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CLOSE THIS BOOKCrops and Cropping Systems (IIRR, 1992, 43 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMessage
VIEW THE DOCUMENTProceedings of the workshop
VIEW THE DOCUMENTList of participants
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCurrent program thrusts in upland development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCropping systems: an overview
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFiber crops and technologies
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRoot crops for food, feed and income
VIEW THE DOCUMENTUpland rice cultivation with agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntercropping under residual or logged-over areas
VIEW THE DOCUMENTRice paddy in upland areas

Root crops for food, feed and income

WHY ROOT CROPS?


FIG. 1. Rootcrops

· Can grow over a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.

· The leaves can also be used as foods/feeds (except for arrowroot).

· Easy to grow, good staple and easy to prepare as food.

· Planting material does not compete as food source (except for ubi/tugui).

· Long-harvest duration. Produce can stay in the ground long without much decline in quality.

· Availability of simple processing technologies provided for increase crop value and decreased risk of crop perishability of production surplus.


FIG. 1. Processing and utilization of root crops

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SITE REQUIREMENTS AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF FIVE MAJOR ROOT CROPS

CASSAVA

Manihot esculenta

Kamoteng-kahoy, kalibre, balinghoy

Soil Requirement

Sandy to clay good internal drainage

Light Requirement

Full sunlight, yield reduced by shading

Water Requirement

At least 1000 mm/season with less later in the season

Land Preparation

Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing

Planting Materials

At least 8 mo old, 20-30 cm long with 5 nodes or more and free from pests

Time for Planting Onset of the rainy season
Planting Method

Singly, vertically buds up, 113 below the ground on the ridge

Spacing

60-100 cm between rows and between hills

Weed Control

Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2 months after planting.

Harvesting

Depends on need/situation but optimum time is about 10 most Harvest only the amount that can be used/disposed within 3 days.

Shelf-life

Can last for one week if basal part of root is not injured

Cropping Systems

Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Can also be intercropped.

Special Features

Cut the plant about knee high under storm signal #2 and plants more than 1 m in height. Old plants can be rejuvenated by pruning and allowing regrowth. These also serve as live fence for corn and upland rice (tribal practice).

SWEET POTATO

Ipomoea batatas

Kamoteng-baging, kamote

Soil Requirement

Sandy to clay with good infernal drainage

Light Requirement

Full sunlight, yield reduced by shading

Water Requirement

At least 400 mm/season with less later in the season

Land Preparation

Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing

Planting Materials

Terminal vine cutting 25-35 cm long with at least 5 nodes and free from pests

Time for Planting

Onset and/or towards end of rainy season

Planting Method

Singly, vertically, 1/2 buried on ridge during rainy season and in furrow towards dry season

Spacing

75-100 cm between rows and 20-30 cm between hills

Weed Control

Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first month of growth. Hill-up one month after planting.

Harvesting

Depends on need/situation but optimum time is about a month. Avoid injuring the roots for longer shelf-life.

Shelf-life

Can last for two weeks to four months depending on variety

Cropping Systems

Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Not advisable for intercropping, very competitive

Special Features

Can be pruned of shoot tips (10 cm) during first month of growth for vegetable vine lifting for those with lateral roots can increase yield of main roots

TARO/YAUTIA

Colocasia esculenta/Xanthosoma sagittifolium

Gabi, gabing San Fernando, Takudo

Soil Requirement

Sandy to clay with good internal drainage and with high organic matter

Light Requirement

Can tolerate shading up to 25 percent

Water Requirement

At least 1500 mm/season uniformly distributed

Land Preparation

Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing

Planting Materials

Upper 1-2 cm corm plus lower 20-25 cm petiole weighing 100-200 9 and free from pests; sucker for yautia

Time for Planting

Onset of rainy season

Planting Method

Singly in furrows about 10 cm deep

Spacing

75 cm between rows and 50 cm between hills

Weed Control

Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hil-up 2 months after planting.

Harvesting

Depends on the need/situation but the optimum time is about 9 months for Colocasia (true gabi) and one year for Xanthosoma. Avoid injuring corms for longer shelf life.

Shelf-life

Can last for two weeks with part of petiole attached

Cropping Systems

Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Can be planted with other crops like trees/annual crops

Special Features

Removal of suckers/rhkomes for colocasia increased yield of mother plants mulching contribute to better weed control

ARROWROOT

Maranta arundinacea

Uraro

Soil Requirement

Sandy to clay with good internal drainage

Light Requirement

50 percent shading to full sunlight

Water Requirement

At least 1500 mm/season uniformly distributed

Land Preparation

Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing

Planting Materials

Suckers and rootbits about 10-20 9

Time for Planting
Onset of rainy season

Planting Method

Singly, vertically on the furrow about 10 cm deep

Spacing

75 cm between rows and 30-50 cm between hills

Weed Control

Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2 months after planting.

Harvesting

Depends on the need/situation but optimum time is about 10 months. Avoid injuring rhizomes for longer shelf-life.

Shelf-life

Can be stored for one month

Cropping Systems

Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals and can be planted under trees

Special Features

No pests observed, not eaten even by goats, flour is first class, good for children and convalescent

GREATER YAW/LESSER YAM

Dioscorea alata/D. esculenta

Ubi/Tugui

Soil Requirement

Sandy to clay with good internal drainage and with high organic matter content

Light Requirement

Can tolerate shading up to 25 percent

Water Requirement

At least 1000 mm/season with less later in the season

Land Preparation

Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing

Planting Materials

Whole or sliced presprouted tubers 100-250 9 for ubi and 100-150 9 for tugui (whole only) free from pests

Time for Planting

Onset of rainy season and when dormancy is broken

Planting Method

Singly on ridges about 10-15 cm deep

Spacing

100 cm between rows and 50-75 cm between hills

Weed Control

Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2-3 months after planting.

Harvesting

Depends on the need/situation but the optimum time is about 7 months when leaves start falling. For tugui, basal leaves appear yellowish when mature. Avoid injuring tubers for longer shelf-life.

Shelf-life

From 3-5 months depending on variety

Cropping Systems

Same as for gabi

Special Features

Needs trellis for good production. Horizontal trellis adviseable for areas frequented by typhoons; mulching also good for weed control.

TABLE 1. USES OF ROOTCROPS AS FEEDS FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS.

CROP



ANIMALS


Swine

Poultry

Ducks

Goat

Carabao/Cattle

Cassava and sweet potato

Raw leaves, dried ground leaves, raw/cooked roots, dried ground roots

Dried ground leaves, dried ground root

Dried root chips, raw roots, dried ground leaves

Raw leaves, raw roots, dried root chips

Raw leaves, raw roots, dried root chips

Gabi

Sliced and cooked leaves and corms

Dried ground corms

Dried ground corms

-

-

Ubi/Tugui

Cooked tubers, dried ground tubers

Dried ground tubers

Dried tuber chips

Dried tuber chips, raw leaves

Dried tuber chips

Arrowroot

Cooked rhizomes

Dried ground rhizomes

Dried ground rhizomes

Dried rhizome chips

Dried rhizome chips

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