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CLOSE THIS BOOKTools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)
Technical Chapter 9: Hauling
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.1 Manual winch
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.2 Motor cars as hauling machines, depth indicators
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.3 Block and pulley
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.4 Trackless and track bound haulage
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9.5 Passenger lifting moving ladder

Tools for Mining: Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining (GTZ, 1993, 538 p.)

Technical Chapter 9: Hauling

9.1 Manual winch

Deep Mining General Open-Pit Mining General
Underground Mining Hauling

germ.:

Handhaspel, Winde

span.:

guinche manual, malacate, torno

Producer:

INCOMAQ, COMESA, DERENA, FIMA, Metal Callao, E.P.S.

TECHNICAL DATA:

Dimensions:

approx. 2 × 1.5 × 1 m WLH

Weight:

approx. 10 kg

Extent of Mechanization:

not mechanized

Driving Capacity:

0.3 - 0.6 kW in 2 man operation

Form of Driving Energy:

manual

Other Opportunities:

winch (animal power gear), hydromechanic with water wheel

Mode of Operation:

intermittent

Throughput/Capacity:

depth up to approx. 45 m, max. 100 m with 0.1 - 0.2 m/s hauling speed

Technical Efficiency:

very high if friction is low

ECONOMICAL DATA:

Investment Cost:

approx. 200 DM if locally produced with wood

Operating Cost:

exclusively labor cost

Consequential Cost through Coupling Effects:

cable (rope), bucket 0.05 - 0.2 m³ content

CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:

Operating Expenditures:

low |————|————| high

Maintenance Experience:

low |————|————| high

Location Requirements:

shaft or blind shaft with hoist chamber at the upper end of conveying distance or drift

Replaceable Equipment:

leather bag hauling with rope pulled by hand, which is typical for small-scale mining

Regional Distribution:

also known in small-scale mining in Latin America

Experience of Operators:

very good |————|————| bad

Environmental Impacts:

low |————|————| very high

Suitability for Local Production:

very good |————|————| bad

Under what Conditions:

wood or metal manufacture

Lifespan:

very long |————|————| very short

Bibliography, Source: Agricola, Delius, Hartmann, Hentschel, Wagenbreth, Slotta

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

With one or two handles the conveying rope is wound up by hand on a direct coupled drum.

AREAS OF APPLICATION:

Ore and material conveyance also water transport and passenger lift in shafts and roadways of small-scale mines.

REMARKS:

Winch suspension with counter weight and counter rope to lower the necessary leverage. To equalize the static load moment tapered cable drums were invented. If the bucket hangs deep within the shaft, the load is higher due to the weight of rope. The load moment of hoist is then minimized by the small drum diameter, while the stronger the load is wound up, the weight of the hanging rope is smaller and the drum diameter increases. In case of static load, the following formula is used:

Mstat. = rdrum × (actual load + weight of material + rope weight)

which calculates the conical angle of drum.

For the purpose of personnel lifting it is important to use safety dogs and breaks.

The integration of anti-friction bearings decreases friction losses.

SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:

In comparison to the simple form of conveying by leather bag hooked on a rope, the manual winch which is especially used as double drum system with good ball bearings, makes work considerably easier. On the surface, it is however preferred to use animal power.


Fig.: Windlass with break. Source: Armstrong


Fig.: Tapered drum of winch to equalize cable weight as double cable operation. Source: Ponson.


Fig.: Manual winch. Source: Agricola

9.2 Motor cars as hauling machines, depth indicators

Deep Mining General, Open-Pit Mining General
Underground Mining Hauling

germ.:

Fordermaschinen mit PKW-Chassis, Teufenstandsanzeiger fur Schachtforderung

span.:

maquina de extraccion con chasis de auto, indicador de profundidad pare el transporte en el pozo

TECHNICAL DATA:

Weight:

500 - 800 kg

Extent of Mechanization:

fully mechanized

Driving Capacity:

30 - 100 kW

Form of Driving Energy:

internal combustion engine

Other Opportunities:

none

Mode of Operation:

intermittent

Operating Materials:


Which:

lubricants

fuels

water for

Quantity:

approx. 1 I/10 hours operation 5 - 15 I/hours operation cooling

ECONOMICAL DATA:

Investment Cost:

if a second-hand car chassis is used, approx. 2000 DM

Operating Cost:

high fuel cost

Consequential Cost through Coupling Effects:

hauling cable, bucket

CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:

Operating Expenditures:

low |————|————| high

Maintenance Experience:

low |————|————| high

Mining Requirements:

mine design should allow shaft hoisting and inclined shaft hoisting from surface

Replaceable Equipment:

animal power gear, winch etc.

Regional Distribution:

known in Colombian mines, but also used to drive a ski lift at Chacaltaya, Bolivia

Experience of Operators:

very good |————|————| bad

Environmental Impacts:

low |———————| very high


pollution through used oil and exhaust gas

Suitability for Local Production:

very good |————|————| bad

Under what Conditions:

old cars redesigned by auto mechanics

Lifespan:

very long |————|————| very short

Bibliography, Source: Hentschel, Priester

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

The small-scale mining industry uses car chassis as a simple hauling system of which engine, clutch, gear, differential and drive axle are still in operation. One side of the drive is put away and at the other side, the cable is wound up by the remaining rim used as drum. The radiator is replaced by an open barrel to serve as water tank for a closed cooling circuit. The haulage is controlled by forward and backward shifting.

A depth indicator which reflects the location of the bucket on a well displayed board, substantially helps in controlling the shaft hoist, especially if rope marking fails due to foul rope. Simple designs of depth indicators are:

- string indicators, which wind up a string on a screw bolt at the axle of the hauling machine or the rope drum along the thread. The exact position of the bucket is indicated or shown on a weighted or gauged scale by a clean thread and a nonelastic string guided through a pulley and suspended by a weight at the string end.

- thread indicator comprised of a thread coupled with an axle of the cable drum or hoist and drives a nut holed by a pin avoiding the nuts rotation.

For the correct performance of string indicators it is necessary that the cable is equally wound up.

Beside depth indicators, signal systems like for example curb bells (see 1st photo, Technique 4.3), are most practical. Even in inclined shafts, mechanized curb bells can be operated over several hundred meters by moving the tongue of the bell placed at the opening with a loosely distributed wire. In shafts which are used simultaneously for hauling and personnel lifting, operation of signal bells should be possible from any point for safety reasons.

REMARKS:

Advantages are, the widely known auto techniques and therefore repairs can be done by local technicians, easy procurement of wearing spare parts, and their comparably low cost.

To avoid abrasion of cable or rope in inclined shafts, it is important to install pulleys by which the rope is free-wheeling. Under no circumstances should it drag along the floor. At the same time, to avoid corrosion, the wire should be oiled or greased. This can multiply the hauling cable's lifespan several times.

SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:

Car chassis is very suitable for hauling due to their availability everywhere at reasonable prices especially for second hand units. Another advantage is also the availability of very good repair and maintenance knowledge.

Development of hauling machines for deep shafts, respectively with steam engine or electric motor drive. Small rope drum for shafts of low depth was enlarged for deep shafts - was redesigned into a spiral basket to get a small load arm for huge loads (hoisting cage in the depth + weight of rope) - was redesigned into bobbin with the same principle such as that of spiral basket- changed into the new principle of band wheel (Koepe wheel): both hoisting cages are on a common rope (weight equalization by under-rope in shaft).


Fig.: Tipping bucket for inclined haulage. Source: Fritzsche.


Fig.: Development of a rope drum. Source: Wagenbreth

Development of hauling machines for deep shafts, respectively with steam engine or electronic motor drive. Small rope drum for shafts of low depth - was enlarged for deep shafts - was redesigned into a spiral basket to get a small load arm for huge loads (hoisting cage in the depth + weight of rope) - was redesigned into bobbin with the same principle such as that of spiral basket - changed into the new principle of band wheel (Koepe wheel): both hoisting cages are on a common rope (weight equalization by under-rope in shaft).


Fig.: Hauling systems. Source: Stout.


Fig.: Double spindle depth indicator. Source: Hoffmann


Fig.: Break, depth indicator, end release. Source: Hoffmann

9.3 Block and pulley

Deep Mining General, Open-Pit Mining
Underground Mining Hauling

germ.:

Flaschenzug

span.:

polipasto, aparejo

TECHNICAL DATA:

Dimensions:

several pulleys, dimension depends on the weight of material being handled

Weight:

few kg

Form of Driving Energy:

manual, animals, electric, hydromechanic, pneumatic

Other Opportunities:

pedal drive

Mode of Operation:

intermittent

Technical Efficiency:

mechanical remedy for conveying and lifting material

ECONOMICAL DATA:

Investment Cost:

< 200 DM with pulleys which are available in the market

Operating Cost:

none

Consequential Cost through Coupling Effects:

rope and bucket should be available

CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:


manual

Operating Expenditures:

low |————|————| high


mechanized

Maintenance Experience:

low |————|————| high

Regional Distribution:

not applied for haulage in small-scale mining

Environmental Impacts:

low |————|————| very high

Suitability for Local Production:

very good |————|————| bad

Under What Conditions:

woood or metal manufacture

Lifespan:

very long |————|————| very short

Bibliography, Source: Born

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

With several pulleys, the weight of the bucket is distributed into several rope units.

AREAS OF APPLICATION:

Remedy to make such works as haulage and transport easier.

REMARKS:

Block and pulley demand an increased length of rope since the pulling distance doubles with each pulley causing respectively half the tension. Still, the use of block and pulley is meaningful in adjusting the cycle of the winding period and haulage capacity to the operating cycle of loading and unloading.

In ecuadorian mining of aluvial gold deposits, large stones are pulled up into the surface with block and pulley with simple tripod during shaft sinking.

SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:

Suitable for the small-scale mining industry as an auxiliary equipment. Also contributes to a continuous operation in haulage work.


Fig.: Block and pulley. Source: Born.

9.4 Trackless and track bound haulage

Deep Mining General Open-Pit Mining General
Underground Mining Hauling

germ.:

Gleislose und gleisgebundene Frderung unter Tage

span.:

Transporte en interior mine sobre y sin rieles, aparejo

Producer:

Buena Fortuna, COMESA, DERENA, Eduardo, FAHENA, FAMESA, Famia Ind., FIMA, Fundicion Callao, FUNSA, FUNVESA, H.M., IAA, INCOHEC, inc. Met. Van Dam, Krug, M.M. Soriano, MAENSA, MAEPSA, MAGENSA, MEPSA, Metal Callao, E.P.S.: Metalurgica Lacha, PROPER, Volcan

TECHNICAL DATA:

Extent of Mechanization:

not mechanized

Form of Driving Energy:

gravity and muscular strength

Other Opportunities:

roof switch: probably pneumatic tension reel, battery locomotive, compressed air locomotive

Mode of Operation:

intermittent

Throughput/Capacity:

efficiency of hand pushed wagons on properly made laying of rail track inclusive of way back approx. 1800 - 2000 kg × km/mh

ECONOMICAL DATA:

Investment Cost:

mine car: 500 DM/piece (used); steel rails and switches, type S 10: 30 DM/m (used)

Consequential Cost through Coupling Effects:

steel rails and switches: Jim-Crow (Santiago), track gauge, slope rate

Bibliography, Source: Siegert, Bernewitz, Stout, Villefosse, Delius, Goschen, Gerth/Salzmann, Treptow, Bergbaumuseum Eisenerz Steiermark, VOEST, Hutte

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

For transporting in underground mining, trackless and track bound haulage are to be distinguished:

Trackless haulage:

This can be done without mechanized remedies by back-pack over a short distance for hand picked and high-grade, selective mine ore, or by wheelbarrow or carts with rubber wheels. The shuttle-belt conveying method originating from the mining at Mansfeld's thin copper shales where the workable thickness has only 90 cm, is also known for immediate transporting to the main galleries. Therefore, a hoist pulls a piece of conveying belt where the ore is piled on to the main conveying system. This method makes sense where conveying belts are in operation and sufficient construction material is available. The wheelbarrow is designed to lead the load weight to the wheels by arranging the axles position in front of the center of gravity. The miner handles the steering and driving.

Biaxial mine cars work analogously. Trackless hauling needs a properly cleaned, balanced and stable ground to guaranty transporting without friction as much as possible. Boards are lined along the bottom as support on which cars run with or without track nail. This leads to the so-called track bound haulage.

Track bound haulage:

If laying of rails is made properly, track bound haulage guaranties friction-free transporting of loaded cars even without locomotives. Still, comparably high expenditures for infrastructure of rail tracking becomes inevitable. On the other hand, keeping the tracks clean is easy and they allow transporting of heavy tools, machines as well as construction materials.

The rails could be made of wood or metal: wooden rails are less expensive, resistant against acidic water, but allow less axle load in comparison to steel rails and mouldering appears fast in a humid environment.

Steel rails and switches (riel de coville, linea decauville) are comprised of:

rails

steel

fishplates and screws


sleepers

wood, steel

screws, wing plates


switches

steel

crossings

steel

turn sheets

steel

Mining cars:

Mining cars are composed of a drive system, normally with four equally sized wheels and coupling devices with buffers as well as a container. Unloading of mining cars is done by dumping devices or gates to be opened forward, backward or to the side. Rigid and closed cars can be unloaded by a rotary car dumper.

The most common way to move mining cars in small-scale mines is to push them forward by hand, wherein the loaded car almost runs alone by itself along the track, and the empty one has to be pushed slightly upwards.

If the roadway cross-section is wide enough in main roads, mining car transport can be supported by horses. Mining horses can pull 6 - 10 fully loaded cars if rail track laying is made properly. Until the beginning of this century, this kind of transporting was done in Central Europe.

For haulage in long and straight roadways, mining cars can be driven by a revolving rope on which clamping devices fasten the cars. The circulating haulage cable or chains can run along the roof or bottom and are guided by track carrier rollers.

Finally, mining cars are pulled by locomotives which operate with an electric drive as trolley or battery locomotives, with compressed air and, as an exception, driven by diesel engines. All locomotives are very costly, heavy and involving much expense in technique, maintenance and repair, etc.

Turn sheets:

To change direction, the mining car is pushed on a turntable which is comprised either of a flat conical disc or of a plate With adopted rails. If the car stands on the plate, it is turned around by hand and the car is pushed on the railway to a new direction.

Vertical switch:

Vertical switches are used to connect ramps with floors or sublevels which can be tipped up or down to let cars go under. Thus, the use of mining cars for roadway haulage as containers for ramp or inclined shaft haulage, is possible without reloading. The haulage cable has to be hooked at the mining car with a safety hook.

Roof shunts:

Roof shunts are used in vein ore small-scale mines, where only one railway goes to the heading. To handle two or more cars coming in and going out, it should be possible to put an empty car at the side if the car at face is loaded. The roof shunt now offers an opportunity to hook the empty car and lift it up from the rails with block and pulley or by a pneumatic hoist and switch it sideways. In case the loaded car has already passed, the lifted car is then put back on track.

Haulage in ramps and shafts is done either trackless or track bound analogously. In a trackless haulage, a mine car either simply runs on proper ground (only short distance) or a haulage container slides along wooden bars. In a track bound haulage, the rails are laid within the ramp. In steep ramps, the track system, especially the rail sleepers also as a manway. What is important is to install passing places in case miners have to pass by the mine cars. The mine car then runs along the railway pulled by a hauling cable.

REMARKS:

Mining cars:

Villefosse introduces an English mine car without its own dumping device that can be opened at the backside and dumped at the unloading point. Counter weights with right dimensions simplify the handling. The car has brakes.

For mines with shaft haulage, mine cars can also be designed so that the kibble can be carried on its chassis thus, avoiding multiple reloading.

With rail nail, two big wheels under the center of gravity plus two small ones. Driving is done on two wheels.

For hauling in ramps and slopes and in case the hauling cable or rope breaks, it is proposed to install fishing hooks or gripping devices which fall int o the bottom or in front of sleepers to apply brakes or derail the car, thus avoiding its speeding down.

Steel rails and switches:

For haulage wih cars pushed by hand without drive, the right falling gradient should be > 0.5° to the opening. The same also applies for water supply and drainage.

Falling gradients of railways for full mine cars (by Gerth, Salzmann):

straight railway

1.2 %

curves

1.8 %

switches

1.8 %

switches in curves

2.0 %

Track gauge: normal 600 mm

In roadways with 1.5° to 3° falling gradient, haulage without driving machines can be done by stopping the cars with brake billet or brake devices. Higher gradients even make difficult the upward movement of empty cars.

To manage higher gradients in slopes, counterweights or shuttle operation are appropriate to pull up empty cars by using the weight of loaded cars running downward.

Roof shunts:

Roof shunts need a very small space. They can be used wherever the width of gallery allows without making changes in the railway.

Haulage in working:

Haulage by hand trams with 1/3 - 1/4 of the capacity of that of mining cars in 3 - 30 falling ways along the bottom or on wooden tramways which can also be moistened to reduce friction. Trammed by a shoulder belt.

Haulage in steeper roadways (15° - 40°): application or use of chutes made of wood or of iron plates.

In galleries or rise drifts with > 45° falling, gradient materials will fall along roller tracks.


Fig.: Hauling with a cycling ground rope. Source: Lengemann.

Fig. 1 and 2 clamping device. Fig. 3 demonstrates, how to handle the clamping devices shown in fig. 1 and 2. Fig. 4 operators car with clamping device by Ramsay. The rope can be clamped between jaws a, b and d with the hand wheel h (Fig. 4a,4b,4c), if lever c is in the position 1 (fig.4a). The rope is being disconnected, if the lever c is brought into position 2 and 3; the lower jaw a, b that is designed as a lever looses its support and goes back into the position shown in Fig. 4e and Fig. 4f. Fig. 5 operators car with clamping device of mine Ironstone of Tredegar corporation in Wales. The screw spindle s that is rotated by hand crank c clamps or disconnects the rope. Fig. 6 clamping device by Hanson is fixed at the iron rods bb' of operators car. The clamping of the rope is done with wedge k that is guided by bolts in the slots e and handled with lever c. At the clamping devices shown in Fig. 4 and 5 an automatic disconnection from the rope can be realized by placing barriers at the ends of the track which hit lever c or the handle of crank c. Since an operator is not needed anymore seats are useless. The hooks shown in Fig. 7 are to connect the rope with the clamping devices that are shown in Fig. 4 - 6.


Fig.: Mining cars; above rocker dump truck; below, end dump truck. Source: Armstrong


Fig.: End dumping truck; left, back view; right, side view. Source: Bernewitz


Fig.: Mining car with fishing hook. Source: Treptow


Figures

Fig.: Wings rails, common shape. Source: Fritzsche.
Fig.: Gauge for rail laying. Source: Frtizsche.


Figure

Fig.: Attachment device composing of three elements; Scheidt Company, Essen-Kettwig. Source: Fritzsche
Fig.: A hammer head nail. Source: Fritzsche.


Fig.: Swiches and rails. Source: Stout.

Above left:

rigid turning device for mining cars;

Above right:

simple turntable;

Below left:

track extension in face;

Below right:

retailer.

9.5 Passenger lifting moving ladder

Deep Mining
Underground Mining Hauling

germ.:

Fahrkunst

span.:

ascensor rosario en vaiven

TECHNICAL DATA:

Dimensions:

up to 800 m depth (Samson Mine in Harz)

Weight:

very high

Driving Capacity:

for example 5 kW for more then 200 m depth in Samson Mine

Form of Driving Energy:

electric or mechanic ( very low R.P.M. needed, e.g. water wheel)

Throughput/Capacity:

frequency: 6/min

Operating Materials:


Which:

lubricants

ECONOMICAL DATA:

Investment Cost:

high

Consequential Cost through Coupling Effects:

aggregates for power supply

CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION:

Operating Expenditures:

low |————|————|high

Maintenance Experience:

low |————|————|high

Replaceable Equipment:

all hoisting systems for passengers

Regional Distribution:

historical technique, today only in Samson Mine in Harz, in Samson-Museum

Experience of Operators:

very good |————|————|bad

Environmental Impacts:

low |————|————|very high


only from energy supply

Suitability for Local Production:

verry good |————|————|bad

Under what Conditions:

wood manufacture

Lifespan:

very long |————|————|very short

Bibliography, Source: Samson-Museum, St. Andreasberg, Treptow, Gentz,H., Die Fahrkunst des Oberharzer Bergbaus in Bergbau-Rundschau, Jg. 7, 83 ff.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

Passenger lifting moving ladder is a system of hauling passengers in a vertical or inclined shaft. Two pairs of ropes or rods (wood, steel) are driven counter wise up and down by an approx. 1.5 - 2 m wheel. Frequency is very low (approx. 5 - 10 min-1). Foot boards and handles are attached on the rope pairs every 3 - 4 meters. At the moment the movement reverses, foot boards of both rope pairs are facing each other in one level due to the counter movement. Upward or downward haulage is then possible by transferring systematically from one pair to the other. Ropes lead through intermediate platforms in the shaft which serve as safety installations. Every 30 - 50 m, a catch fork secures the rope pairs against falling by broken rope. In inclined shafts, rope pairs are guided over slide boards or rollers.

REMARKS:

In deep mining in the Harz region, the introduction of the moving ladder considerably reduced travelling and therefore contributed to increased efficiency in mining operations. Invented by Drell in Zellerfeld/Harz in 1833.

In vein ore mining, haulage shafts usually are drifted in ore. Only moving ladders allow a mechanized passenger lifting in these shafts where falling gradient often changes.

The balanced weight of both rope pairs of the moving ladder has its real advantage of having to overpower only friction, the weight of travelling miners, and weight of 3 · 4 m rope. The driving energy may remain low.

In Harz, the ropes were preserved with a mixture of grease and beeswax. This mixture gave a more than 50 years of protection from corrosion.

Wire cables were designed so as to reduce into a smaller diameter downwards. This reduced the weight of the ropes.

SUITABILITY FOR SMALL-SCALE MINING:

Moving ladder is the right mechanized passenger lifting system for deeper shafts, but needs the installation of a haulage system for materials in a parallel shaft.

Schematic draw of function of a moving ladder during miners going out of the shaft W crankshaft, driven by water wheel or steam engine, G1G2 both, the up and down moving rods of the ladder, 1 and 3 dead centers of rod movement: The miners step over to then upwarts going rod or they step out at surface, 2 the left rod is lifted with miners, 4 the right rod is lifted with miners. Additionally for protection in the passinger lifting shafts ladders have been installed.


Fig.: Moving ladder. Source: Wagenbreth.

Schematic draw of function of a moving ladder during miners going out of the shaft W crankshaft, driven by water wheel or steam engine, G1G2 both, the up and down moving rods of the ladder, 1 and 3 dead centers of rod movement: The miners step over to then upwarts going rod or they step out at surface, 2 the left rod is lifted with miners, 4 the right rod is lifted with miners. Additionally for protection in the passinger lifting shafts ladder have been installed.

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