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CLOSE THIS BOOKLivestock and Poultry Production (IIRR, 1992, 106 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMessage
VIEW THE DOCUMENTWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTList of participants
Current program thrusts in upland development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSimple agro-livestock technology (SALT-2)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntensive feed garden
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCharacteristics of forage grasses for IFG
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPlant-based livestock medication
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSmall-scale cattle production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTForced-feeding technology (including Batangas cattle-fattening system)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNative pig production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPig-feed garden
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLow-cost goat housing
VIEW THE DOCUMENTImproving the native chicken
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFamily Backyard Poultry project
VIEW THE DOCUMENTHow to raise ducks
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNative bee production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOn-farm fodder sources in agroforestry (trees and grasses)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOff-farm fodder sources in agroforestry (trees and grasses)

Native pig production

Native pigs are important sources of income, food and manure on small farms. Native pigs are sold to friends and neighbors, used during special occasions or serve as a profitable part-time job for family members. These pigs are considered sturdy and are more resistant to various hog diseases. They can survive on kitchen wastes and farm-grown feeds or farm by-products.

Backyard swine raisers may prefer to raise native pigs than the imparted breeds of swine mainly due to the scarcity of capital resources to purchase initial stock and to build a house/pen and to provide commercial feeds.

Table 3. Comparison.



UPGRADED

PURE BREED

Age (from birth to market) native

7-9 months

7 months

4.5-5.5 months

Carcass weight

40 kilos

50 kilos

60-70 kilos

Low-cost housing/pen of native pigs

Considerations:

1. Site - Elevated, near water source

2. Orientation - East to west orientation; with this type of orientation, floor of the pen is kept dry.

3. Roofing materials - Cogon, nipa, used G.l. sheets

4. Flooring materials

a. Cement

- Thickness: 3.5-4" (88.9-102 mm)
- Preparation: 1 part cement, 3 parts gravel, 2.5 parts sand, 2/3 parts water

b. Wood slabs c. Bamboo

5. Space requirement for two heads of pigs: 2 sq m

6. Sidings: bamboo

Note: Gliricidia and Leucaena are not applicable since these could be eaten up by the pigs.

Height of sidings:

36" (914 mm) for fatteners and breeders
30" (762 mm) for weanlings and starters

7. Feeding and watering trough materials used:

a. cement
b. wood
c. bamboo
d. halved-tire



Low-cost housing/pen of native pigs

Feeds and Feeding

Common ways of preparing feeds

1. Grinding

This would depend on the age of the animal to be fed. Young animals do not have fully developed digestive system, hence, there is a need for grains to undergo the process.
Example: Corn

2. Cooking

Through this process, the feeding value of some feed stuff is increased. Likewise, calcium oxalate which causes itchiness is destroyed.
Examples: Beans and gabi

Table 4. Feeding management.

Weight

No. of Feeding time

Feeding

Average



System

Daily Intake

10 kgs (12.2 Ibs)

4x a day

Dry feeding

1-2 kgs a day

45 kgs (99 lbs)

3x a day

Wet feeding

2.2 kgs a day

55 kgs (121 lbs)

2-3x a day

Wet feeding

2.5 kgs a day

Considerations:

1. The number of feeding time presented would minimize feed wastage.

Note: Decrease the amount of feed given to animals with diarrhea.

2. Dry feeding is recommended for starters since they still have less feed intake; that way, spoilage of feeds is minimized.

Table 5. Examples of Feedstuff for native pigs


Parts used

A. Protein sources

1. Madre de Cacao

Leaves, stems,


Gliricidia sepium

flowers, fruits


Kakawat


2. Ipil-ipil

Leaves, stems,


Leucaena leucocephala

flowers, fruits

3. Cowpea

Leaves, stems,


Visna sinensis

flowers, fruits


Paayap


4. Hyacinth bean

Leaves, stems,


Dolichos lablab

flowers, fruits


Batao


B. Energy sources

1. Corn

Grain


Zea mays



Mais


2. Cassava

Root


Manihot esculenta



Kamoteng kahoy, balinghoy


3. Sweet potato

Root


Ipomoea batatas



Kamote


4. Taro

Root


Colocasia esculenta



Gabi


5. Ubi

Tuber


Dioscora alata



Ubi


6. Arrow root

Root


Maranta arudinacea



Uraro


7. Tugul

Root


Dioscorea esculenta


C. Vitamin and mineral sources


1 Malunggay

Leaves, stems, flowers, fruits


Moringa oleifera



Malunggay, kalunggay


2. Amaranth

Leaves


Amaranthas spinosus



Uray, kulitis


3. Sweet potato

Leaves, vines


Impomea batatas



Kamote


4. Gabi

Leaves, petiole


Colocassia esculenta


D. Water sources


1. Sweet potato

Leaves, stems,


Ipomea batatas

flowers


Kamote


2. Kangkong (upland)

Leaves, stems


Ipomea aquatica


Table 6. Examples of Feed Rations.

Starter (18% CP)

Grower to fattener


(14-16% CP)

1. Rice bran (D1) - 5.4 kgs. Com bran - 4.6 kgs

Rice bran - 7.2 kgs sapal - 2.8 kgs

2. Midlings - 6.3 kgs Com gluten - 3.6 kgs

2. Kamote (roots) - 5.0 kgs Ipil (leaves) - 5.0 kgs


3. Cassava (roots) - 3.2kgs Rice bran - 6.8 kgs


4. Com bran - 3.0 kgs Mollases - 2.0 kgs


Tugui (roots) -1.5 kgs


Fish washings -1.0 kgs


Ipil (Leaves) - 2.5 kas

Table 7. Native pig diseases and Their Common causes and treatment

Disease

Transmission

Signs/symptoms

Treatment

A. Bacterial




1. Swine

Dirty feeds, water and pen

Acute form - lameness, vomiting, diarrhea, reddening of skin in thighs and abdomen

Decoction of guava or caimito leaves

Erysipelas

Nose

Chronic form - recurring lameness

Penicillin Streptomycin


Open wounds

Urticarial form - fever, anorexia, reddening of skin in abdomen, inner thighs, chest and back (diamond-shape)


2. Colibacillosis

Dirty feeds and water

Whitish to yellowish diarrhea

Decoction of guava or caimito leaves


Unsanitary condition of peo

Anorexia

Coco juice


Spoiled feedstuff

Swollen eyelids

Antibiotic




Trimethoprim




Sulfa preparation

B. Viral

Diseases due to virus are difficult to treat. There is no specific medication to combat the disease. Antibiotics, vitamins and minerals are given to fight secondary bacterial infections.

1. Hog cholera

Contact with discharges from sick pig

Vascular discharge

Serum


Dirty feeds, water and pen

High fever

Vitamin and minerals



Diarrhea, then constipation

Tetracycline




Coco juice

2. Foot and mouth disease

Contact with discharges from sick pig

Drooling of saliva

Gentian violet saturated with alum



Anorexia (inappetence)



Vesicles in mouth, hooves and udder


C. Parasitic

1. Mange/Scabies

Contact with infested pigs

Frequent scratching

Apply used motor oil all over the belly



Alopecia (hair loss)

Extracts of kakawati



Untriftiness



Thickening of skin


2. Lice (oflenly seen in less hairy areas of the body

Contact with infested pigs

Unthriftiness

Raw seeds of kakawati


Voracious eater but poor feed conversion

Thick, rough hair

Raw seeds of ipil-ipil



Raw seeds of squash


Note: Preparation and application of herbal medicines are presented in Plant-based Livestock Medication, Booklet No. 4.

Table 8. Vaccination program for native pigs

Vaccine

First dose

Next dose

1. Hog cholera

45 days old

after 6 months

2. FMD

1-2 months

after 6 months

Note: Consider disease indicence in the area as to which vaccine would ho given first

Table 9. Herbal medicine

Plant

Parts used

Indication

Preparation

1. Sambong Blumea balsamifera

Leaves

Colds

Boil leaves in water. Give 0.5-1.0 liter as drench 2x a day for 1-5 days.



Fever




Diarrhea


2. Ipi-ipil

Seeds

Roundworms

Grind and mix seeds into 5-8 oz of water. Given as drench.

Leucaena leucocephala
Note: This is contraindicated with pregnant sows/gilt.

3. Squash

Seeds

Tapeworms

Mix raw seeds in feeds.

Cucurbita maxima




4. Starapple Chrysophyllum cainito

Leaves

Diarrhea

Boil 1 kg of leaves in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes Give 1 cup 2x a day for 1-3 days

5 Saba Musa sapientum

Leaves

Diarrhea

Chop leaves and mix with feeds.

6 Madre de Cacao Gliricidia sepium

Seeds

Roundworms

Mix seeds with feeds.

7 Malunggay Moringa oleifera

Leaves

Anemia

Give 1 cc extract for day old pigs, once 9 day for 3-5 days (if necessary).

8. Guava
Psidium guajava

Leaves

Diarrhea

Boil leaves and give 1-2 glasses of decoction 2-3x a day for 1-2 days.

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