1. Crop rotation
2. Relay planting
3. Contour cultivating and planting
4. Use of organic matter
5. Laying crop residues along the contour
6. Diversification of farm enterprises, including tree crops
7. Maintenance or establishment of forest at the upper end of the slope
8. Protection of the land with cover crops during fallow periods
9. Animal confinement
FARM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WHICH REINFORCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
1. Use good crop rotation practices. Alternate grain crops with legumes whenever possible.
2. Practice relay planting of the second season crop. Sowing the second crop while the first is still growing helps reduce demand for soil cultivation. Relay planting also serves as an effective soil cover following the first harvest.
3. Always cultivate and plant crops along the contour. This impedes water flow between more solid structures, like rockwells or living hedgerow barriers.
4. Incorporate all available organic matters (crop residues, animal manure, etc.) into the soil. This helps improve soil structure, fertility and moisture holding capacity. Do not bum crop residues.
5. Lay additional crop residues, twigs and other materials in contour lines or spread or mulch across the slope, to further impede water flow. These lines can be placed at the base of contour hedgerows or rockwalls.
6. Diversify farm enterprises to include more tree crops. Fruit or estate crops can be planted in small orchards or interspersed with food crops. Tree crops are particularly suitable on severely sloping land.
7. Maintain forested areas at the upper end of sloping farmlands. These forested plots or woodlots should serve both a protective or conservation function as well as provide a steady source of fuelwood, food, income and other useful products.
8. Protect the land during fallow periods. Use effective mulches on cover crops to protect the soil surface from intense sunlight, wind erosion and the occasional unseasonal rains.
9. Stall-feed or tether all animals. Free-grazing animals which roam farmland during off seasons can be one of the major causes of erosion in hilly areas. Stall-feeding also enables collection of manure for soil fertility management.