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CLOSE THIS BOOKAnimal Traction in Rainfed Agriculture in Africa and South America (GTZ, 1991, 311 p.)
D. Features of draft animal husbandry
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1. Selection of animals
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2. Procurement of draft animals
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3. Feeding of draft animals
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4. Methods of keeping draft animals
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5. Training and utilization of draft animals

Animal Traction in Rainfed Agriculture in Africa and South America (GTZ, 1991, 311 p.)

D. Features of draft animal husbandry

1. Selection of animals

1.1 General criteria

The primary criteria for the selection of draft animals employed are:

-availability,

-price,

-adaptiveness to the region and conditions existing on the farm (climate, fodder availability, husbandry),

-suitability of the work to be carried out,

-possibilities of multiple utilization.

The animal species which come into question for animal traction can be distinguished according to possibilities of multiple utilization. Equidae, for example, are almost exclusively used monofunctionally, as there is normally no demand for their meat (compare Harris, 1988). This means that with the exception of the reproductive capacity of the female animal they are kept solely for the purposes of labour power. In contrast, aside from their mobilization, cattle, buffalo or camels are often kept for their supply of meat. Female animals fulfil the function of both reproduction and the supply of milk.

With a decrease of labour strain (e.g. due to only seasonal use) the comparative advantage of the multifunctional utilization of a draft animal gains in importance. For only on the basis of the exploitation of further possibilities of use of the animal can the year-round quite high investment for keeping and feeding be justified.

To what extent the labour capacity of a draft animal can be fully utilized depends on:

-size of the farm,

-type and diversification of crops,

-types of land use (multiple cropping, irrigation),

-extent of mechanized fieldwork operations,

-extent of post-harvest mobilization (threshing) or work not connected with seasons, e.g. transportation.

From the historical perspective in Germany, for example, formerly horses were primarily employed on large farms in the North, where they were fully utilized within the framework of the cropping system. In contrast, in the South on smaller farms the "work cow" was preferred as a draft animal since it also produced milk. (Jacobeit, 1969)

Very few studies are available on the annual number of work days/hours of different draft animal breeds. For the annual working time of draft oxen on smallholdings in Ethiopia Goe (1987) gives an approximate figure of 65 days, whereby the work is poorly distributed throughout the year (about 50 days of seedbed preparation with an average 5.5 hours daily, as well as 15 days for threshing). In comparison, studies on the use of mules on smallholdings in Morocco (grain, sugarbeet, cotton and vegetables) shows up a double amount of 720 hours annually, which are evenly distributed throughout the year (Elhimdy and Chiche, 1988).

The types of feedstuff resources available locally also play a decisive role in the selection of draft animals. In Bangladesh for example the limited fodder resources on the farms must be used at an optimum due to the high population density and large number of animals (see section D 3.2). This has led to an increased use of draft cows. (Weniger and Schneichel, 1986) In Burma, where sufficient fodder energy is available because of the widespread cropping of oil seed, a differentiation of utilization was observed insofar as only male animals are used for labour (Lindsay, 1986). In addition, the demand for animal products (meat, milk) as well as the prestige value of the animals (e.g. horses) play a significant role in the question of multiple use of draft animals. An absolute lack of draft animals can lead to an increased labour mobilization of female animals under harness.

1.2 Draft power capacity

Draft power capacity relating to animal species

Regarding the animal labour inclination the most important aspect is draft capacity, which equals draft power × speed. This is primarily dependent upon:

-animal species and breed,
-age,
-gender,
-nutritional and health condition,
-supervision and training of animals,
-method of harnessing.

The most important factors for the potential draft pulling capacity of an animal are animal weight and passage power capability, the endurance and working speed, body structure, pulling angle (animal height) as well as the hitching point (type of harness).

Generally, the pulling power capacity of an animal is directly proportional to its body weight; fodder supply plays a decisive role at this point. In our survey on the subtropical, constantly wet regions of Brazil a much higher animal weight for all animal types (cattle, horses, mules) was quoted in comparison to other regions.

Many nonstandardized studies have been conducted on the draft pulling capacity of various animal species breeds and crosses. The resulting figures are correspondingly varied in the literature. General data on the draft pulling capacity of various animal types and, in comparison, the draft power demand for different work operations are given in annex V. Aside from the influencing factors the draft power requirement for fieldwork naturally depends very much upon the soil conditions (e.g. soil density) as well as type of work operations, i.e. the type of implements employed.

In general, continuous pulling power of 1/10 to 1/7 of the body weight for a daily working time of an average 5 to 6 hours for oxen, horses and camels is mentioned in the published material. Donkeys and mules achieve higher values of 1/6 to 1/4 of their body weight; for the donkey a working duration of 3 to 4 hours/day is quoted. (Viebig, 1981; Ministre de la Cooperation, 1984)

Figures taken from studies in the field or under conditions similar to that found in practice are often higher. For the fuador, a plow used in south Brazil, on typical local soils a draft power requirement of 244 to 329 kp was measured depending on the soil density (IAPAR, 1988). According to these figures the draft animals (as a rule oxen) must have a minimum individual weight of 730 kg. The oxen used in practice however normally only weigh 450 kg. Nevertheless, a daily working time of 5 to 6 hours is quoted for this plow type. Goe (1987) quotes the power expended by Ethiopian draft oxen with an average weight of 280 kg per animal to be18 to 23 % of their body weight for plowing. The animals work at a speed of 0.38 to 0.55 m/s and are used about 5.5 hours per day.

Since the draft power requirement of a plow decreases with a reduction in speed (Estler et al., 1984) and data of investigations on pulling power requirements for implements are often only obtained from brief measurement, the explanation for the discrepancy of various figures could be attributed to a reduction of speed which is observed in practice with increasing work duration. Thus, the given working speed of Ethiopian draft oxen lies well below the figures quoted in the literature (compare annex V). In addition, normally no information is given on the number and length of work breaks offered the animals for rest under working conditions. Also, differences in harnessing types and managing the teams must be studied and described more accurately.

Generally, however an animal having a greater weight has more pulling power reserves to overcome short-time strain, e.g. caused by stones or roots when plowing (Lindsay, 1986).

1.3 Draft animal species

Draft power capacity relating to draft animal species

Table D 1 portrays uses of draft animals which are listed in our survey according to the percentage of frequency for animal type responses in terms of various work operations. Oxen, for example in all cases mentioned are used for seedbed preparation but seldom for seeding.


Seedbed

Seeding preparation

Weed control

Transportation

Oxen

XXXXX

X

XX

XXX

Horses

XX

XXX

XXXX

XXX

Mules

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Donkeys

XX

X

XX

XXXXX

Interpretable questionnaires: 74


Number of instances:




XXXXX =100 %

Cattle

74



XXXX = 76 -99 %

Horses

28



XXX = 51 -75 %

Mules

14



XX = 26 -50 %

Donkeys

21



X = 0 -25 %





Tab. D 1: Utilization of draft animal types for various work operations based on number of instances

See the following know tree box to have more information about cattle, horses, donkeys, mules and camels

Animal traction in rainfed agriculture in Africa and South America

Draft power capacity relating to Animal species

1. Cattle
2. Horses
3. Donkeys
4. Mules
5. Camels

Overview of advantages and disadvantages of animal types important for animal traction in the tropics and subtropics

1.3.1 Cattle

According to the survey cattle are employed as draft animals in all climatic regions where rainfed cropping is carried out in the tropics and subtropics. This indicates the wide ecological distribution of this animal. The utilization of draft animals is even possible in the tsetse-fly-prone, subhumid and humid zones of Africa due to the existence of trypanotolerant, taurin breeds such as the N'dama and West African shorthorn.

Primarily oxen are utilized. As table D 1 shows they are mostly applied to seedbed preparation and less for transport purposes. The low proportion of use for seeding and weed control is due, among other things, to the fact that these work operations are not mechanized in many regions where oxen power is prevalent, or that for these operations faster and more agile equidae are used. The quoted animal weight varies substantially and fluctuates between 180 kg in West Africa and 700 kg in South Brazil. In the survey the harnessing of cows for draft purposes was reported in Peru, Botswana, Ethiopia and Senegal. (e.g the mixed harnessing of the cow and ox in Senegal )

The pulling capacity of cows is approximately 5 % lower than for male animals, as stated by Lindsay (1986). If the reproductive capacity and milk production is to be maintained, aside from the labour output, then good conditions are necessary for feeding and keeping the animals. In Bangladesh the poor reproduction performance of draft cows of only 1.2 calves per lifetime is attributed to the scarcity of fodder resources (Lindsay, 1986).

In addition, the utilization of draft cows and other female draft animals for breeding purposes requires a time management of gestation, since the animal is not available for work during the calving period. This could mean an enormous loss for the farmer during the main working season if he does not have access to other draft animals. For this reason the farmers in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal, where the utilization of cows at a rate fo 26 % (1981) of the entire number of cattle is of significance, employ female animals primarily as a second or third team to support the already available draft-oxen potential on the farms (Lhoste, 1986).

The multiple use of female draft animals is an intensification measure, which due to the high demands on animal management and requires extensive knowledge. In this connection the fact is significant that in all four cases in the survey where the use of draft cows was mentioned the general degree of distribution of animal traction was very high (more than 50 % of the farms in three countries and more than 30 % in one country). The farmers here already have a broad range of experience and knowledge of this technique as well as of animal husbandry.

1.3.2 Horses

Horses are well adapted to the climate in the temperate zones and the subtropics (Lindsay, 1986). This is based on the high demands of the horse on feedstuff and husbandry in comparison to ruminants. In the past the use of the horse in Europe and USA could become widespread especially because good quality pastures were available in the temperate zone, in contrast to the tropics. In addition, grain was in abundance and could be fed the animals. Nevertheless, horses have also been kept in tropical climatic regions and often represent a prestige object, since as a rule only well-to-do farmers can afford to rear them (e.g. draft horses in the state of Paran, Brazil). In the subhumid and humid regions of Africa their utilization is limited due to the lack of resistance of all equidae against trypanosomiasis.

The weight range of work horses as found in the IPAT survey was given as between 220 kg (Senegal) and 450 kg (Brazil). Relative to their body weight horses possess approximately the same draft power as cattle, but they can maintain a more rapid pace and are more agile. For this reason they are prefered for transportation as well as tasks such as seeding and weed control (table D 1).


Seedbed

Seeding preparation

Weed contro

Transportation

Oxen

XXXXX

X

XX

XXX

Horses

XX

XXX

XXXX

XXX

Mules

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Donkeys

XX

X

XX

XXXXX

Interpretable questionnaires: 74


Number of instances:




XXXXX =100 %

Cattle

74



XXXX = 76 -99 %

Horses

28



XXX = 51 -75 %

Mules

14



XX = 26 -50 %

Donkeys

21



X = 0 -25 %





Tab. D 1: Utilization of draft animal types for various work operations based on number of instances

1.3.3 Donkeys

Two-thirds of a total of 27 regions where the respondents mentioned the harnessing of donkeys in our survey are located in semihumid, arid or semiarid climatic zones. The remaining responses from the subhumid and humid climatic zones come exclusively from Latin America. However, in Brazil 95 % of the donkey population is found in the more arid northeast of the country (EMBRATER, 1986a). These figures point towards the good adaptation of the donkey to drier climates. Also, keeping donkeys in the wet climatic zones of Africa is limited by the intolerance to trypanosomiasis.

The weights of the animals were reported to be between 80 kg (Mali) and 220 kg (Brazil). Due to the lower absolute draft power the donkey is especially used for transportation (see table D 1). They are also utilized to a lesser extent for easy tasks, e.g. seeding and weed control. (e.g. Donkey traction in Senegal)

The cases in which seedbed preparation was mentioned with the donkey were primarily in semiarid areas (Niger, Senegal) where no plowing is performed and only the surface soils are worked. In spite of its high performance the donkey is preferred with the poorer population because of its low demands. For this reason and its acclaimed stubbornness it enjoys low repute. But, this saves it from theft, so that it can forage freely after working, thus saving feeding costs. In addition, the donkey is able to compensate poor fodder quality with greater quantity intake within a short time (Schwartz, 1987a).

1.3.4 Mules

Mules are more resistant than horses and require less fodder to accomplish the same amount of work (Morrison, 1951). "They pull more, are easily satisfied and forage on winter residues" (Quotation by a farmer in Paran, Brazil).

Thus, mules fetch double the price of horses in the Irat region (Brazil), although as a cross between donkey stallions and mares they are infecund, i.e. not reproductively prolific; with a lifespan of up to 35 years they can be economically used for approximately 25 years. Only information on the use of mules in Latin American countries, especially Brazil, was obtained for the survey (Mule traction in Ponta Grossa, Brazil). Animal weight was reported between 150 and 400 kg. Interestingly, in more than 2/3 of the cases reporting the use of mules, the donkey is no longer employed as a draft animal, but only serves the purpose of reproduction of mules in these regions. According to Lhoste (1986)

Ethiopia is the only country within tropical Africa where mules are actually being utilized. As table D 1 shows mules are employed in all work operations, as applies for the horse they are suited for seeding, weed control and transportation due to their faster pace. The low proportion of mules in seedbed preparation is generally attributed to the widespread occurrence of tractors, especially in the regions of Brazil where mules are commonly used. Here, plowing is often done with tractors in mixed mechanization systems. The subsequent seeding and weed control operations however are conducted with horses or mules.

1.3.5 Camels

Where the camel is kept in regions having rainfed cropping (e.g. India, Pakistan, northern Africa) it is employed for both soil cultivation and transportation (e.g. Camel traction for transportation in India) (Schwartz, 1987b).

For the camel (dromedary and bactrian) the problem arises that the pulling point is very high, which results in insufficient exploitation of draft power in fieldwork. In addition, even with improved types of harnesses a long span between animal and implement is necessary. Therefore, the animal is more difficult to control and a large turning radius must be negotiated, requiring more power input for the operator for turning. The more frequent use of camels with whim mills or transportation must be attributed to the fact that this aspect plays a lesser role (Schwartz, 1987a). In soil cultivation mixed teams are also often used (e.g. donkey and camel); the inability of the camel to walk in a straight line can be compensated for by another animal.

The advantages and disadvantages of animal types important for animal traction in the tropics and subtropics are summarized in table D 2. Buffalo are not taken into consideration as they are utilized chiefly in paddy cropping.

Cattle

Advantages:

- high endurance
- use of simple harness
- low fodder demands
- multiple use possible (meat, milk)
- trypanosomatolerant breeds
- draft cows: simpler training -own reproduction

Disadvantages:

- slow pace
- Draft cows: low draft power, working time loss during tile of calving

Horses

Advantages:

- more rapid pace
- intelligent
- high prestige value

Disadvantages:

- higher price
- demand of high quality fodder
- high husbandry demands
- complex harnessing required
- not appropriate for high attitudes
- not trypanosomatolerant
- no slaughtering value

Donkeys

Advantages:

- low purchasing price
- low fodder and husbandry
- high endurance and draft power in relation to body weight
- docile spirit
- well adapted to semiarid locations
- easy guiding under harness (often by children)
- sure-footed

Disadvantages:


- low status value
- low absolute draft power
- susceptible to harness sores
- not trypanosoma tolerant
- no slaughtering value

Mules

Advantages:

- low fodder and husbandry demands
- resistent constitution
- high draft power
- sure-footed
- rapid pace

Disadvantages:

- higher price
- not fecund
- not trypanosoma tolerant
- no slaughtering value

Camels

Advantages:

- well-adapted to arid and semi-arid locations
- low water requirements
- rapid working pace
- multiple use posibilities (milk; meat, wool)

Disadvantages:

- slow reproduction
- inappopriate draft angle due to height of animal
- poor guiding and manoeuvrability due to long harness span

Sources: Lindsay (1986), Reh (1981), Schwartz (1987b), Lhoste (1987), Dohrmann (1988)..Tab. D 2: Advantages and disadvantages of various animal types for animal traction

2. Procurement of draft animals

2.1 Prices of draft animals

India provides a good example of which factors influence the supply of draft animals. The transition from the hand hoe to the plow occurred parallel to the expansion an intensification of agriculture, triggered by population growth in the history of the country. The farmers required oxen- drawn plows for cultivating the heavy soils in the lower Ganges valley. Forests and pastures were continuously reduced to the advantage of arable areas, and due to the increasing pressure on the land the people were not able to afford eating meat. Harris (1988) attributes the existing prohibition of slaughtering cattle and eating beef in India primarily to the securing of draft oxen for agricultural purposes (compare also Lindsay, 1986). Thus, Hinduism, which did not always propagate the taboo on cattle, was first adopted by the masses of the Indian population -the poorer farmers - as a religion, when the Brahmans had made the forbiddance of slaughter and protection of cattle a principle.

According to the traditional understanding of the Indian farmer the primary task of a cow is the production of draft oxen. In addition, useful by-products of milk and manure become available. Still today the prohibition offers an effective protection, especially for smallholder agriculture. The religious ban prevents theft and the killing of cattle in periods of want. Moreover, without this taboo a market for cattle would necessarily develop, including the export market; this would cause prices for cattle to rise. Because of the greater profitability the fodder resources available to the presently protected cattle would be used to a larger extent for fattening cattle, and it would become even more difficult for the small farmers to rear, buy or hire draft animals. In an extreme case competition between fodder crops and food crops could ensue, necessarily leading to a reduction of the agricultural production volume. (Harris, 1988)

Following the argumentation of modern western animal husbandry it would naturally be more effective for preserving the Indian draft-animal population of 72.5 mil animals to keep a smaller quantity under optimized conditions and to rid themselves of a number of "unproductive and underfed" specimens. (Estimates yield a possible reduction of some 30 mil animals.) However, it must be taken into consideration that it is precisely these animals that are in the possession of the poorest farmers and they represent a substantial asset in their household budget. The "relative inproductivity" of these animals results in the final analysis from the fact that animals must be satisfied with a sub-optimal diet due to the small amount or lack of land of their owner. As a rule the animals forage freely along pathways and feed on wastes and residues. Even if such a cow merely calves every four or five years (eventually a bullcalf and thus a draft animal) and supplies a small amount of milk, it contributes therefore to the income of the household through the dung that is used as fuel. (Harris, 1988)
(Harris, 1988)

Prices in local currency Relationship


Oxen team

Purchasing price

Farm price Rice (mt)

Team Rice (mt)

India

1970

1,100 Rs

727 Rs

1: 1.5


1975

2,200 Rs

1,050 Rs

1: 2.1


1980

3,000 Rs

1,500 Rs

1: 2.0

Nepal

1970/71

1,300 Rs

2,360 Rs

1: 0.6


1975/76

1,600 Rs

3,420 Rs

1: 0.5


1977/78

2,000 Rs

3,700 Rs

1: 0.5

Pakistan

1970

4,000 Rs

525 Rs

1: 7.6


1975

7,000 Rs

1,000 Rs

1: 7.0


1978/79

10,000 Rs

1,225 Rs

1: 8.1

Thailand

1970

3000 baht

628 baht

1: 4.8


1975

10,000 baht

2,086 baht

1: 4.8


1979

16,000 baht

2,393 baht

1: 6.7

Indonesia

1979

900,000 Rps

195,000 Rps

1: 4.6

Source: APO (1983)

Tab. D 3: Prices for oxen teams in relationship to selling price of rice in some Asian countries

The purchasing price for oxen teams in Nepal and India, where the consumption of beef is forbidden according to the Hinduistic religion, is very low in comparison to other Asian countries (table D 3). If the demand for meat would become competitive to the use of oxen it would cause a scarcity and thus an increase in the price of the animals.

According to our survey frequently a much too high price for draft animals was mentioned as the decisive limiting factor for animal traction. 56 % of the respondents (44 out of 79) stated the high price for the animals as the primary occurring constraint (see figure C 20). The current degree of draft-animal distribution in the various regions or an already existing tradition of draft-animal use does not play a role here.

In countries with a longer tradition of draft animals as well as in countries with a more marked industrial sector it is as a rule the small farmer who employs animal traction. Particularly, they encounter financial difficulties in the procurement or replacement their stock of animals, while the more prosperous farmers are already converting to tractor technology.

Farm-size in ha

Proportion of all farms classification

Increase/ decrease of respective size in % use in %


1970

1980


Draft animals

0-10

21.1

24.6

+3.5

10-100

45.7

43.5

-2.2

100-1,000

33.8

29.0

-4.8

1,000-10,000

29.8

21.7

-8.1

> 10,000

23.3

16.2

-7.1

Tractors

0-10

2.4

15.7

+13.3

10-100

8.7

32.5

+23.8

100-1,000

15.9

41.4

+25.5

1,000-10,000

28.4

61.7

+33.3

> 10,000

47.3

73.7

+26.4

Source: according to IBGE (1975 and 1984)

Modification of utilization of animal and motorized draft power in Brazil according to farm-size classification

Table D 4 clearly depicts this development for Brazil. Animal draft power is used predominantly in both farm-size classes upto 100 ha (1980), whereby in the division 10 - 100 ha they are mainly smallholdings which keep draft animals. While with increasing farm size an increasing reduction of draft animals has been observed, the importance of motorized pulling power increases. In countries where animal traction is in its initial phases, usually due to the appropriate promotional measures, it is chiefly the most prosperous farmers who can apply these techniques. As table D 5 shows the farms with draft-animal mechanization have above average resource facilities, which makes it possible for them to generate an enormous capital investment relative to the use of the hand hoe; the animals are largely responsible for this factor.

Country

Acreage in %

Working family members

Sources

Farms without draft animals = 100 %

Malawi:




Central region

143

126

Nelles (1988)

Togo:




Central region

104

138

Strubenhoff (1988)

Savanna region

114

158

SOTOCO (1987)

Burkina Faso:




ORDE-region

153

134

Lassiter (1982) in Strubenhoff (1988)

Cameroon:




North-west region

164

101

Kirk (1987)

Tab. D 5: Relative resource facilities of farms with animal traction in various African countries.

In many studies it has also been determined that greater capital assets in the form of a large number of livestock exists on farms using animal traction (compare Kirk, 1987; Nelles, 1988; Strubenhoff, 1988). In the case of animals suited to harnessing (as a rule cattle) the possibility to recruit animals from one's own stock naturally furthers the idea of adopting the technique of animal traction since a lower amount of investment is necessary. In addition, on such farms knowledge of animal husbandry is already available and fewer "lessons" have to be learned than with the entirely new introduction of a concept.

2.2 Lack of draft animals

34 % of the respondents (27 out of 79) in the survey mentioned the lack of suitable draft animals as a constraint for animal traction (figure C 20). As with the problem of draft-animal prices no connection could be established between the degree of draft-animal distribution, a tradition with draft animals or the climatic zone. Whether it is an absolute lack of draft animals in the various cases or if the respondents merely consider the indigenous animals in a region to be unsuited for draft power could not be determined.

In practice however complaints are expressed regarding the animals' small frame and thus the low draft power of autochthonous cattle breeds. Especially the trypanotolerant breeds possess a small size and low weight (e.g. N'dama ca. 200 - 250 kg live weight). Starkey (1986b) considers the adaptiveness to the local conditions, especially with respect to feeding and risk of disease, to be more important than body size. As discussed in section D 1.2 the pulling power capacity of an animal is highly dependent on body weight but other features such as condition, type of work and supervision of teams also play an important role. Traditional experience in Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Indonesia have shown that small size or low weight need not be the excluding criteria for the use of local breeds (figure D 6). Without doubt the harnessing of breeds having lower draft power is connected with disadvantages and often with a greater investment. An unequivocal challenge is afforded technology to find adaptable equipment and appropriate types of harnessing. In Zimbabwe and Botswana up to six animals are sometimes harnessed together to accumulate the required draft power for plowing (figure D 7). In the opinion of Nsing (1989) the high investment for draft animals to supply the required draft power is however not necessary in Botswana. The large spans increase the worktime per unit area, since the animals are difficult to manage due to the long length of the span and the poor training. The farmers have in many cases both the necessary draft animals and the high prestige value. The potential of being able to work with large spans should therefore not be underestimated. Crosses between small local breeds and larger exotic breeds to increase pulling power is possible. This should be conducted cautiously and with consideration to the local conditions. A study, for example, on the suitability of crossings of local breeds and Holstein-Friesian or Jerseys in Bangladesh for use as work animals showed that crosses as opposed to local breeds achieved a greater pulling capacity and did not demonstrate any difficulty in adapting to the climate, but they were not adapted to the smallholder structures in Bangladesh. The greater requirement for nutrients of the large-frame crosses cannot be satisfied in practice under the local conditions. Furthermore, an exploitation of their increased draft power is not possible on the farms having small plots. Single harnessing is not practical since a single span must necessarily be longer than the traditional harnesses for teams.

Thus, the corners and headlands can no longer be plowed fully. (Mack et al., 1986). Aside from the supposed lack, because of the low pulling power capacity of autochtonous animals, an absolute lack of draft animals can result from:

- the total absence or a poor availability of suitable draft animals due to the absence of animal husbandry in the region,

- a separation of animal production and crop production in cases of poorly developed market structures,

- a demand excess for suitable animals e.g. because of a high demand for meat.

According to Pingali et al. (1987) the lack of draft animals in regions where draft-animal mechaniza tion can be effectively applied by farmers does not represent a long-term limiting factor for its introduction. Even in the best known example of a lack of animals due to the occurrence of tsetse fly in the humid zones of Africa a transition to animal traction in some areas has taken place as a consequence of increasing land-use intensity and the utilization of trypanotolerant breeds (e.g. in Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast). Naturally, the introduction in such areas is initially connected with greater investment (acquisition of animals, veterinary services, etc.) and more "lessons" for the farmers since most of them do not possess experience in handling and keeping large animals.

Also, a lack of draft animals due to poor market structures improves with a constant demand increase on its own in the long term; however, assistance measures to set up a marketing infrastructure accelerates the process. Thus, the strict differentiation between farmers who grow crops and those who keep animals is loosing in importance in Africa because of the settling of pastoral nomads. In the Sahel countries there is a lack of draft animals in many places, although this demand could be covered by local cattle stocks. The existence of cattle markets, in which the draft-animal user can search out precisely the desired animal from a wide supply to fit into his teams in terms of age, temperament and size play an important role here (Kirk, 1987). In the peripheral areas between crop growing and animal husbandry, in part increasing integration of animal husbandry in cropping is being observed (e.g. Senegal, South Mali); here draft-animal use assumes an initial function (Lhoste, 1987).

An absence of draft animals as a consequence of great demand for meat does not actually represent an absolute lack of animals, but rather it requires a greater capital investment for the procurement of animals due to the competition of these two directions of interest, as mentioned above. Because of a lack of capital for this investment expenditure this can mean an insurmountable obstacle for the smallholder farm to overcome on its own.

3. Feeding of draft animals

3.1 General considerations

The low performance of draft animals, due frequently to poor nutritional conditions, is mentioned as one of the primary problems of animal traction in the key sources. Also, in the survey in more than half the cases complaints were expressed regarding problems with feeding draft animals (figure C 20). In particular, during the season when field work begins the draft animals have just undergone the previous dry period when fodder is scarce in most regions and they are in the poorest condition

This problem is restricted neither to countries nor climatic zones, nor does it play a role whether animal traction has recently been introduced to a region (West Africa, East Africa) or if it has a century-long tradition (Ethiopia, Peru, East Africa).

Regarding the feeding method, 46 % of the respondents (80 instances) stated exclusive pasturing, while all others provided additional feedstuffs. Pasturing is conducted on natural vegetation (fallow, commons) as well as on harvested fields with residues. In no case was exclusive stall feeding mentioned. However, very little data was obtained through our survey concerning Asia, where very intensive systems of integrating animal husbandry by means of cropping exist. In Nepal, for example, stall feeding and zero grazing are widespread. Nevertheless, the animals are also pastured on fields after the harvest and only a few remain in the stalls the year round (Starkey and Apetofia, 1986).

With increasing land-use intensity and wider distribution of animal traction, which often occurs in parallel (see section C 4.1), there is a corresponding increase in the number of cases in which fodder is given in addition to pasturing. Figure D 9 shows the correlation. The percentages always indicate the share of cases providing supplementary feed, with reference to the total number of cases in the respective categories.

This trend is primarily attributed to:

- the decrease of pasture and fallow with increasing land use,
- the increasing numbers of draft animals competing for more scarce pastures.

While normally natural pastures, followed by harvest residues, play the greatest role in the nutrition of draft animals, this picture becomes considerably modified during the dry season

The most significant fodder sources here are the harvest residues. Very little nutrition is obtained from natural pastures due to the dryness. In several cases the forests are also stated as being natural pasture. On the other hand, more labour-intensive procedures of gaining fodder from fodder crops (mentioned were: napier grass, elephant grass, sugar cane), provision of hay and silage (e.g. pineapple silage in Thailand), as well as the additional purchasing of fodder are becoming more important. The category "additionally purchased fodder" also includes the marketable grain (maize, barley) produced by the farmers themselves and used for draft-animal feed.

The feeding of grain was only mentioned by the respondents from the countries of South and Central America, in which also horses and mules were often used for animal traction (e.g. Brazil, Mexico, Peru). Additional feeding of grain to horses is however also known in Africa, particularly in the Sahelian countries where horses are considered to be prestige objects (compare Reh, 1982). According to our survey the additional purchase of draft animal feedstuffs also occurs in the arid and semiarid climatic zones. It comprises especially agroindustrial by-products (oil cake, beer mash), but also relatively nutritious harvest residues, such as groundnut and nieb straw. Interestingly, in the responses from the African regions more intensive processes to meliorate the feedstuff supplies (pasture improvement) were not or were only seldom (fodder cropping) mentioned.

The degree and quality of additional feedstuff is also dependent on the intensity of draft-animal use and the type of animals. Horses, for example, as monogastrics cannot digest fibre-rich fodders as easily as ruminants and thus require energy-based high-value feedstuffs. In addition, with an increase in the duration of work time there is a correspondingly high energy requirement of the draft animal. They then have less time available for foraging. For this reason fodder concentrates must be supplied by human beings. This explains the provision of grain to draft animals in the above mentioned cases. Thus, the horses and mules predominantly used as draft animals in the state of Paran in Brazil are intensively used throughout the year. During the most strenuous period of seedbed preparation the supply of maize as concentrate is especially necessary. As during the dry season the modification of fodder resources with an increase of draft animal use is attributed to the scarcity of available fodder. An increasing land-use intensity favours the use of draft animals as mentioned above, so that with an increasing degree of distribution, the area of natural common pastures as well as fallow becomes scarce.

In order to keep the setting-up time low, it is necessary to locate the pastures in close proximity to the villages. And it is exactly these fields that are intensively cultivated. Serious competition exists for the available pastures with other animals that are kept in the villages (e.g. goats and sheep). Also, the available feedstuff potential of harvest residues must be divided among an increasing number of animals (not merely the draft animals). This compels the farmers to exploit additional fodder sources such as pasture improvement or the growing of fodder crops.

Moreover, the off-farm acquisition of fodder, mainly additional purchase, then becomes significant. Increasingly, a market for feedstuffs develops whereby:

- voluminous, but nutritious harvest residues and fodder plants (e.g. nieb or groundnut straw) become marketable,

- an increasing competition between human and animal nutrition can occur, both in terms of the product (e.g. grain feeding) as well as the area (fodder crops),

- a transition to an individualization of fodder provision is observed, and common grazing systems lose their importance.

The problem of draft-animal nutrition or extent of investment for fodder purchases vary, naturally, significantly, depending upon the condition at the respective location. The extremes shall now be elucidated on the basis of three case studies.

3.2 Case studies

The Irat region in Brazil (wet tropics)

The Irat region is located in the Brazilian state of Paran. A subtropic, constantly wet climate prevails with annual precipitation between 1300 and 1800 mm and an average annual temperature of 14 to 18° C. Animal traction on 57 % of the farms is a very high rate (Yu and Sereira, 1989). Long, sparse woods called faxinal, where the animals are kept and also the dwellings of the population, are found in the valleys of this region. Access to water plays a decisive role. Since the soils in the valleys are difficult to cultivate and are characterized by nutrient scarcity and an low pH value, the crops are predominantly grown on the slopes

The draft animals, mainly horses and mules, are kept either with the other farm animals on the faxinal or near the house on a smaller special meadow. Due to the constantly wet and temperate climate the animals have pastures available as a fodder source the year round. Only during the working period do they receive a small amount of additional fodder (4 - 5 cobs of maize per animal/day). Thus, the time and expenditure for obtaining feedstuffs is limited primarily to fencing and extensive management of these pastures. (Yu, 1988)

Northwest Cameroon (semihumid/semiarid tropics)

Kirk (1987) has described this region in detail. The average annual precipitation amounts to approximately 1000 mm with a definite rainy and dry season. Sorghum, millet and maize as well as groundnuts and beans are grown in a semi-permanent cropping system. The average farm comprises 2 ha. After the field work in the vegetation period the draft oxen used here are kept on natural pastures in close proximity to the village. But, since the land near the village is cultivated intensively, the next larger available natural pastures are several kilometers from the village. In order to avoid damage to the crops from foraging or trampling, older children are usually sent to do the tending. However, damage is caused nevertheless.

During the dry season the animals are normally kept in Fulani herds. More intensively used draft animals however remain on the pastures as close as possible to the village and are additionally given harvest residues. This requires a labour-intensive collection of fodder: collecting, transporting and storing of straw (groundnut, nieb, sorghum). Such harvest residues were formerly left on the fields and worked in as organic matter. Furthermore, they were made available to pastoral herds of the Fulani; this frequently leads to conflicts now. In direct relation to the animal performance however these fodder resources are not sufficient for the draft animals. Therefore, additional fodder resources (cottonseed cake, millet beer mash) must be obtained by means of purchase, which means further investment and competition between owners of oxen teams.

Aside from fodder acquisition, water supply for the animals during the dry season is a constraint, and particularly then when the owner of the draft animals is dependent on highly frequented public water sources for watering his animals. With a daily water requirement of ca. 40 l per animal this means going to the watering place up to three times per day; and this is usually done by children. Especially in the afternoons and evenings queues occur, so that a 2-hour time investment for supply ing water per team is a realistic figure.

Kirk (1987) estimates the investment for all work connected with animal husbandry to be an annual average of 0.5 labour units.

Bangladesh (humid-subhumid tropics)

On the average the annual rainfall in Bangladesh is 1250 to 2000 mm; the rainy season takes place from May to September. The country is the most densely populated in the world. Almost half the farms have less than 1 ha available. The main crop, rice, makes up 80 % of the total agricultural production. (Mack, 1985)

Ca. 3 head of cattle are kept per ha of arable land; their most important function is providing animal power. Because of the high population density there are practically no fallow fields. Animals are kept in simple stalls. Rice straw is dried and stored after the harvest and is available throughout the year as a basic fodder supply. In addition, fodder is cut by hand or collected, meaning a substantial time investment. Plants growing on bunds, between fields, on the yards and waysides, even the organic material from weeding is used for nutrients for the animals. During the preparation of the fields the animals are given agricultural by-products such as rice bran, oil cake and sugarcane residues. (Weniger and Schneichel, 1986)

Although here all potential fodder resources are apparently being exploited with an enormous labour investment, the low fodder availability in relation to high number of animals allows only the keeping of very small draft animals with a low body weight (ca. 230 kg). The animals are generally found to be in a poor nutritional condition. Growing fodder or catch crops to improve the fodder situation is not possible due to the small area of arable land available. (Mack, 1985)

3.3 Discussion

Compared with the intensive systems of integrating animal husbandry for growing crops in the densely populated Asian countries such as Bangladesh or Nepal, where the limits of fodder potential have already been reached, the provision of fodder is characterized as extensive, particularly in Africa and predominantly in Latin America. Resources such as fodder or catch crops as well as pasture improvement, whose use is rendered more difficult with increasing aridity, also the complete exploitation of harvest residues are often insufficiently taken advantage of. Nevertheless, in most regions the poor nutrition of the draft animals and the resulting low performance is mentioned as a problem. The question is then posed, whether this bottleneck is also recognized by the farmer or whether it only exists at the level of the specialists or technicians. Unfortunately, this survey was exclusively conducted with the development workers, experts and project collaborators as respondents. In contrast, in a survey carried out with 80 farmers in the Central region of Malawi 92.5 % were of the opinion that the condition of their very thin oxen at the beginning of the field work did not present a problem. Of the remaining 6 farmers who recognized this problem in part, only 2 suggested the solution of improved feeding; otherwise a shorter work period or the keeping of two teams of oxen was mentioned as a solution. (Nelles, 1988)

That the farmers did not recognize the relationship between draft power and weight or nutritional condition is probably possible in Malawi, if also improbable, where animal traction was only introduced a few years ago. In countries having a century-long tradition of animal traction this conclusion is quite unrealistic. Reh (1981) attributed the poor fodder condition of draft animals to the lack of knowledge of the farmers about the nutritional requirement of the animals, as well as the nutritional value, the required amount and availability of local fodder. This may apply for a newcomer to the field of animal husbandry, but it contradicts the information found in practice. How could the fact be explained that e.g. in Mali a horse considered to be a prestige object is well fed as rule while the draft oxen of the same farmer are found to be in a deficient state. The farmers, on the other hand, act according to the principle of input minimization. The low performance of draft animals is simply accepted for the minimal investment in the provision of fodder. If this investment is reduced, the possibility of an improved fodder supply of the animals is then exploited. In 1987, for example, a subsidization of cottonseed cake led to a considerable improvement of feedstuff conditions of draft animals (Mungroop, 1988), an increase of farm income in the cotton belt in Burkina Faso had the same effect (Bonnet et al., 1988). Generally, however well-fed animals are primarily found on research stations and in projects

In summary, it can be stated that with increasing land-use intensity and distribution of draft animals as well as with an increasingly drier climate the investment for providing feedstuffs and finally also for water supplies for the animals is expanding. Since draft animals are as a rule taken care of by family members (often children) this leads to an increasing workload especially for the family labour forces. Moreover, the time investment for feeding draft animals varies with the intensity of use of the draft animals. An increasing use of the animals requires also an increasing share of additional high-value fodder. This stretches to the point of using feed concentrates or grain. Increasing demand leads to higher prices for feedstuffs; differences in the distribution of property and income are increasingly important for the application of animal traction (Kirk, 1987).

Compared with the intensive systems of integrating animal husbandry for growing crops in the densely populated Asian countries such as Bangladesh or Nepal, where the limits of fodder potential have already been reached, the provision of fodder is characterized as extensive, particularly in Africa and predominantly in Latin America. Resources such as fodder or catch crops as well as pasture improvement, whose use is rendered more difficult with increasing aridity, also the complete exploitation of harvest residues are often insufficiently taken advantage of. Nevertheless, in most regions the poor nutrition of the draft animals and the resulting low performance is mentioned as a problem. The question is then posed, whether this bottleneck is also recognized by the farmer or whether it only exists at the level of the specialists or technicians. Unfortunately, this survey was exclusively conducted with the development workers, experts and project collaborators as respondents.

In contrast, in a survey carried out with 80 farmers in the Central region of Malawi 92.5 % were of the opinion that the condition of their very thin oxen at the beginning of the field work did not present a problem. Of the remaining 6 farmers who recognized this problem in part, only 2 suggested the solution of improved feeding; otherwise a shorter work period or the keeping of two teams of oxen was mentioned as a solution. (Nelles, 1988)

That the farmers did not recognize the relationship between draft power and weight or nutritional condition is probably possible in Malawi, if also improbable, where animal traction was only introduced a few years ago. In countries having a century-long tradition of animal traction this conclusion is quite unrealistic. Reh (1981) attributed the poor fodder condition of draft animals to the lack of knowledge of the farmers about the nutritional requirement of the animals, as well as the nutritional value, the required amount and availability of local fodder. This may apply for a newcomer to the field of animal husbandry, but it contradicts the information found in practice. How could the fact be explained that e.g. in Mali a horse considered to be a prestige object is well fed as rule while the draft oxen of the same farmer are found to be in a deficient state. The farmers, on the other hand, act according to the principle of input minimization. The low performance of draft animals is simply accepted for the minimal investment in the provision of fodder. If this investment is reduced, the possibility of an improved fodder supply of the animals is then exploited. In 1987, for example, a subsidization of cottonseed cake led to a considerable improvement of feedstuff conditions of draft animals (Mungroop, 1988), an increase of farm income in the cotton belt in Burkina Faso had the same effect (Bonnet et al., 1988). Generally, however well-fed animals are primarily found on research stations and in projects

In summary, it can be stated that with increasing land-use intensity and distribution of draft animals as well as with an increasingly drier climate the investment for providing feedstuffs and finally also for water supplies for the animals is expanding. Since draft animals are as a rule taken care of by family members (often children) this leads to an increasing workload especially for the family labour forces. Moreover, the time investment for feeding draft animals varies with the intensity of use of the draft animals. An increasing use of the animals requires also an increasing share of additional high-value fodder. This stretches to the point of using feed concentrates or grain. Increasing demand leads to higher prices for feedstuffs; differences in the distribution of property and income are increasingly important for the application of animal traction (Kirk, 1987).

4. Methods of keeping draft animals

Corresponding to the information given in the previous section, in which pure stall feeding occurred in none of the cases, exclusive stall keeping was not mentioned in regards to the housing for draft animals. (figure D 16)

Fig. D 16: Methods of keeping draft animals conc. stall keeping (numbers out of total no of instances 79)

All day

0

At night

27

Sometimes at night

5

Seasonal

4

No

43

No relationship exists between the type of housing and the already existing draft-animal tradition, whereby it must be taken into consideration that very few questionnaires were available for the Asian region. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where animal traction had been introduced with the support of promotion agencies, the answer "stall keeping depending upon acceptance of the extension services" was marked.

Generally, a stall should fulfil the following functions:

- protection of the animals from the weather (rain, sun),
- good drainage,
- acceptable hygienic conditions,
- protection from theft and wild animals,
- assurance of an optimal exploitation of given feedstuffs,
- collection of manure.

In the densely populated countries of Asia, where stall keeping plays a decisive role, the last two functions listed are important due to the scarcity of land. Starkey and Apetofia (1986) reported on Nepal that collecting fodder involves much labour and a decision must always be taken between this option and tending or construction of fences; nevertheless, the collection of dung in conjunction with stall feeding is highly regarded.

Similar to the full exploitation of fodder resources the use of manure in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America is extensive, in comparison to highly populated countries of Asia. Collection and storage of dung is not carried out everywhere and is thus connected with a high loss of nutrients. Because of a lack of transport possibilities (carts, suitable paths) the spreading of manure is only done mostly on fields near the farmyard and for garden manure. The efficient use of natural nutrient cycles and therefore the degree of integration of animal husbandry in cropping can also be measured according to the method of keeping animals.

Accordingly, the housing for draft animals in Africa is very elementary in practice, as opposed to the high demands of the recommendations placed by the extension services (e.g. stalls with roofs and manure storage). The variants reach from tethering under a tree or keeping animals under a simple straw roof in close proximity to the yard, to keeping animals in a corral overnight (eg in East and South Africa)

The prestige value of the animals also plays a role. While a donkey requires a minimum of care, horses receive considerably more attention in this respect. Usually children are given the task of feeding and removing wastes from draft animals. Keepers of draft animals in the overlapping areas of animal production and crop production profit from specialization in terms of a division of labour by accommodating their animals with extensively keep herds during the dry season. Thus, the labour investment is seasonally eliminated.

5. Training and utilization of draft animals

In the countries having a long tradition of animal traction the management of the team is undertaken by one person alone. In contrast, where draft-animal mechanization has been recently introduced two or three persons are required for managing the animals on the field. This is an important relationship. No defined timespan was given in the survey for the question on the tradition of animal traction in the respective regions. In many Sub-Saharan countries (Botswana, Chad) the introduction of draft animals occurred in part during the colonial period. In comparison with regions having a century-long draft-animal tradition there are considerable differences regarding the number of persons participating in the work with animal teams. All the cases reporting that three people were required and also half the cases requiring two person originated from African areas. Usually children are hired to control the animals.

The low requirement of persons per team in traditionally long draft-animal regions has less to do with a better technical array of equipment; more important is the close contact between man and animal and the resulting more appropriate training for the animals. Field work in Nepal, for example, is accomplished without any kind of reins; the animals are simply given directions vocally (Starkey and Apetofia, 1986). It must be mentioned that the draft animals also remain in close contact with human beings during low-labour seasons because of the feeding and husbandry methods; in part they are used throughout the whole year.

On the other hand, in the Sub-Saharan regions the work with animals is limited to the vegetation period. In other seasons animal husbandry is carried out extensively. Then, the animals tend to become "wild" again, as they are poorly trained, especially if they are placed with herds. Kirk (1987) reports from North Cameroon that the draft animals must be retrained prior to the working season. Frequently, this preparation is omitted, since the teams are managed by two persons and the farmers are now in a position on the basis of their experience to select more subdued animals at the time of purchase.

With an increase in the annual duration of utilization the training condition of the animals improves, and an increasing number of work operations are carried out, which require an exact output by the animals, such as seeding and weed control. In Brazil in regions with increasing motor mechanization the seeding and tending of the crops is done with draft animals; the teams are controlled by only one person (eg Weed control in close bean rows in South Brazil with single-harnessed animals guided by one person). In cases where a further person is employed to guide the animals, this is done merely to accelerate the time-consuming process of turning the teams at the end of the field (Faster turning of the team with a second person during weed control in South Brazil).

The greater the investment in the training of the draft animals and the more experience the animals possess, the higher is their value. In addition, close ties often exist between the owner and the draft animals. This furthers a longest possible working life of the animal, which can end with the death of the animals from old age.

Generally, in the determination of the working life of the animals the following factors play a role (according to Bonnet, Guibert et al., 1988):

- the availability of younger animals suited for harnessing,

- the increasing resistance to disease with increasing age of the animals,

- the investment for training the animals and/or the demands of the owner on the degree of training of the animal,

- the demand for meat of the respective animal type in the region.

While the returns for draft animals such as donkeys, whose meat is not eaten, increase progressively with their working life, a high demand for beef can cause the duration of utilization for draft cattle to be reduced.

In contrast to herded cattle in the Sine-Saloum region in Senegal, draft animals receive more intensive feeding and better veterinary services. Thereby, they achieve a better weight development and heavier carcasses for slaughter. (Reh, 1982) Animals are scarce due to the high demand for meat.

Young animals already begin training from the age of two years for draft power. This leads to a better exploitation of fodder resources; however, if the animals are only utilized for approximately three years until slaughter the draft oxen have not reached their full draft power potential. (Lhoste, 1986) This aspect hardly plays a role however, since no heavy plowing is done in this region because of the short vegetation period and the light soils.

In summary, the high investment for training the draft animals must be weighed against an intensive use of meat and the connected short duration of utilization of the draft cattle. In addition, the increased demand for meat near the consumer centres simultaneously increases the risk of theft; whereby, more docile trained animals are easier to steal than untrained (Bonnet, Guibert et al., 1988). For poorly trained animals and a brief annual duration of their utilization, on the other hand, a sufficient availability of labour is necessary for managing work operations.

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