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CLOSE THIS BOOKTrees and their Management (IIRR, 1992, 195 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMessage
VIEW THE DOCUMENTProceedings of the workshop
VIEW THE DOCUMENTList of participants
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCurrent program thrusts in upland development
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTrees and their management
VIEW THE DOCUMENTSustainable agroforest land technology (Salt-3)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTOutplanting seedlings
VIEW THE DOCUMENTTree pruning and care
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBagging of young fruits
VIEW THE DOCUMENTEstablishing bamboo farms
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPhilippine bamboo species: Their characteristics, uses and propagation
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGrowing rattan
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGrowing anahaw
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGrowing buri
VIEW THE DOCUMENTShelterbelts
VIEW THE DOCUMENTBank stabilization
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAssessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTA guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFruit trees for harsh environments
VIEW THE DOCUMENTCitrus production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTJackfruit production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMango production
VIEW THE DOCUMENTMiddle to high understory shade tolerant crops
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLow understory shade-tolerant crops
VIEW THE DOCUMENTConserving available fuelwood

Assessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry

Many farmers and extension workers would like to test and promote indigenous or locally adapted tree species, but there is often little information available to them about some of these species.

Locally adapted species are attractive, because the plant material is readily available for propagation from seed, cuttings or wildlings. Because introduced species are not adapted to local pests and diseases, indigenous species may present a lower risk to the farmers. Another reason for using indigenous species is to maintain biological diversity within agroecosystems.


Assessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry

These materials were prepared to provide some guidelines to assessing the potential of indigenous species for use in agroforestry systems. However, these guidelines could be applied to assessing introduced species as well.

Trees are useful because they furnish a certain product that is valued or because they perform a function that is needed. Some trees provide a combination of products and functions although no one species fulfills all the possibilities that are listed below. In assessing a species' potential usefulness for agroforestry, keep in mind the objectives and needs of the farm household. Trade-offs between benefits are usually necessary; therefore, a combination of species often provides best results.

Some of the products from trees include:

· wood (for house and pen construction, bridges, boats, carts, fuelwood, furniture, poles, fencing, packing crates, barrels, pulp, tools, implements, handicrafts and musical instruments);

· livestock fodder (from leaves, fruits, seeds);

· food for human consumption (fruits, nuts, spices, greens);

· medicines (from bark, fruits, seeds, roots, leaves, flowers);

· green manures (from clippings of leaves and small stems); and,

· industrial raw materials (gums, resins, dyes, oils).

Some of the functions of trees include:

· stream bank and watershed protection;

· soil conservation (contour hedgerows or strips);

· soil improvement (N-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil microclimate amelioration);

· shade (around houses, bordering paths and roads, etc.) or as nurse tree for coffee and cacao;

· shelterbelts/windbreaks or firebreaks;

· live fencing;

· live trellis (for black pepper, vanilla, betel leaf, ampalaya);

· insect management: bee forage (Calliandra calothyrsus, Ceiba petandra); silk production (Morus); butterfly farming and, ornamental value and spiritual value.

ASSESSING THE USEFULNESS OF INDIGENOUS TREES FOR FUELWOOD

A good fuelwood has these qualities:

It is easy to light and keep going, especially if used in a wood-burning stove. Wood that will bum when green or wet is especially useful.

It bums well but not too quickly. Many softwoods (like pine) bum up quickly, resulting in more wood being consumed.

It bums down into coals that retain their heat for slow, even cooking or for heating houses.

The stems are not too thick or can be easily split. Wood that is very hard or has interlocking grain is difficult to split into small pieces to fit in a woodburning stove.

It can be used to make charcoal. Charcoal is easier to transport than wood so fuelwood that is to be sold is often converted into charcoal first.

It does not produce irritating smoke, unpleasant odors or give a peculiar taste to food cooked over it. Some people do not like Eucalyptus for fuelwood even though it bums well, because they think it makes food taste funny.

See Properties of Some Fuelwood Species on pages 181-191 for more information.


A good tree for producing fuelwood has these qualities:

· is fast-growing and has a high yield of woody biomass;

· sprouts back vigorously after cutting. Some species sprout best if they are cut near the base of the stem while other species are cut higher (1-2 m above ground). Wood can be harvested repeatedly from trees that have a good sprouting ability, without destroying or having to replant the tree.

· is adapted even to less fertile, drier or thinner soils than those used for more valuable agricultural crops; and,

· is multipurpose: has some other products or functions besides fuelwood.

Assessing the usefulness of indigenous trees for live fencing


Assessing the usefulness of indigenous trees for live fencing

The best live fences are often made up of a combination of several species, such as bamboos, shrubs and vines

Species with thorns, spines, nettles or irritating late' are especially good for fencing out livestock.

The plants should form a dense hedge. Often, it i' necessary to prune the stems to encourage stump sprouting and branchiness.

The stems should be usable as living fenceposts and be able to tolerate some damage from nails and wire if wire fencing is used.

Plants that can be propagated from branch cuttings (e.g., Madre de cacao) and that can be rooted in place will produce a live fence quickly. If the plant cannot be propagated from cuttings, sufficient quantities of viable seed should be available for direct seeding.

The leaves and stems should be non-palatable to livestock.

The live fence species should not spread easily into pastures or cultivated fields.

Fire-resistant species (like Gmelina) should be used if possible.

Layering and lattice techniques can be used to make live fences more impenetrable.


Live fence planted using cuttings.

ASSESSING THE USEFULNESS OF INDIGENOUS TREES FOR LIVESTOCK FODDER


Trees and shrubs that are suited for fodder have these characteristics:

· The fodder is palatable and digestible. If livestock will not eat the fodder or if they cannot digest it, K does not matter how nutritious it is.

· Contains no toxins.

· Is suitable for a variety of livestock.

· The leaves, fruits or seeds are nutritious with a highprotein content.

· The plants can withstand frequent pruning.

· They produce leaves year-round and are droughttolerant.

· The ratio of leaf to woody biomass production is high.

· The stems and leaves have no thorns, bristles, nettles or irritating latex.

Often, trees and shrubs that are useful as fodder crops are not suited as live fencing species and vice-versa.

ASSESSING THE USEFULNESS OF INDIGENOUS TREES FOR INTERCROPPING

Agroforestry often involves intercropping of trees or shrubs with annual or herbaceous species. Some of the features to consider in terms of their suitability for intercropping are:

· Type of root structure

Some wood plants have roots that grow deep into the earth and draw water and nutrients from far below the surface. These trees are especially suited for intercropping because they do not compete with shallow-rooted annual crops that draw most of their water and nutrients from the top soil.

Although shallowrooted species may not be as suited for intercropping, they are often useful for erosion control because their roots help bind the soil. On farms with very steep slopes, these species can be used for soil conservation. Some species form roots both close to the surface as well as in deeper soil layers.


Type of root structure

Effects of Trees on Soil and Water Conservation

Tree roots help to anchor and stabilize soil. Leaf litter and humus that build up under tree stands allow water to percolate into the lower soil layers. Ground cover vegetation under the trees can also contribute to leaf litter and humus build-up and can help to prevent soil loss. Some tree species seem to inhibit understory ground cover by secreting substances into the soil that are toxic to other plants. This is called allelopathy. If normal ground cover does not grow under a certain tree species, this species may not be suited for intercropping.

Ability to Improve soil quality

Trees can improve soil fertility by serving as "nutrient pumps", that is, they efficiently absorb nutrients from the soil. The nutrients that are concentrated in the leaves can then be resumed to the soil as green manures.


Ability to Improve soil quality

Nitrogen-fixing trees often have nitrogen-rich foliage. Many but not all members of the Legume family are N-fixing. One way to identify an N-fixer is to check the roots for nodules which look like small lumps or knots. Non-legume species that fix Nitrogen are found in the Casuarina and Alnus genera.

Using green manures can also improve soil texture, infiltration and moisture-holding capacity by increasing organic matter in the soil. Trees that have compound leaves with many small leaflets break down quickly. Larger leaves and small stems will provide a slower, longer-term release of nutrients.

Trees also affect the soil microclimate, lowering temperatures and increasing humidity, thus providing favorable conditions for beneficial microorganisms.

Shade-tolerance

A species is shade-tolerant if it can regenerate and thrive under the canopy of other trees where the amount of available light is reduced. In intercropping arrangements, there are often several layers or strata of tree and shrub species, with the lower or understory layers made up of shade-tolerant species.


Shade-tolerance

Rate of height growth and ability to sprout after cutting

It is important to compare growth rates with respect to the strata of the intercropping system that each species will occupy. Slower growing, intolerant species should not be overtopped and shaded out by faster-growing fuelwood species (like Gliricidia) with a slow-growing intolerant fruit tree, you will have to cut the fuelwood species back at first to keep it from overtopping the fruit tree.


Rate of height growth and ability to sprout after cutting

Crown form and leafing pattern

The size and shape of the overstory species crown and the type of foliage will affect the amount of light that penetrates down into the understory. Even if the understory plants are shade-tolerant, they still need light, especially when they flower and bear fruit. Overstory plants that have a high, small, open crown and sparse foliage (like Albizia falcataria) will allow more light through than species with deep, broad spear-heading crowns and dense foliage (like mango).

Seasonal cycles

The amount of overstory foliage can vary depending on the season, affecting the amount of light that the understory species will intercept. Although many tropical trees are evergreen, some (like Teak and Gmelina) drop their leaves during the dry season, allowing more light through. Intercropping with species that flower and fruit during the dry season will take advantage of these cycles.


Seasonal cycles

However, if a tree is planted specifically to provide shade, an evergreen species is preferable to one that has a deciduous habit. Even though Siniguelas is used to shade understory crops, it loses its leaves during the hot season when shade is most needed.

Finding the Right Niche Within the Farming System for Indigenous Tree Species

Farmers can often recognize plant species that indicate a particular type of soil condition, such as sites that have been recently cultivated, sites that have been in fallow for a long time, severely degraded soils, or soils with a high salt content. Indicator plants are also sometimes used by farmers as a preliminary method to determine soil texture or acidity.

In detemmining the farm niche that an indigenous species might fit, consider where the species occurs naturally and what that might indicate about the tree's site requirements. Is it normally found along stream banks, on thin rocky soils, on deep fertile sites or on sites that are frequently flooded? Does it grow in the forest or is it more often found growing in the open? If it grows in the forest, which strata of the canopy does it occupy? It is found mostly in open areas, where other trees rarely grow; this may indicate that it is either fire-resistant or that it can compete with other vegetation like cogon grass. Observing the natural habitat of a tree species can give you many clues as to how it may be most useful in an agroforestry system.

TABLE 9: SAMPLE ASSESSMENT OF SOME TREE SPECIES FOR INTERCROPPING.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


SAMPLE SPECIES


Mollucan Sau

Nangka

Durian

Guyabano

Kamachile

Gliricidia

Root Structure

deep-rooting

shallow if system cuttings; deeper if planted from seed

deep-rooting grown from

shallow if grown from cuttings; deeper if planted from seed

deep, dense root system

shallow if grown from cuttings; deeper if planted from seed.

Effect on Soil and Water

useful for land reharevege

useful in systems for low impact

useful in tree cropping for erosion

can be used effective as

highly


Conservation

bilitation

sating difficult, degraded sites

agricultural land use on steep sites

control and

hedgerow in hedgerows

species

N-fixing

yes

no

no

no

yes

yes

Rate of Height and Growth

very fast

fast

slow

moderately fast

fast

fast

Sprouting

poor

responds to

poor

responds to

coppices

stem

Response after Cutting

response removal of

early removal of leader shoot and lopping

response

occasional pruning

readily after cutting

sprouts vigorously when cut at base or at 1-2 m

Canopy Strata

high

high

high

middle

middle

middle

When Mature

overstory

overstory

overstory understory

understory

understory


Crown Form

high, spreading crown

deep crown, can be spreading or more compact

high crown. spreading but not deep

Deep compact crown

irregularly- shaped at spreading crown; variable, depends on management

small crown spreading

Leafing Pattern

light foliage

dense

fairly dense

fairly dense

small leaflets

light foliage


with small

foliage with

foliage with

foliage

and fairly

small


leaflets

large thick

large leaves


dense

leaflets,



leaves



foliage

varies with







season

Deciduous/Evergreen

semi- evergreen

eve rgreen evergreen

evergreen

semi-

loses leaves evergreen

during dry season and when flowering

Light Penetration

high

low

low

low

low

high (varies with season)

Shade Tobrance light

light shade- demanding

moderately demanding

slightly to tolerant when young; light demanding when older

shade shade- tolerant

moderately shade tolerant light

tolerant at establishment stage, later more demanding

Suitability for

suitable as

overstory

overstory middle

middle strata

low middle


Intercropping

overstory species or as shade for partially shade- tolerant understory crops

species for highly shade- tolerant understory understory crops and crops or as a bonder tree around fields

species with

strata can

with light

strata with




shade- tolerant sufficient light mixed perenniaI cropping systems

be over- topped if open-grown with full penetrates through overstory

overstory shade or open-grown with full sun sunlight

light overstory or

COMMONLY USED TREE SPECIES FOR AGROFORESTRY

SCIENTIFIC NAME

OFFICIAL PHILIPPINE NAME/OTHER LOCAL AND COMMON NAMES

PRINCIPAL USES

RELATED PAPERS

Acacia auriculiformis

Japanese acacia, Auri

Reforestation

NET tables, SALT-3

A. mangium

Mangium

Reforestation

NET tables, SALT-3

A. meamsii

Black wattle



A. nepalensis

Alder



A. villosa




Albizia lebbek

Langil



Albizia lebbekoides

Kariskis, Malaganit



Albizia procena

Akleng-parang, Palucheba, Palosebo, Kalai



Aleurites moluccana

Lumbang

Nut production


Alnus japonica




Anacardium occidentale

Kasui, Kasoy, Cashew, Batuban

Nut production, soil

Fruit Trees for Harsh

Anacolosa luzoninsis

Galo, Aluloy, Malabignai, Matabalo, Yupa



Annona atemoya

Atemoya



Annona muricata

Guyabano, Bayuba, Carnaba, Labana, soursop

Fruit production

Asexual Propagation



Methods for Commonly

Used Fruit Crops

A. squamosa

Atis

Fruit production


Anthocephalus chinensis

Kaatoan bangkal



Antidesma bunius

Bignai, Bugnay, Isiyo, Dabodabo, Bundeyg

Fruit production


Artocarpus heterophyllus

Nangka, Langka, jackfruit

Fruit, timber and fodder production

Fruit Trees for Harsh Environments

A. odoriatissimus

Marang, Loloi, eloi, Madang, uloy



Averrhoa bilimbi

Kamias, Iba, Pias

Fruit production

Asexual Propagation Methods for Commonly Used Fruit Crops

A. carambola

Balimbing, Garangan



Azadirachta indica

Neem tree. Nim, margosa

Shade, roadside tree

SALT-3

B. blumeana

Kawayan-tinik



Bambusa vulgaris

Kawayan-kiling, Kawayan



Bixa orellana

Achuete, Atsuete

Commodity production


Broussonetia luzonica

Hirnbaba-o, Alakon, bagi



Cajanus cajan

Kadios, Tabios, kardis

Soil conservation; food and tedder production


Calliandra calothyrsus

Calliandra



Cananga odorata

llang-ilang, Tangit

Flower production


Canarium ovatum


Pili, Pilinut

Fruit production

Calliandra haematocephala

Fire ball



Carica papaya

Papaya, Kapayas, pawpaw

Fruit production


Cassia alata

Palo - China



Cassia fistula

Golden shower, Cana, Fistula



Cassia siamea

Thailand shower

Reforestation

SALT-3

Cassia spectabiIis

Antsoan - diIaw, PaIucheba, Paluchena



Casuarina equisetifolia

Agoho, Agosol, aroo

Dune fixation, reforestation


Ceiba pentandra

Kapok, Bulka, Capas, Doldol, Bulak

Fiber production


Chrysophyllum cainito

Caimito, Kaimito, Starapple

Fruit production

SALT-3

C cochichinensis

Saling-gogon



C. macroptera

Kabuyaw, Kabugaw

Fruit production


C. madurensis

Kalamansi, Lemonsito, kalamunding

Fruit production


Citrus grandis

Lukban, Suha, Suwa, Pomeb, Marangkas

Fruit production


Cocos nucifera

Niog, Niyog, Lubi, Coconut

Fruit, oil production

Multi-storied Sequential Cropping (Cavite Model)

Coffea spp.

Coffee, kape

Commodity production


Corypha utan

Buri, Buli, Ebus



Cordia dichotoma

Anonang



Crotolaria juncea

Crotolaria



Cubilea cubili

Kubili



Delonix regia

Fire tree

Ornamental


Dendrocalamus merrillianus

Bayog, Botong, butong, Paraot, Kawayan



Desmodium gyroides

Karikut - rikut



D. rensonii

Rensoni



Diospyros philippinensis

Mabolo, Kamagong



Diplodiscus paniculatus

Balobo



Duno zibethinus

Durian

Fruit, timber production


Eleagnus philippinensis

Alingaro



Erythrina crista-galli

Dapdap-palong, Coral tree



Erythrina orientalis

Dapdap, Bagbag

Shade for understory crops


E. fusca

Anii



E indica

Dapdap



E poeppigiana

Dapdap



E. stipitata

Lubang dapdap



E subumbrans

Rarang



E variegate

Mottled dapdap

Shade for understory crops


Flacourtia rukam

Bitongoi, Bitongol, Palutan, Saua-saua



Gliricida sepium

Madre da Cacao, Kakawati



Gmelina arborea

Yemane, Melina

Reforestation, Industrial lumber


Gnetum gnemon

Bago, Banago, Lamparan, Nabo

Fruit production


Instia bijuga

Ipil, Kita - kita

Timber


Inocarpus fagifer

Kayam, Polynosbn chestnut



Lagerstroemia speciosa

Banaba

Flower, timber production


Lansium domesticum

Lansones

Fruit production


Leucaena leucocephala

Ipil-ipil, Kariskis, Kumpitis, Sta. Elena

Soil conservation


L. diversifolia

Acid ipil-ipil

Soil conservation


Litchi chinensis

Lichi, Licheas

Fruit production


L. chinensis var philippinensis

Alupag

Fruit production


Mangifera altissima

Paho



M. indica

Mangga, Mango

Fruit production


M. philippinensis

Paho



Manilkara zapota

Chico

Fruit, timber production


Melia dubia

Bagalunga, Paraiso, Bulibising



Moringa oleifera

Malunggi, Kamunggay, Marunggay, Dool

Food production


Muntingia calabura

Datiles, Aratiles, Mansanitas



Musa spp.

Saha, Dippig, Saging

Fruit production


Nephelium lappaceum

Rambutan, Usau

Fruit production


Pangium edule

Pangi Fruit production



Paraserianthes falcataria

Moluccan sau, Falcata, Placata

Reforestation, Industrial timber


Peltophorum pterocarpum

Siar, Baringbing



Persea americana

Avocado

Fruit production


Piliostigma malabaricum

Alibanghang, Kulibangbang, Kalibangbang

Soil conservation


Pinus carribaea

Carribean pine



Pinus kesiya

Benguet pine, Saleng, parua, Alal

Reforastation


Pithecellobium dulce

Kamachile, Kamachilis, Damortis

Fruit production


Pouteria campechiana

Thea

Fruit production


Psidium guajava

Bayabas, Guyabas, guava

Fruit production


Pterocarpus indicus

Narra, Nala, Dungos, Naga

Timber


Punica granatum

Granada

Fruit production


Rollinia deliciosa

Biriba



Sacharum officinale

Tabu, Tubu



Samanea saman (Albizia saman)

Raintree, Akasya, Acacia



Sandoricum koetjape

Santol, Kantol, Santor, Katul

Fruit production


Schizostachyum lumampao

Buho, Bagakay, babakan



Sesbania bispinosa

Prickly sesban



S. grandiflora

Katurai, Agati, katuday, Diana

Soil conservation, fodder production


S. formosa

Formosa



S.sesban

Sesban

Soil conservation


Spondias purpurea

Sineguelas, Sereguelas, saruelas

Fruit production


Swietenia macrophylla

Big-leafed mahogany

High-value timber


Syzygium cumin)

Duhat, Lomboy

Fruit production


S. jambos

Tampai, Malay apple

Fruit production


S. polyccephaloides

Lipotee



S. samarangense

Makopa

Fruit production


Tamarindus indica

Sampalok, Kalamagui, Sambag, Sanbagi, Salumagi

Fruit production


Tectona grandis

Teak, Yati, Dalanang, Teka, Kayati, Segunyate

High-value timber


Terminalia catappa

Talisai, Tatisi, Logo, Sakat, Dao, Salaisan

High-value timber


T. microcarpa

Kalumpit, Alupi Anagep, Butuang Kotnok



Theobroma cacao

Cacao, Kakaw

Commodity production


Trema orientalis

Anabiong, Anadong, Mandaragon, Anagum, Anaradung, Hinlalaong, Hinagdung



Vitex parviflora

Molave, Camagauan, Sagat, Tagpa, Mol-awa



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