.1 Rationale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.2 Modification of the physical properties of tiles due to fibre adjunction
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.3 Types of fibres
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.4 Sisal (figure 9)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.5 Coir
V. MORTAR
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.1 Cement: sand/aggregate ratio
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.2 Fibres
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.3 Water
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.4 Summary of ratios and quantities of raw materials
VI. ADDITIVES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.1 Setting accelerators
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.2 Setting retarders
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.3 Waterproofing agents
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.4 Pigments (colouring agents)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.5 Fluidifiers
VII. IMPROVING PERFORMANCE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.1 Carbonation of the cement
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.2 Furnace slag and pozzolana
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.3 Vegetable ash
CHAPTER III EQUIPMENT
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. ELECTRIC VIBRATING TABLE (figures 18 and 19)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. HAND-POWERED VIBRATING TABLE (figure 20)
III. SCREEDING FRAMES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.1 Screeding frame for flat tiles or pantiles (figure 21)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.2 Roman tile frame
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.3 Ridge tile screeding frame
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.4 Second nib tool
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. INTERFACE
V. MOULDS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.1 Pantile mould
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.2 Ridge tile moulds (figure 24)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.3 Ridge tile demoulding jig (figure 26)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.4 Bar mould for first row tiles (figure 27)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI. QUALITY CONTROL JIG (figure 28)
VII. BATCHING BOXES AND SCOOPS FOR RAW MATERIALS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.1 Standard ratios: good quality raw materials
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.2 Non-standard ratios: poor quality raw materials
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVIII. MORTAR SCOOPS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIX. CURING TANKS
X. HAND TOOLS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTX.1 Sieves and screens
VIEW THE DOCUMENTX.2 Trowel (or float)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTXI. OTHER MOULDS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTXII. PLANT EQUIPMENT/PRODUCTION RATIO
CHAPTER IV PRODUCTION PROCESS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
I. INTRODUCTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.1 Influence of climate
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.2 Calculating quantities by weight and volume
II. STEP-BY-STEP MANUFACTURING PROCESS - PANTILES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.1 Stocking of raw materials
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.2 Preparation of raw materials
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.3 Mixes and ratios
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.4 Moulding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.5 Setting of the mortar
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.6 Demoulding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.7 Curing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII.8 Storage
III. RIDGE TILE AND HIP TILE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.1 Ridge tiles jointed on the roof
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.2 Ridge tiles with overlap
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.3 Joint between ridge tile and hip tile
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. FIRST ROW OF TILES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV. VALLEY TILES
CHAPTER V QUALITY CONTROL
I. STANDARDS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.1 Rationale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.2. Example of standard specifications
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. RAW MATERIALS
III. FINISHED PRODUCTS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.1 Shape and dimension
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.2 Tile strength
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.3 Porosity test
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS1
CHAPTER VI ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. PREREQUISITES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. INFRASTRUCTURE
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII. TRAINING
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. MANPOWER
V. ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.1 General
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.2 Production chart
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.3 Typical production layouts
CHAPTER VII ROOF STRUCTURE
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. BASIC PRINCIPLES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. ROOF DESIGN
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII. WIND LOAD
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. ROOF PITCH
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV. TIMBER SECTIONS
VI. A COMPARISON OF ROOF STRUCTURES FOR CORRUGATED IRON AND FIBRE OR MICRO-CONCRETE CLADDING
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.1 The problem
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.2 Economics of concrete cladding
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI.3 Conclusion
VII. ROOF DESIGN AND TIMBER CONSUMPTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.1 Lean-to design (figure 85)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.2 Costing of galvanized iron sheet roof (figure 86)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.3 Costing of short-span fibre or micro-concrete roof (type I) (figure 87)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVII.4 Roofing material for fibre or micro-concrete roof (large span) (type II) (figure 88)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVIII. COMPARATIVE COSTING OF CORRUGATED IRON AND FIBRE OR MICRO-CONCRETE ROOF COVERINGS
CHAPTER VIII LAYING THE TILES
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
I. WATERTIGHTKESS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.1 Edges
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.2 Wall-plates
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI.3 Waterproof polythene sheet
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. LAYING THE BATTENS (OR LATHS)
III. CALCULATION OF RAW MATERIALS CONSUMPTION
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.1 Estimate
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII.2 Example of calculation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. LAYING THE TILES
V. FIXING THE TILES TO THE BATTENS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.1 Pantiles
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.2 Double nib tiles
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV.3 Fixing ridge tiles
CHAPTER IX FEASIBILITY STUDY
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. PRELIMINARY STUDY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. VARIATIONS IN PRODUCTION COSTS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII. METHODOLOGY FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS
IV. APPLICATION OF THE CONSTANT METHODOLOGY
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.1 DETERMINATION OF THE OUTPUT AND INPUTS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.2 ESTIMATION OF UNIT PRODUCTION COST
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV.3 COST COMPARISONS FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS
CHAPTER X SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTI. DECENTRALISATION OF INDUSTRY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTII. USE OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIII. PROMOTION OF EMPLOYMENT
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIV. INVESTMENTS - FOREIGN EXCHANGE SAVINGS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTV. TILE PRODUCTION COSTS AND HOUSING CONSTRUCTION COSTS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTVI. CONCLUSIONS
ANNEXES
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX I GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX II AGENCIES TO BE CONTACTED FOR INFORMATION ON FIBRE CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTANNEX III BIBLIOGRAPHY
VIEW THE DOCUMENTQUESTIONNAIRE
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOther ILO publications
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBack Cover
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