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CLOSE THIS BOOKSmall-Scale Brickmaking (ILO - WEP, 1984, 228 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAPPENDIX I - Glossary of technical terms
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAPPENDIX II - Bibliographical references
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAPPENDIX III - Institutes from where information can be obtained
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAPPENDIX IV - List of equipment suppliers

Small-Scale Brickmaking (ILO - WEP, 1984, 228 p.)


APPENDIX I - Glossary of technical terms


Mud brick; hand made, dried in the sun, not fired.

Alluvial material

Clay, sand or mud laid down by the flooding of a river.


The edge where two clay faces meet.


Tool for boring a hole in the ground or taking a sample of the soil; it has a screw-like action. Also a machine which forces clay through an aperture by means of a screw thread rotating inside a barrel containing the clay.

Bag wall

The brick wall built around the back of each of the fires of a downdraught kiln.


To slope the face of an embankment or quarry; opposite of overhand.

Bed face

The underneath surface of a brick as laid in a wall, usually the largest face; the face of a brick bedded in the mortar.


Method of winning clay from the pit simultaneously at several different levels, by working at several benches or steps.


The material which binds together separate particles; for example, cement and lime, used to make mortars, are binders.


A thin section of brick across the whole width of a kiln.


Creation of gas bubbles within the near-vitrified clay in the kiln, causing blisters and craking on brick surfaces.


A building unit larger than a brick, usually requiring two hands to lift it.


The material after processing.


The pattern of arrangement of bricks in a wall, usually such that vertical joints between bricks are not immediately above each other in adjoining courses.


A unit from which walls may be built and which is of such size and weight that it can be laid with one hand allowing the other hand to be used for operating with a trowel.

Bulking of sand

A given weight of sand will have various volumes, depending upon the water content.

Bull’s trench kiln

An archless continuous kiln based on the principle of the Hoffmann kiln.


Firing. In the case of bricks, burning them changes the nature of the clay from which they have been shaped, increasing their strength and durability.

Calcium silicate

A generally durable compound formed when lime reacts with silica, as for example during the high pressure and high temperature methods of treating lime and silica sand to make calcium silicate bricks.


Wooden or other formwork built up to support a brick arch while the mortar sets.


Large pile of green bricks with fuel between those in the bottom courses, which is set on fire to burn the bricks. Sometimes, this term is also used to describe a similar pile but with the fuel placed in tunnels through the lower courses of the pile.

Continuous kiln

A kiln in which the fire is always burning, bricks being warmed, fired, and cooled simultaneously in different parts of the kiln.


The annual cutting of wood from trees, which therefore do not grow to full size, yet continue to provide useful materials such as fuel.


A horizontal layer of bricks.


A concave-bladed spade for cutting off lumps of prepared clay.


A curved metal strip with two handles for cutting off a piece of clay from a large lump.


The slope of a clay deposit compared with the horizontal.


Immersing fired bricks in water for a short while so that a thin outer skin is thoroughly wetted.
Claimed by several authorities to reduce the incidence of lime blowing.

Downdraught kiln

A kiln in which hot gases pass down between the bricks which are being fired.


A compound formed from sulphates and calcium aluminate; if it is formed after the mortar between the bricks is well set, it may cause softening and expansion of the mortar joints.


The point near the base of a clamp where the fire is first lit.

Fair-faced brickwork

Brick walling of an acceptable standard of appearance and quality, without rendering or plastering.

Fat soil

Highly plastic soil; usually a clay rich soil with high drying shrinkage.


Heating in a kiln to partially vitrify (see burning).


A silver of clay on the arris of a brick, formed in the crack or air inlet in the mould.

Flash wall

A long wall behind the fires on one side of a down-draught kiln, serving to deflect the hot gases upward.


A mineral in the clay which reduces the temperature required to obtain vitrification.


Indentation in one or sometimes both of the bed faces of a brick. A frog cannot be put into an extruded, wirecut brick, but is easily formed in moulded or pressed bricks.


Clay washing tank (Indian).

Green brick

Brick formed into shape but not yet fired.


Fired clay, often reject bricks, crushed to a fine size, for addition to the clay body. Such material reduces shrinkage and opens the body.

Habla kiln

An archless zigzag continuous kiln, based on the Hoffmann kiln.

Hard fired bricks

Bricks fired to a relatively high temperature, producing a moderate amount of vitrification and consequent good strength and durability.


The small end of a brick showing in the face of brickwork.

Heat work

The combination of temperature and time and its effect on ceramic reactions.

Hoffmann kiln

A brick-arched continuous kiln, circular or elliptical, in which waste heat is used to preheat both the combustion air and the bricks, so increasing fuel efficiency.

Hydraulic lime

A lime which will set under water. This is due to certain siliceous impurities which react with the lime itself. Non-hydraulic limes harden only by carbonation caused by carbon dioxide in the air.

Igneous rocks

Rocks of volcanic origin; rocks which were molten at one time.

Intermittent kiln

A kiln in which the fire is allowed to die out and the bricks to cool after they have been fired. The kiln must be emptied, refilled and a new fire started for each load of bricks.

Lean soil

Low plasticity soil, usually due to lack of the finer sizes of clay fractions. In contrast to fat soil.

Leather-hard bricks

Bricks which have partly dried so that they can be picked up without distorting them.


Sandy clay often suitable for shaping into bricks, and having a low drying shrinkage.


Natural mixture of clay and chalk.

Open the clay body

To increase the permeability to gases of a ceramic body.


The material lying on top of a natural deposit of brick clay.


Conditions of surroundings in which oxygen is freely available.


Abbreviation for pyrometric cone equivalent.


The visible vertical joints between bricks in a wall.

Plastic material

Material able to be deformed by moderate pressure and retaining the deformed shape when the pressure is removed.


Possessing the property of being plastic.


A section taken through the various strata of a soil.


To mix up dry soil or lime with water, usually manually.

Pyrometric cone

A small clay-based cone which will squat after undergoing a certain amount of heat work.


Conditions of surroundings in which little or no oxygen is available.




To cover an exterior wall surface with a cement-lime based mix.


The high-pitched metallic sound obtained when two well-fired bricks are struck against each other.


Person who carries slopmoulded bricks in mould to the drying ground.


To cover over with mud. The name of the scove kiln originates from the practice of scoving the outside bricks in order to stop the heat from escaping from the pile of bricks being fired.


The oxides of aluminium and iron.


Soft laminated slate-like rock, harder than most clays.

Short material

Lacking plasticity, lean.


Having a high proportion of silica.


To fall apart when immersed in water.


A thin slurry of clay in water; very wet and runny mix of clay.

Soak stage

Period during which bricks are kept at a fixed elevated temperature in a kiln. Also immersion of bricks in water.

Soft-fired bricks

Bricks heated in a kiln to a relatively low temperature; bricks so treated do not exhibit optimal physical properties.

Solar gain

Heat obtained from the sun.


Leave clay in contact with water for a long period.


Flake away from the surface.

Specific surface area

The total area of either the many fine particles or the many fine pores in a solid within a standard weight of the material.


The deformation of a clay near its vitrification point, especially the deformation of a pyrometric cone.


A measure of the change in size compared to the original size.


The various layers in a sedimentary deposit.


A measure of the force applied to produce strain in an object


The long face of a brick (not the bed face) showing in a wall.


The direction in a clay deposit in which the clay is at the same depth. Also a piece of wood for pushing off excess clay in slop moulding.


Piece of wood for pushing off excess clay in slop moulding.


A depression into which water may be drained off, or wastes deposited.


Soft-fired clay, ground up, for mixing with lime to make mortar (Indian).


Leave in wet condition, often overnight or longer to make clay more workable and easier to mould.



Thermal capacity

A measure of the quantity of heat which an object can hold; high values in building components reduce temperature extremes within the building.

Tunnel kiln

Closed kiln or dryer through which the bricks are carried on wheeled cars.

Updraught kiln

A kiln in which the hot combustion gases pass upward through the bricks which are being fired.


The first stages of heating in a kiln during which only a gentle heat is applied to remove remaining water from the green bricks.


The doorway for access into a kiln. It is bricked up temporarily whilst the bricks are being fired.


Obtaining raw material from a deposit.

Worked out

Description applied to a deposit which has been completely dug.

APPENDIX II - Bibliographical references

(1) Habitat: Global review of housing, conference on Human Settlements, Doc. No. A/CONF/70/A1 (Vancouver, 1976).

(2) United Nations Commission on Human Settlements: Report on Fifth Session, Habitat News (Nairobi), Vol. 4, No. 2, Aug.-Sep. 1982, p. 10.

(3) Sikander, A.S.; Quadeer, M.A.: “Squatter settlements - A functional view”, in Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of a conference of the International Association for Housing Science held in Dharan in 1978, (New York, Wiley and Sons, 1982), pp. 437-446.

(4) UNIDO: Development of clay building materials industries in developing countries, report of seminar held in Copenhagen, Doc. No. ID/28 (Vienna, 1968).

(5) UNIDO: Establishment of the brick and tile industry, Doc. No. ID/15 (Vienna, 1969).

(6) UNIDO: Brickmaking plant. Industry profile. Development and transfer of technology series No. 10 (New York, 1978).

(7) Bender, W.: The planning of brickworks (Plymouth, Macdonald and Evans, 1978).

(8) Searle, A.B.: Modern brickmaking (London, Ernest Benn, 1956).

(9) UNIDO: Clay building materials industries in Africa, report of a workshop held in Tunis in 1970 (Vienna, 1971).

(10) Parry, J.P.M.: Brickmaking in developing countries (Garston, Watford, British Research Institute, 1979).

(11) Lunt, M.G.: Stabilised soil blocks for buildings. Overseas Building Note No. 184 (Garston, British Research Institute, 1980).

(12) Smith, R.G.: “Small-scale production of gypsum plaster for building in the Cape Verde Islands” in Appropriate Technology (London, Intermediate Technology Development Group) 1982, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 4-6.

(13) Smith, R.G.: Long-term unrestrained expansion of test bricks in Transactions of the British Ceramic Society (London), 1973, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 1-5.,.

(14) British Research Institute: “Materials for concrete” in Digest No. 237 (Garston, Watford), 1980, p. 237.

(15) British Research Institute: “Repairing brickworks” in Digest No. 200 (Garston), 1981, p. 2.

(16) Schumacher, E.F.: Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered (London, Blond and Briggs, 1973).

(17) Grimshaw, R.W.: The chemistry and physics of clay, (London, Ernest Benn, 1971).

(18) British Standards Institution: Methods of test for soils for engineering purposes Doc. No. BS1377 (London, 1975).

(19) Doat, P.; Hay, A.; Houben, H.; Matuk, S.; and Vitoux, F.: Construire en terre (Paris, Collection An-Architecture, 1979).

(20) Stulz, R.: Appropriate building materials. Publication No. 12 (St. Gall, Swiss Centre for Appropriate Technology 1981).

(21) Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of International Affairs: Handbook for building houses of earth, (Washington, DC, n.d.).

(22) Knizek, I.: Brickmaking plant. Industry profile. Development and transfer of technology series No. 10 (New York, UNIDO, 1978).

(23) Butterworth, B.: Methods of assessing the suitability of clays for brickmaking (London, Claycraft, 1947).

(24) Clews, F.H.: Heavy clay technology, (Stoke-on-Trent, British Ceramic Research Association, 1969).

(25) West, H.W.H.: Production technology - Winning, preparation and shaping of clay, Doc. No. ID/WG/81/4 (New York, UNIDO, 1970).

(26) Smith, R.G.: Brickmaking by Malagasy artisans and the establishment of a pilot centre (Geneva, ILO, 1980).

(27) Sedalia, B.M.: Structural clay industry (Bandung, United Nations Regional Housing Centre, 1976).

(28) Svare, T.I.: Better burnt bricks, technical pamphlet No. 1 (Dar-es-Salaam, National Housing and Building Research Unit, 1971).

(29) Harley, G.T.: “A study of shovelling” in Transactions of the British Ceramics Society (Stoke-on-Trent), 1932, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 1-35.

(30) Chatterjee, A.K.: “Clay preparation and product manufacture”, in Small - Scale Building and Road Research News (Khumasi), 1977, Vol. 2, No. 2.

(31) Srinivasan S. and Jain L.C.: “Lime bursting in bricks” in Digest No. 113 (Roorke, India, Central Building Research Institute, 1975).

(32) Amonoo-Neizer, K.: Asokwa brick project, Special. Report No. SR 1/73 (Kumasi, Ghana, Building and Road Research Institute, 1973).

(33) Woodforde, J.: Bricks to build a house (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976).

(34) Hammond, M.: Bricks and brickmaking (Princes Risborough, United Kingdom, Shirs Publications, 1981).

(35) Prakash, S.; Majundar, N.C.: “Manufacture of bricks of improved quality in Bhopal”, in Journal of Engineers and Planners (New Delhi), 1974, Vol. 2, Nos. 8 & 9, pp. 27-30.

(36) Indian Standards Institution: Specification for burnt clay facing bricks, Doc. No. IS 2691-1972 (New Delhi, 1972).

(37) British Standards Institution: Specification for clay bricks and blocks, Doc. No. IS No. 3921-1974 (London, 1974).

(38) Majumdar, N.C.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Hiralal, E.S.: “Manufacture of building bricks by a semi-mechanised process”, in Transactions of the Indian Ceramics Society (New Delhi), 1969, Vol. XXVIII, No. 4, pp. 121-128.

(39) Majumdar, N.C.; Hiralal, E.S.; Handa, S.K.: An appropriate technology for mechanised production of building bricks. Proceedings of a national seminar on building materials - their science and technology (New Delhi, 1982).

(40) Thomas, D.W.: Small-scale manufacture of burned building brick (Arlington, Virginia, Volunteers in Technical Assistance, 1977).

(41) Smith, R.G.: “Improved moulding devices for hand-made bricks”, in Appropriate Technology (London, Intermediate Technology Publications), 1981 Vol. 7, No. 4.

(42) Weller, H.O.; Campbell, A.J.: Brickmaking in East Africa (Nairobi, East African Industrial Research Board, 1945).

(43) Baily, M.A.: “Brick manufacturing in Colombia: A case study of alternative technologies”, in World Development (London, Pergamon Press), 1981, pp. 201-213.

(44) Ford, R.W.: Drying, Institute of Ceramics Textbook series No. 3 (London, Maclaren, 1974).

(45) Macey, H.H.: Drying in the heavy clay industry, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 3 (London, Her Majesty Stationary Office, 1950).

(46) Small Industries Development Organisation: Burnt clay brickmaking, Rural Industries Guide No. 4 (Dar-es-Salaam, n.d.).

(47) Schmidt, H.: “Measures to counteract defects in bricks during firing in Ziegelindustrie International, Issue No. 3, Mar. 1980, pp. 153-162.

(48) Noble, W.: The firing of common bricks, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 4 (London, Her Majesty Stationary Office, 1950).

(49) Jain, L.C.: “Effect of sodium chloride on the prevention of lime blowing” in Indian Ceramics (New Delhi), Mar. 1980, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 262-266.

(50) Laird, R.T.; Worcester, M.: “The inhibiting of lime blowing in bricks” in Transactions of the British Ceramic Society, 1956, Vol. 55, No. 8.

(51) Spence, R.J.S.: An investigation of the properties of rural and urban bricks, Paper No. TR9 (Lusaka, National Council for Scientific Research, 1971).

(52) Gundry, D.G.: “Brickmaking on the farm” in Rhodesia Agricultural Journal (Harare), 1951, Vol. XLVIII, No. 4, pp. 330-343.

(53) Hill, N.R.: “A clamp can be appropriate for the burning of bricks”, in Appropriate Technology, 1980, Vol. 7, No. 1,.

(54) Majumdar, N.C.: “Firing of Bull’s Trench kilns”, in Indian Builder, Sep. 1957.

(55) Indian Standard Institution: Guide for the design and manufacture of brick kilns, Doc. No. IS 4805-1968 (New Delhi, 1968).

(56) Spence, R.J.S.: “Brick manufacture using the bull’s trench kiln”, in Appropriate Technology, 1975, Vol. 2, No. 1.

(57) “New archless continuous kiln”, in British Clayworker (London), May 1929.

(58) Majumdar, N.C.; Hiralal, E.S.: “High draught kiln: its operation, control and economics”, in Brick and Tiles News (Roorke, India, Central Building Research Institute), 1980, pp. 47-51.

(59) Salmang, H.: Ceramics: physical and chemical fundamentals (London, Butterworths, 1961).

(60) FAO: Yearbook 1981 (Rome, 1982).

(61) Madibbo, A.M.; Richter, M.: “Fired clay bricks in the Sudan”, in Building Research Digest (Khartoum, National Building Research Station), 1970, No. 6, Phase 1.

(62) Rad, P.F.: “A simple technique for determining strength of brick”, in Proceedings of the North American Masonry Conference (1978) Part. 40, pp. 1-10.

(63) Jain, L.C.: “Accelerated test for lime blowing”, in British Clayworker, 1971, Vol. 80, No. 947, pp. 40-41.

(64) Butterworth, B.: “The frost resistance of bricks and tiles - A review”, in Journal of the British Ceramic Society (Stoke-on-Trent), 1964, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 203-223.

(65) Spence, R.J.S.: Small-scale production of cementitious materials (London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1980).

(66) Smith, R.G.: Rice husk ash cement (Rugby, United Kingdom, Intermediate Technology Industrial Service, 1983).

(67) Central Building Research Institute: Cementitious binder from waste lime sludge and rice husk, Technical Note No. 72,(Roorke, India, 2nd edition, 1980).

(68) Spence, R.J.S.: Alternative cements in India (London, Intermediate Technology Development Group, 1976).

(69) Indian Standards Institution: Specification for lime pozzolana mixture, No. IS 4098-1967 (New Delhi, 1967).

(70) Beningfield, N.: Aspects of cement-based mortars for brickwork and blockwork concrete (London, 1980).

(71) Smith, R.G.: Gypsum, Proceedings of a meeting on small-scale manufacture of cementitious materials (London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1974).

(72) British Standards Institution: Specification for masonry cement, Doc. No. BS 5224-1976 (London, 1976).

(73) British Standards Institution: Code of practice for structural use of masonry, Part 1: Unreinforced Masonry, Doc. No. BS 5628 Ptl-1978 (London, 1978).

(74) Butterworth, B.: The properties of clay building materials. Paper presented to a Ceramics Symposium (Stoke-on-Trent, British Ceramic Society, 1953).

(75) Macey, H.H.; Green, A.T.: The labour involved in making and firing common bricks, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 2 (London, HMSO, 1947).

(76) Centro Nacional de la Construccion: Diagnosis of the economic and technological State of the Colombian brickmaking industry, Doc. No. GEN 10-76 (Bogota, 1976).

(77) Parry, J.P.M.: Technical options in brick and tile production, Paper presented to an Intermediate Technology Workshop (Birmingham, 1983).

(78) Keddie, J.; Cleghorn, W.: “Least cost brickmaking”, in Appropriate Technology, 1978, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 24-27.

(79) British Research Establishment: Building research centres and similar organisations throughout the world, Overseas Building Note No. 163 (Garston, Watford, 1978).

(80) UNIDO: Information sources on the ceramics industry, Guide to Information Sources No. 17 (New York, 1975).

APPENDIX III - Institutes from where information can be obtained


Association Tecnica Argentina de Ceramica,
Talcahuano 847,
P.B. Buenos Aires.


Division of Building Research,
Graham Road,
Highett, Victoria 3190.


United Nations Industrial Development Organisation,
Vienna International Centre,
P.O. Box 400,
A-1400 Vienna.


Ministry of Local Government and Lands,
Private Bag 006,


National Centre for Construction Studies,
Ciudad Universitaria C1145-Cra 30,
Edificio CINVA,
AA34219 Bogota.


General Organisation for Housing, Building and Planning Research,
P.O. Box 1170,
El-Tahreer Street, Dokky,


Centre Technique des Tuiles et Briques,
2, avenue Hoche,
75008 Paris.

International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories (RILEM),
12, rue Brancion,
75737 Paris


Institut fr Ziegelforschung, Essen e V, Am Zehnthof,
4300 Essen-Kray.


Building and Road Research Institute,
University, P.O. Box 40,


Central Building Research Institute,
Roorke (Uttar Pradesh), 277672.


Directorate of Building Research,
United Nations Regional Housing Centre,
P.O. Box 15,
84 Jalan Tamansari,


Building Research Centre,
P.O. Box 127,
Jadiriyah, Bagdad.


Building Research Station,
Israel Institute of Technology,
Technion City, Haifa.


Socit des Briqueteries de Cte d’Ivoire,
B.P. 10303,


Building Materials Research Centre,
Royal Scientific Society,
P.O. Box 6945,


Centre National de l’Artisanat Malagasy,
B.P. 540,


Malawi Housing Corporation,
P.O. Box 414,


International Council for Building Research Studies and Documentation (CIB),
Weena 704, Post Box 20704,
3001 JA Rotterdam.


Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,
Off University Road,
Karachi 39.


Department of Public Works,
P.O. Box 1108,


Ceramic Association of the Philippines,
P.O. Box 499,
Makati, Rizal.


Building and Road Research Institute,
University of Khartoum,
P.O. Box 35,


Technology and Employment Branch,
International Labour Office,
CH-1211 Geneva 22.

International Standard Organisation,
1, rue de Varemb,
CH-1211 Geneva


Small Industries Development Organisation,
P.O. Box 2476,


Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand
196 Phahonyothin Road,


Caribbean Industrial Research Institute,
Post office box,


British Ceramic Research Association,
Queens Road,
Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7LG.

Building Research Establishment,
Bucknalls Lane,
Garston, Watford, Herts WD2 7JR.

Intermediate Technology Development Group,
9, King Street,
Covent Garden, London WC2E 8HN.

Intermediate Technology Workshop,
Corngreaves Trading Estate,
Overend Road,
Warley, West Midlands B64 7DD.


American Ceramic Society, Inc.,
4055 North High Street,
Columbus, Ohio 43214.

Volunteers in Technical Assistance,
1815 N. Lynn Street,
Suite 200,
P.O. Box 12438,
Arlington, Virginia 22209


Socit Voltaque de Briqueterie et de Cramique
B.P. 148,


National Council for Scientific Research,
P.O. Box CH 158,
Chelston, Lusaka.

APPENDIX IV - List of equipment suppliers

Type of equipment

Automet Industries Pty Ltd.,
P.O. Box 68,
88 Beattie Street,
Balmain NSW 2014,

General equipment

Sa Samic,
Hanswijvaart 21,
2800 Mechelen

General equipment

Niro Atomizer A/S,
Gladsaxevej 305,
DK-2860 Soeborg

General equipment

CERIC International,
18, rue Royale,
75008 Paris

General equipment

Agricultural Engineers,

Trough mixer

Raj Clay Products,
5 Mill Officers’ Colony,
Ashram Road,
Ahmedabad 380009

Semi-mechanised equipment

Unimorando Consortium,
Corson Don Minzoni 182,
14100 Asti

General equipment

Christian Industrial Training Centre (CITC),
Meru Road, Pumwani
P.O. Box 729935

Crusher, table mould

Joh’s Aberson bv.,
8120 AA, Olst

Soft mud

Craven Fawcett Ltd.,
P.O. Box 21, Dewsbury Road,
Wakefield, Yorkshire, WF2 9BD

General equipment

William Boulton Ltd,
Providence Engineering Works,
Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs, ST6 3BQ

General equipment

Croker Ltd.,
Runnings Road,
Cheltenham, Glos.

Pan mixer

British Ceramic Plant Manufacturers’s
P.O. Box 107,
Broadstone, Dorset BH18 8LQ

General information service

W.G. Cannon,
Broadway House,
The Broadway,
London SW19


Auto Combustions Hoistrack Ltd,
Halesfield 13,
Telford, Salop. TF7 4QR

Oil burners

Intermediate Technology Workshops,
J.P.M. Marry and Assts. Ltd.,
Overend Road,
Cradley Heath, West Midlands B64 7DD

Crusher, table moulds,
Handling equipment.

Allied Insulators,
Albion works,
Uttoxeter Road,
Longton, Stoke-on-Trent ST3 1HP

Pyrometric cones and rings

Bair and Tatlock Ltd.,
Freshwater Road, Chadwell Heath, Essex

General laboratory equipment

William Boulton Ltd.,
Providence Engineering Works,
Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, Staff ST6 3BQ

Clay machinery

Podmore and Sons Ltd., Shelton,
Stoke-on-Trent ST1 4PQ

Clay machinery

British Ceramics Service Co. Ltd.,
Bricesco House,
Park Avenue,
Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs, ST4 8AT


Kilns and Furnaces Ltd.,
Keele Street,
Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs, ST6 5AS


Leonard Farnell and Co. Ltd.,
Station Road,
North Mymms,
Hatfield, Herts AL9 7SR

Testing apparatus and augers

Interkiln Corporation of America,
P.O. Box 2048,
Houston, Texas 77252

General equipment

World Radio Systems,
Bush House, 72-72 Cameron Street,
P.O. Box 2772,

Crusher, table moulds