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CLOSE THIS BOOKWorld Energy Assessment - Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability (UNDESA - UNDP - WEA - WEC, 2000, 517 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTForeword
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPreface
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcknowledgements
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEditorial board
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEstablishing institutions
Overview - Energy and the challenge of sustainability
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntroduction
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPart I: Energy and major global issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPart II: Energy resources and technological options
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPart III: Are sustainable futures possible?
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPart IV: Where do we go from here?
PART I. ENERGY AND MAJOR GLOBAL ISSUES
Chapter 1. An Introduction to Energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWhat is sustainable energy development?
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEvolution of the energy system
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDemand for energy services
Energy trade patterns and globalisation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCrude oil and oil products
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCoal
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNatural gas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy prices and taxes
Energy investments
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGeneral features
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCapital flows
Chapter 2. Energy and Social Issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTowards a new approach to energy for human uses
Energy and poverty in developing countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDimensions of poverty
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe energy-poverty nexus
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe energy ladder and household decisions about fuel choice
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy strategies for alleviating poverty in developing countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy and poverty in industrialised countries
Energy and women
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFactors determining energy-women linkages
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSpecific concerns and priority areas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy for improving the position of women
Energy and population
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDemographic transitions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPopulation momentum
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe energy-population nexus
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRural energy consumption and population implications
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTraditional biomass-based cooking and demographic indicators
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy-population nexus at the global level
Energy and urbanisation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUrbanisation and energy linkages
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUrbanisation and energy strategies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy to improve the urban environment
Energy and lifestyles
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy use in the United States
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTrends towards increased energy use
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 3. Energy, the Environment, and Health
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Household scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHarvesting
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCombustion
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEstimated health effects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGreenhouse gases
Workplace scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBiomass
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCoal
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOil and gas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHydropower and other renewables
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNuclear danger
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNumber of workers and quantitative health effects estimates
Community scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFuel-derived air pollution in cities of industrialised countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFuel-derived air pollution in cities of developing countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUrban pollution control in the longer run
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHydroelectric dams6
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNuclear power
Regional scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEmissions and energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFuture emissions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAcid deposition
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTropospheric ozone
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSuspended fine particles
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRegional climate change
Global scale: climate change from greenhouse gases
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConsequences of greenhouse gas-induced climate change
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlternative energy futures and greenhouse gas emissions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternational agreements to address global climate change
Cross-scale impacts
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental risk transition
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWin-win strategies to link environmental improvements at different scales
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAssessment methods
Implications for the future
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHousehold scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWorkplace scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCommunity scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRegional scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGlobal scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCross-scale
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 4. Energy Security
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
New dimensions and challenges to energy security
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSecurity of electric power supply
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRoutes to enhanced energy security
Energy adequacy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCrude oil
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNatural gas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCoal
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNuclear energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRenewables
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe resource outlook
Supply security
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSecurity of crude oil supply
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSecurity of natural gas supply
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSecurity of coal supply
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNuclear energy and energy security
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy intensity
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe environment and energy security
Markets and energy security
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe role of the state
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRegional cooperation and the growing importance of regional electricity grids and network energies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
PART II. ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS
Chapter 5. Energy Resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDefinitions and units
Oil reserves and resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUltimately recoverable resources - the static or geologists’ view
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAvailable resources - the dynamic or economists’ view
VIEW THE DOCUMENTReconciling the two views
Gas reserves and resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConventional gas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUnconventional gas
Coal reserves and resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCurrent resources and reserves
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAdditional resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSummary of fossil resources
Reserves and resources of fissile materials
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUranium reserves
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUranium resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThorium reserves and resources
Hydroelectric resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTheoretical potential
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnical potential
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic potential
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMajor constraints to hydroelectricity expansion
Biomass resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPerceptions and problems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnical potential of biomass energy plantations
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy balances and biomass productivity
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAgricultural and forestry residues and municipal waste
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental implications of biomass production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmentally motivated responses to biomass production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomics
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSolar energy resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWind energy resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGeothermal energy resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOcean energy resources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 6. Energy End-Use Efficiency
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Recent trends in energy intensity in countries and regions
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOECD countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDeveloping Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Potential benefits of technology transfer
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTransition economies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDeveloping countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTypes of potential for increased energy efficiency
The economic potential of energy efficiency by region and sector
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWestern Europe
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNorth America
VIEW THE DOCUMENTJapan and Southeast Asia
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEastern Europe
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRussia and other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIndia
VIEW THE DOCUMENTChina
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLatin America
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAfrica
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe economic potential of energy efficiency - a systemic perspective
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnical and theoretical potentials for rational energy use after 2020
Obstacles, market imperfections, and disincentives for efficient energy use
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGeneral obstacles
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTarget group-specific and technology-specific obstacles
National and international policies to exploit the economic potential of energy efficiency in end-use sectors
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGeneral policy measures
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSector- and technology-specific policy measures
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternational policy measures
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 7. Renewable Energy Technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Biomass energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of biomass energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBiomass energy conversion technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental impacts of biomass energy systems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomics of biomass energy systems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImplementation issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Wind energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of wind energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDevelopment of installed wind power
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnology developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSystem aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImplementation issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Photovoltaic solar energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCharacteristics of the source
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of photovoltaic solar energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPhotovoltaic market developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCurrent status and future development of photovoltaic solar cells and modules
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSystem aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImplementation issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSpace-based solar energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Solar thermal electricity
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of solar thermal electricity
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSolar thermal electricity market developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSolar thermal electricity technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental and social aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Low-temperature solar energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLow-temperature solar energy potential and market developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLow-temperature solar energy technologies and systems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImplementation issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Hydroelectricity
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of hydroelectricity
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHydroelectric technology development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSystem aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental and social impacts
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic and financial aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Geothermal energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential of geothermal energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRecent developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPotential market developments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Marine energy technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe potential and technology of marine energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImplementation issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
System aspects
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTrends in the energy sector
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCharacteristics of renewable energy systems
VIEW THE DOCUMENTElectrical system design
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGrid integration of intermittent renewables
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntermittent renewables and energy storage
VIEW THE DOCUMENTValue of renewables
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Policies and instruments
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCost of competing conventional energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFinancing and fiscal policy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRegulation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGetting new technologies started
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 8. Advanced Energy Supply Technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Advanced fossil energy technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFossil fuel supply considerations as a context for fossil energy innovation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSetting goals for advanced fossil energy technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnologies and strategies for moving towards near-zero emissions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOther near-term advanced fossil energy technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Advanced nuclear energy technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRationale for reconsidering the nuclear option
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe need for advanced technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAdvanced nuclear generating options for the immediate future
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNuclear energy for the long term
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe outlook for addressing the challenges
PART III: ARE SUSTAINABLE FUTURES POSSIBLE?
Chapter 9. Energy Scenarios
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
What are scenarios and how are they used for energy assessments?
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAlternative development paths and how they are reflected in scenarios
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy scenarios for sustainable development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBrief review of the literature on energy scenarios
Three energy scenarios for the 21st century
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEconomic development and equity
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImprovement of energy intensities
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPrimary energy requirements and supply
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnological dynamics and structural change
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe structure of final energy requirements
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTemporal and spatial scales of scenarios
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe legacy of past generations
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe role of policies
Implications of sustainable energy scenarios
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRD&D trends and requirements and technological diffusion
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCapital requirements and financing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTechnological diffusion
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternational energy trade and security
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnvironmental issues at the local and regional scales
VIEW THE DOCUMENTClimate change: Land use and other global issues
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
Chapter 10. Rural Energy in Developing Countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRungs on the energy ladder
Fuels in rural areas: climbing the energy ladder
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImproved cooking stoves
VIEW THE DOCUMENTKerosene and liquefied petroleum gas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBiogas for cooking
VIEW THE DOCUMENTProducer gas for cooking
Rural electrification
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe centralised approach
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe decentralised approach
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLeapfrogging to new rungs on the energy ladder
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe time horizon for technological options
Accelerating rural energy development
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntegrated rural development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInvolving rural people (particularly women) in decision-making
VIEW THE DOCUMENTStrategies for expanding access to modern energy services
VIEW THE DOCUMENTStrategies for making modern energy services affordable
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex. Case studies of crop-residue-derived modern energy carriers in China
PART IV. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
Chapter 11. Energy and Economic Prosperity
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Energy consumption and economic well-being
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe transition from traditional to modern energy sources
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe benefits of service extension
Energy use forecasts and energy efficiency
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAmbiguities in the evidence and shortcomings in methods
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEnergy efficiency as a beneficial stimulus to energy use
Reconciling increased energy consumption and environmental protection
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTReducing local and regional pollution
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMitigating global warming
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLiberalisation and globalisation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConclusion: economic perspectives on policy
Chapter 12. Energy Policies for Sustainable Development
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
Policy goals and challenges
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe findings so far
VIEW THE DOCUMENTDefining the goals of policy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTResponding to the challenge of widening access
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImproving environmental acceptability
Making markets work better
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternalising externalities
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPhasing out subsidies to conventional energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRegulatory options for restructured energy sectors
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRaising energy efficiency
Mobilising investments in sustainable energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAttracting private capital
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTapping other sources of funding
Encouraging technological innovation for sustainable energy development
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUnderstanding the energy innovation chain
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe rationale for public policies in support of energy innovation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPolicy options for promoting technological innovation
Encouraging technological innovation in developing countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOpportunities for technological leadership
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSupporting demonstration and diffusion
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternational industrial collaboration
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTowards a supportive policy framework
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCapacity and institution building
Moving towards more effective cooperation
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCooperative efforts to ensure supply security
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInternational cooperation on climate change
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWidening the involvement in sustainable energy development
Conclusion
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMaking markets work better
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMobilising additional investments in sustainable energy
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEncouraging technological innovation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSupporting technological leadership and capacity building in developing countries
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEncouraging greater international cooperation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex. Trends in research and development funding
PART V. FURTHER INFORMATION AND REFERENCE MATERIAL
Annexes
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex A: Energy units, conversion factors, and abbreviations
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex B: Data consistency
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex C: Energy trends
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAnnex D: Carbon emissions
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEditorial board - Brief biographies of Editorial Board members
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGlossary - Selected terminology
VIEW THE DOCUMENTContributors - World Energy Assessment Advisory Panel and peer reviewers
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