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CLOSE THIS BOOKAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO, 1996, 397 p.)
8: Plant protection and pest control
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Amaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO, 1996, 397 p.)

8: Plant protection and pest control

Protecting plants from pests, diseases, and predators is part of any agricultural system. Start by promoting healthy soil which grows strong, resistant plants, and learn about timing and conditions of disease and pest outbreaks. Attention to cultural controls, such as field preparation and correct time of sowing and harvest, can prevent disease or avoid insect outbreaks. Diversity of crops provides security from major losses. Commercial pesticides may be too costly or risky without controlled application or protective equipment, and disruptive of beneficial insects.

Close and frequent observations of plant health and other organisms in the field are instructive for the newcomer to tropical agriculture. Learn to distinguish beneficial and harmful insects. Discuss your findings with farmers, and experiment with locally-used control strategies to determine effectiveness. The best control is to prevent an outbreak if possible, and to use treatments of minimal toxicity when necessary. This chapter collects some of the ideas shared with ECHO through the years on prevention and control of disease, insect and small pests, and larger animals which damage crops in the field. ECHO is always looking for more ideas on these subjects from the field; send us what you learn for future networking through EDN.

Resources

TWO EXCEPTIONAL BOOKS ON NATURAL PEST CONTROL. Most of you have encountered traditional crop protection strategies or sprays made from local plants to control pest outbreaks in the field or in stored products. There are as many practices of insect control as there are villages, and it is extremely difficult to gather this valuable information. These books compile clear, practical details on prevention and remedies for plant protection. Natural Crop Protection Based on Local Farm Resources in the Tropics and Subtropics by Gaby Stoll (188 pp.) offers many preventive and curative measures used effectively by farmers around the world. Primary pests in field or storage of major crops are described with host plants, distribution, life cycle, damage pattern, and various control measures. The methods of crop and storage protection include thorough information on over 27 insecticidal plant groups and brief mention of other substances and techniques. Available in English, French, German, Spanish, Thai, and Singhalese. Single copies are US$29 plus postage from: Margraf Verlag, Postfach 105, 97985 Weikersheim, GERMANY. You may also order for 35 SFr. (about US$27) from the publisher, AGRECOL, c/o Oekozentrum, CH-4438 Langenbruck, SWITZERLAND; phone 062/601420; fax 062/601640. (AGRECOL is a networking and information center for sustainable agriculture in the developing world. Their publications are excellent and usually available in several languages; ask for the catalog. The (Spanish or French) resource guides are bibliographies to useful literature and organizations.)

Natural Pest and Disease Control by Henry Elwell and Anita Maas (128 pp.; fine illustrations by Rose Elwell, see right) is a comprehensive collection of strategies used by farmers in southern and central Africa. This kind of resource is hard to find. The book includes guidelines for prevention, many remedies for common problems, and plant names in five regional languages. The information on action, targets, detailed preparation and application, other uses, and warnings for over 66 cultivated and wild plants in insecticidal/repellent sprays is hard to find in other sources. One chapter on "miscellaneous substances and methods" gives details on using ash, milk, noise, baking soda, traps, etc. to control pests and disease. Order for US$6 within Africa/$8 elsewhere from the Natural Farming Network-Zimbabwe, P.O. Box CY 301, Causeway, Harare, ZIMBABWE; phone 726538/731541; fax 263-4-723056. (See the Natural Farming Network article in the chapter on Farming Systems to order from other African countries.)

"BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPOD PESTS AND WEEDS" is run each May at Silwood Park, UK. This is a "practical 'hands-on' training course on how to use natural enemies as biological control agents in tropical and temperate agriculture, forestry, and biodiversity conservation. We welcome participants from crop protection research and extension services, universities and rural development NGOs." The course studies predators, parasites, and diseases which control insect pests; insects and fungal diseases as weed controls; and the practical aspects of evaluating, rearing, and releasing the natural enemies. Cost is £3450 (about US$5200), including fees, accommodation, and food. No scholarships are available from IIBC. Contact Stephanie Williamson, International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC), Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks, SL5 7TA, UK; phone 44 1344 872999; fax 44 1344 875007; e-mail s.williamson@CABI.org.

THE COMPENDIUM OF PLANT DISEASE SERIES is valuable in identifying crop diseases. Bacterial and fungal diseases of plants are notoriously difficult to diagnose in the field. This series offers excellent descriptions of symptoms and clear photographs of affected plants so you know what problem to address. Each soft cover book covers one or more specific crops, such as sweet potato, bean, corn, barley, cotton, potato, citrus, peanut, onion and garlic, alfalfa, and other fruits, grains, and ornamental species. Each has a comprehensive description of the diseases (some also include insect and nematode pests) of that crop, including the symptoms, causes and pathogens, disease cycle, and specific options for control. The controls presented include preventive steps, cultural techniques, optimal timing of chemical application, and effects on other crops and subsequent seasons. There is also a section on nutritional deficiencies and environmental stresses on the plants, and a very complete, descriptive glossary. High-quality color plates illustrate the problems discussed in the text; some are distinctive enough to use in diagnosis.

The series is available from the American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121- 2097; phone 612/454-7250; fax 612/454-0766. The books are 50-200 pages long, and cost $30 US/$37 overseas. With that price, most people won't be able to purchase very many in the series. You may want to concentrate on those food or market/export crops which are nutritional or economic staples in the region, particularly where production seems limited by unidentified disease problems.

INSECTS IN YOUR GARDEN IN HAITIAN CREOLE. Ed Russell wrote this 117-page book in Creole called Ensk Nan Jaden Nou (Insects in Your Garden) while working with the Baptist Mission. "This book grew out of my own lack of knowledge about insect pests. I would buy pesticides that came in a plain brown bag or a used food oil can. So I had no idea how to use them properly. Talking with others, I found that there is a great abuse of pesticides in Haiti. ...The book has its roots in a brief agriculture course I was teaching at the request of a local cooperative.

"The book is divided into 5 chapters. Chapter 1: insect life histories and the identification of some common beneficial and pest insects; Chapter 2: pesticides, their dangers, proper use, and how to make home-made pesticides; Chapter 3: first aid information for pesticide poisoning; Chapter 4: a table of Latin, Creole, English and French names for the insects and botanical pesticide sources discussed in the book; Chapter 5: a table of various crops, common pests that attack them, and pesticide treatments that can be used.

"The book is neither complete nor perfect, since I do not profess to be an expert on insect matters." Ed told us that it is weak in two areas. 1. Geographic coverage. He is most familiar with problems in the Cul-de-Sac and Fort Jacque area. 2. It lacks information about some pesticides because many insecticides sold in Haiti are not sold in the U.S. He also said he did not discuss cultural methods of control, such as floating row covers, that he believed were out of reach of peasant farmers. The book is written for people doing extension work, not peasant farmers themselves.

The Baptist Mission is printing the book on a laser printer as needed and selling it in the Mountain Maid store at the mission. I think every development worker in Haiti knows where the mission is located. The cost is $7/copy, including postage. The address if ordering from outside of Haiti is Mountain Maid, Baptist Haiti Mission, Box 15650, West Palm Beach, FL 33416. Ed says, "Since I am no longer working in Haiti, other interested people may want to work on future revisions." This could easily be done because of the print-as-needed approach. If anyone wishes to do this in the future, contact Wally Turnbull at the Baptist Mission.

RODALE INSTITUTE is well-known in the United States as the publisher of the popular home gardening magazine Organic Gardening. Rodale has many good publications on natural pest control, mostly oriented for temperate regions. Ask for titles and availability from Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098, USA.

PLANT PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (PPIP) FOR EAST AND SOUTHERN AFRICA. Johan Morner, the PPIP Manager, writes that "PPIP is striving to increase its contacts with non-governmental organizations" which work in certain countries of east and southern Africa. If you work in that region and are involved in any of the activities listed below, you may be able to obtain financial and/or technical support from PPIP. It is funded by Swedish foreign aid.

"Examples of the types of activities that might qualify for support are (1) training courses on new pest control methods, (2) pest surveys and yield loss assessment in small-scale farming, (3) research into new and appropriate pest control-indigenous methods, natural pesticides, cultural practices, (4) development of extension materials and methods on appropriate pest control practices and the safe use of pesticides." For further information, contact the PPIP Coordination Unit, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, SWEDEN; phone 46 18 672516; fax 46 18 672890; e-mail johan.morner@entom.slu.se.

Plant protection treatments

USE STP TO MAKE "YELLOW STICKY TRAPS." Yellow sticky traps are used in greenhouses and elsewhere to monitor and even reduce populations of certain insects. Because many insects are especially attracted to yellow objects, they will settle onto a yellow card. If a transparent sticky substance is on the card, they will be trapped. It is easy to use even in remote locations, if you can find an adhesive.

HortIdeas reports that Agriculture Canada researchers have successfully used STP oil treatment. STP traps caught about as many insects as "Stickem," a commercially available coating for sticky traps. I do not know how many countries have STP or a similar product, but there is no town in the United States too small to have this famous additive for motor oil.

They found that STP can be uniformly applied with a paint brush to cardboard traps outdoors (4x11 inch cardboard painted on both sides with two coats of bright yellow alkyl semi-gloss paint, which made the cards waterproof). The STP does not cloud up when damp, it allows easy repositioning of trapped insects for identification, it does not drip and make a mess and it rarely traps large insects. A drawback is that traps must be re-coated after a heavy rain.

MORE ON INSECT TRAPS. For many growing papaya in the Americas, the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda is a major pest. These insects, resembling a wasp in appearance, use their long ovipositor to lay eggs inside the seed cavity of the fruit. Larvae feed on the seeds, burrow out of the fruit, drop to the ground, and pupate in the soil.

Dr. Hal Reed recently sent us an article discussing the use of a simple trapping system for this pest. This basically consisted of a sticky-coated fruit mimic (12.7 cm diameter green sphere), coated with a controlled release formulation of a synthetic sex pheromone. In field tests, up to 10 female papaya fruit flies were caught per trap per week. Dr. Reed mentioned that a co-worker of his recently returning from Costa Rica reported very good success with lower pheromone dosages and believes it will prove to be a good survey tool and control method.

The pheromone is not commercially available yet, but a few researchers in Costa Rica and Florida are in the developing stages of making it so (in 1996). In the meantime, Dr. Reed suggests that the spheres alone would catch some flies (3 per week in the report) and afford limited fruit protection. He said that the spherical shape, 12.7 cm size and green color are key. "Perhaps one could use green balloons covered with tree sap." We will be very interested in hearing from any readers who try this approach.

We were referred to Rex Renfro, a farmer and integrated pest management consultant in Florida's tropical fruit region, who has first-hand experience with the method. In fact, he was involved in the initial USDA work. Rex does not believe it has commercial potential here because the "stickum traps" had to be removed and cleaned every ten days. "The green sphere would become black with insect bodies." Also the papaya fruit flies seemed to be repelled by the smell of the trapped insects. The cost of labor is prohibitive here, but this might not be a limiting factor in other countries. Because of the cost problem, research will probably be directed toward non- sticky traps with pheromone attractant and insecticide.

Does it work? Like a true scientist, Rex was hesitant because he did not have enough data to do a statistical analysis. "A negative result [i.e. lack of fly damage] is hard to prove without a detailed experiment, and we lacked funding for that." What he observed, though, was that they would have a fruit fly problem, would put up the traps, and the problem would disappear. After removing the traps the problem arose again and again disappeared when the traps were put up. He cannot rule out the possibility that this occurred by chance.

Rex added that those who spray their fields should first carefully note the time of day when flies are seen in the field. They normally live in more dense vegetation and travel to the papaya field at a certain time each day. In Florida that is mid-afternoon; in Costa Rica it is in the morning.

How many traps are enough? Rex put one on each tree on the outer row. The flies do not migrate very far into a papaya field, except when their population is unusually high, so the outer perimeter is sufficient. To attach them he simply pushed a welding rod into the plastic sphere, then pushed the other end right into the trunk of the tree. It did not seem to hurt the tree.

Other tips on controlling the pest: Because young larva need seeds as a food source, use seedless varieties or those with thicker walled fruits (the ovipositor is just so long). It is very important to remove and bury (over 6" deep) all fallen infected fruit. At ECHO we had some trees that bore poor quality fruit, so we left it on the ground. Soon we had so many flies that every single fruit on the farm was filled with larvae.

HOW CAN I GROW LADY BIRD BEETLES (COCCINELLA SPP.) IN CAPTIVITY? Harold Watson in the Philippines noticed that lady bird beetles were eating the plant lice that have done so much damage recently to leucaena trees in that country. He asked how he could grow them in quantity to release into special problem areas.

We visited Dennis Warkenten at the Yoder Brothers nursery near ECHO, one of the largest plant nurseries in the USA. Dennis is involved in both research and technical application of pest control operations, including biological control whenever possible. The answer was surprising.

It is true that these beetles are sold commercially in the States. However, to their knowledge, they were not raised in captivity. There are certain places in the mountains near our west coast where huge populations of the beetles come to rest during the winter. They are scooped up by the shovelful while they are dormant. When eventually warmed up, they resume activity. They mentioned that it is really not an effective approach for an individual to bring lady bird beetles into his garden because they are "programmed" to disperse when they resume activity (they were all clumped together before), so the first thing they do is leave the garden. Dennis also checked a reference for diets used in mass-rearing insects and found no reference to lady bird beetles.

A few years later, Wayne Niles, now a missionary in Haiti, visited ECHO. He had just done a laboratory project in a biological control course at the University of Florida in which he mass-produced ladybugs! We asked him to put his experience in writing for members of the ECHO network who might face this need. His comments follow:

"Raising insect enemies of harmful insects is fairly easy once you get a knack for it. In a developing country an enterprising student or villager might be taught to rear such insects as a means of livelihood, selling the insects as pest control. You need suitable containers, a food supply, and a few minutes each day for sanitation and feeding. Large numbers of natural enemies are not necessary if you can pre-inoculate your plants before the pests build up. The juvenile stages are voracious and render the best control because they do not fly away. Adults leave eggs and move on.

"A reasonable strategy would be to maintain several dozen females on artificial media in captivity and to regularly transport the eggs they lay (on leaves, for example) out to the field near sites of potential pest infestation. This augmentation of the natural ladybug population is necessary because they require 2-3 weeks per generation and would build up more slowly than aphids or psyllids.

"A word of caution, however. Be sure the ladybugs you are rearing will devour your pest. I am amazed by the diversity of ladybug species and their specificity of diet. Collect and rear only those adults that you are absolutely certain are eating your pest (not the honeydew they produce or the mold growing on the honeydew)."

The adult ladybug beetles were collected from an aphid-infested field, then were maintained in 9 cm plastic petri dishes. The female beetles were fed all the aphids that they could eat. The aphids were collected by holding an infested plant over a stiff piece of paper and beating the plant. They could be kept for up to two weeks in a tightly capped plastic bottle at 4 C. The mean daily aphid consumption by adults was 36 and mean daily egg production was 25. Larvae ate an average of 190 aphids over a 19-day period before reaching adulthood.

He enclosed a photocopy of a few paragraphs from an article by Li concerning the mass rearing of ladybugs on artificial media in China. If you do not always have a source of aphids and want to see this article, drop us a note. "I suspect adequate results can be obtained without the hormones and other exotic materials in the Chinese recipes. One can always throw a few aphids into the artificial media to supply whatever is lacking." One example was the ladybug Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, which is used to control mealybugs. It can be mass produced in the laboratory using mealybugs (grown on pumpkin or buds of potato) as food, but adults can be reared with a semi-artificial diet consisting of powdered milk, honey, yeast, a little royal jelly and dry mealybugs. Another ladybug diet contained 5 g pig liver, 0.5 g brewer's yeast, 1 g honey, and 0.05 g vitamin C (plus optional preservative).

EXPERIENCES WITH THE NEEM TREE AS AN INSECTICIDE. (For an introduction to neem and information on neem seed and products, refer to Chapter 4 on Multipurpose Trees.)

The tree originated in India or Burma, but is widely grown in much of Africa. It is used widely in India for its insecticidal and medicinal properties, but primarily for firewood in Africa. There are several active compounds, concentrated primarily in the seeds. Some inhibit larval development and reduce female fertility, others act as repellents and antifeedants. These compounds are most effective against the following families: Coleoptera (beetles and their larvae), Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and locusts). There are some reports of control of aphids, scales and whiteflies.

Large quantities of neem are not needed for insecticidal use. For example, 2 ml of oil mixed with 1 kg of beans which are to be stored protects against pests; 25g of ground kernels or 50g of ground seeds extracted with 1 liter of water by standing overnight then filtered through tissue can be sprayed with a knapsack sprayer. For harvest and treatment of seeds, in many areas seeds are easy to collect from the ground because birds or fruit bats eat the juicy and sweet fruits and spit out the kernels. Where this does not occur, the harvested ripe fruits need to be pulped. If water is available the risk of infection by fungi can be reduced by washing the grains after collecting them.

For further processing (oil, water extracts) and the storage the kernels should be well dried by spreading these on a hard ground in the sun. To avoid molding, kernels should always be stored in a well-aerated recipient such as a jute sack. Never store them in a plastic bag. Molding can be due to aflatoxin-producing fungi, a substance which is highly toxic to human beings even in low concentrations. To prepare seeds for planting dry them carefully, if possible in the shade, because temperatures above 45oC will reduce germination. Storage for more than one month will also decrease the rate of germination. For immediate sowing kernels do not have to be dried. (The above is excerpted from a Technical Note by M. Dreyer in Togo.)

There are many active ingredients in neem, but azadirachtin is perhaps most important. It is found in both leaves and seeds. For over 25 years, Professor Ahmed Sadiq in Sudan has been working with the use of neem in pest control, and CARE has started trials in collaboration with him. The seeds have about twice the potency of leaves, but seeds are only available for 3-4 months each year, so they are working with leaves. Leaves are dried in the shade, because the ultraviolet rays from the sun will break down the active ingredient. When the leaves are dry, they are crushed to a powder in a mortar and pestle. They can then be used directly for dusting crops or as a powder in stored foods. The powder can also be mixed with water and sprayed on crops.

Most farmers like to see pests drop dead right away. Neem does not have this effect, with a few exceptions. Its main effect is as a repellent. If insects do eat the treated plant, the neem has a hormonal and growth-regulator effect. Local farmers have used it only one year. Those who treated okra with it said grasshoppers avoided treated plants.

Farmers who treated watermelon seeds with neem powder said that rats which normally eat the seeds did not eat the treated seeds. Neem is not usually thought of for rodent control, but it has a flavor which perhaps the rats did not like. (The above is abstracted from an article in the magazine Baobab, #5, 1990. They in turn learned it from "The Farming World" of BBC World Service.)

Dick Lockman in Pakistan says that they use the dried leaves for moth protection of woolen clothing in storage. A few leaves in the pockets and scattered among the items prevent moth damage. R. N. Mall in Pakistan wrote, "We learned during the Health Education Program that in some villages the seeds are crushed and the oil is being used against head lice, which is quite effective."

Don Mansfield in Mali had success using neem leaf tea to control termites (note below), but he tried another neem recipe with disappointing results. He had heard of placing a mixture of dry neem leaves and ashes in barrels of peanuts. "I put a thin coating about every foot. It has been almost impossible to keep peanuts here for any length of time without serious damage by the weevils. The people here use a powder of DDT and Malathion, which seems very dangerous when they intend to eat the peanuts." Why did it not work, since even wood ash by itself is supposed to be effective? The book Natural Crop Protection suggests the effect of ash is in part due to its filling the small spaces between the seeds. Newly hatched weevils have more difficulty finding partners and are forced to deposit all their eggs on a small number of seeds, thus preventing an explosive buildup of populations. Even a large amount of sand is often effective. Perhaps this experiment should be repeated, mixing the ashes thoroughly with the seeds rather than layering them.

INFLUENCES OF NEEM ON NEMATODES. "There is evidence that leachates from the litter of certain trees and shrubs [Ed: water that has soaked through the litter] have nematicidal properties, e.g. Azadirachta indica (neem), Ricinus communis (castor bean) and Leucaena leucocephala." Farmers in Sao Luis put 1 kg of neem leaves per square meter in the soil (25 cm deep) before planting carrots in order to control soil nematodes, according to Dr. Warwick Kerr in Brazil.

PESTICIDE FROM SEED OF THE NEEM TREE MARKETED IN FLORIDA. The following is abstracted from HortIdeas: "Margosan-O, the first commercial insecticide derived from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency and is being test marketed. So far its official use is limited to greenhouse use on bedding plants, potted plants, foliage plants... and other non-food crops." This formulation is used as a systemic insecticide. That means that rather than just being located on the surface it is moved throughout the plant following drenching of the soil. It appears to be practically nontoxic to mammals, birds and many beneficial insects, including honey bees. It is also biodegradable.

SOMETHING NEEM WILL NOT DO. There has been a stream of reports concerning how extracts from seeds or leaves of the neem tree can control various insects and even some fungal diseases. Unfortunately, a study in England has shown that azadirachtin, the principle active ingredient from neem, has a negligible effect on the feeding behavior of slugs. (This information taken from HortIdeas, March 1992, p 33.)

CAN A "PESTICIDE TREE" SUCH AS NEEM HAVE SERIOUS INSECT PESTS? The ILEIA Newsletter (March 1990) says that a scale insect, Aonidiella orientalis (oriental scale) is often associated with neem trees in Africa and elsewhere. It is not harmful under normal conditions, but outbreaks can become serious when plants are stressed. For example, the drop in groundwater level when Lake Chad dried out led to an outbreak.

"Several scale insect species exist on neem, avoiding the insecticidal components of the host by uptake of plant juice from the phloem. This is practically free of azadirachtin," the major insect control chemical in neem. They conclude that fear of a pest like the psyllid that almost wiped out leucaena in Asia is not justified, but beware of monocultures of neem (i.e. large plantings containing only neem trees).

DEVASTATING DISEASE OF NEEM TREES IN WEST AFRICA (1992 report). We are suddenly hearing from many in our network about this disaster. Mike Benge with USAID phoned to alert us to the problem and to say that they were sending a team to investigate. Steve Maranz in Niger writes that the neem disease has now reached all the way to Senegal. [Ed: That's as far west as one can go in Africa.] "It should be noted that to the villagers here, none of the products and services rendered by neem compare to its value as a shade tree. When there is nothing in the bare landscape between you and the blazing sun, the thick shade of a neem is heavenly. So much more the loss, then, when a 20 year old neem tree dies." On a related note, Steve writes, "I saw that our cowpeas were infested with beetles (I assume the bruchid beetles one reads about). I asked our field technician if he had ever used neem oil to control these pests. His answer was interesting. He said he knew it was effective, but would rather lose half his cowpeas than have to taste neem in his food. This is from someone who eats kola nuts every day, which are as bitter as quinine."

Steve sent a copy of a letter from George Eaton, director USAID mission to Niger written to the United Nations representative in Niger (and directed toward the broader development community) concerning this disease. Because of the importance of this problem, I will quote at length.

"Early this year the Government of Niger requested assistance from USAID/Niger to carry out an investigation and determine the nature of the disease. ...an investigation was conducted by plant pathologist Dr. Paul Batra in June/July. Dr. Batra confirmed the existence of an apparently widely dispersed disease affecting large numbers of neem trees. ...[He] collected plant material and soil samples which were analyzed in the United States. The disease has been provisionally diagnosed as an infection by a soil-borne fungus." [Mike Benge says they are still unsure of the cause.]

"Subsequent investigations by CARE/Niger staff in the Maggia Valley have confirmed that a very high percentage (100% of their sample) of the mature pollarded neem [i.e. the tops cut off, probably to use in firewood] and over 15% of the younger neem were affected. In addition 100% of the 1991 planting stock and many private woodlots are affected, as well as neem seedlings in the Tahoua nursery. As a result, CARE/Niger has proposed no further planting of neem until further notice.

"Subsequent investigations in and around Niamey by USAID/Niger staff have confirmed a high incidence of the disease in mature trees planted around town, ... in the Niamey Greenbelt, as well as in younger trees in several urban plantations. ...it has been noticed that the outer layer of the cambium of diseased trees (just under the bark) is bright red. This is true for trees that show external signs of the disease (e.g. a dead branch) as well as for those that do not yet show these signs. We are in the process of obtaining samples [elsewhere. If the same symptoms are present], this would provide a way of more easily diagnosing the disease at an earlier stage."

He then explains how neem was brought from the Indian subcontinent to Sudan in 1925, from there to Nigeria in 1935, then to Senegal in 1944 and Mali in 1953. It presumably came from Nigeria to Niger in the 1940's, where it is the principal species for reforestation (currently 2 million trees). "Given the high probability that most neem planted in West Africa come from a very narrow genetic base, it is expected that little resistance to this disease is likely to be found in the local population. USAID, ICRISAT Sahelian Center and possibly others are continuing to study the problem."

This last statement should be expanded. Sometimes a single packet of seed planted for evaluation gives such good results that a large project develops from its offspring. Possibly every seed in that packet came from one or a few related trees. There is nothing wrong with this in itself. But if large acreages are planted and a disease or insect problem arises that seriously harms the trees, it is possible that every tree will be equally susceptible. In the tree's country of origin a lot of genetic diversity would exist, possibly including resistance to the current problem.

An example of such vulnerability might be the kiwi fruit industry in New Zealand. At a New Crops Symposium, a scientist from New Zealand said that kiwi fruit was introduced to his country some years ago by a missionary who brought seed from China. He said it is quite possible that every seed might have come from a single fruit. They are working now to make sure there is a broader genetic base by bringing in plants from China.

Have you had such success with a tree species that thousands of trees might someday be planted? Can all the trees be traced to a single packet of seeds? If so, you should consider obtaining additional packets from different locations, preferably from the center of origin of that tree. If you have one variety of a species that is particularly desirable, e.g. a particular kind of leucaena, it is especially likely that it has a limited genetic pool to call upon in time of need. In a case like this you should seek out additional leucaena varieties, even if some are not quite as good for your purposes as your favorite.

This is also a good time to mention again how important it is to have as wide a number of species as possible making up the core of your development efforts. As any one species becomes more widely used, the likelihood that an epidemic might occur increases and the greater the damage it can cause your program.

Later, Mike Benge with USAID sent a copy of a telegram he received from scientists working on the problem, which I summarize: "While there are still many neem trees (particularly in plantations) that continue to suffer from decline, many other neems (in villages, along roadsides and in the Majjia Valley windbreaks) have leafed out and gone through a period of unusually heavy flowering. In some cases the same trees have flowered twice in the last several months. While this is a hopeful sign, it is still too early to tell whether the new foliage will be maintained. We are continuing to monitor the situation closely."

The disorder is clearly distinct from the neem scale insect problem reported in the area. No evidence was found supporting earlier reports that a verticillium fungus is causing the disease. In fact there is no evidence for any "primary infectious disease." Three fungi have been isolated at ICRISAT, but are believed to play only a secondary role. There are no signs of either viruses or mycoplasma-like-organisms. "Hodges, Beatty and Boa have concluded that the disorder resembles a type of disease commonly known as 'decline' and is most likely caused not by a pathogen but by one or several types of abiotic environmental stresses."

TEPHROSIA VOGELII FOR INSECT CONTROL AND GREEN MANURE. Several members of our network wrote us about this plant for different reasons.

Beth Adams wrote from Malawi, "I planted several rows of leucaena trees on the edges of terraces, for green manure and erosion control. They are doing well and beginning to flower. I've found a shrub that seems to be much better though, fish bean or Tephrosia vogelii. It produces an incredible amount of leaf matter, grows very quickly, and is very easy to establish.. I planted them about 2 feet apart and now, 7 months later, they are almost a solid wall. They are not used as fodder."

"I have been very impressed with fish bean as an insecticide. Some of my students told me they had used the leaves to kill caterpillars, so we tried it. It killed every caterpillar overnight. It was incredible since most natural insecticides don't seem to work that quickly. We did an experiment on an okra crop that was full of aphids using Malathion, tephrosia bean extract, soap (1 teaspoon per liter) and a tephrosia/soap mixture. The latter had the best results, tephrosia and Malathion were about the same, and soap was least effective. We've not been able to use neem because the trees planted in 1992 keep dying back and then regrowing. So I am encouraging students to plant tephrosia since it is much easier to establish here and can be used as a green manure as well."

Emmanuel Soko in Tanzania is an extensionist working with Fr. Rupper, who has frequently written and shared seeds. Emmanuel shared how tephrosia is used for insect control in grain storage. "Take fresh leaves and dry them under the sun. Grind the dried leaves into a powder. Mix 100 grams of powder with 100 kg of maize to control maize weevils and the larger grain borer; with 100 kg of beans to control the bean bruchids. The chemical is effective up to three months. After that time the process must be repeated.

"The plant has many other uses. To control ticks, lice and flies, animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pets) are washed with the extract of the plant. To make the extract, fresh leaves and branches are pounded in a mortar. This is diluted with five times that volume of water before applying to the animals.

"To make an insecticide, allow the above mixture to soak overnight or boil it for 30 minutes. Add a bit of soap to help the spray stick to the leaves. It can be used with garden vegetables, fruits and field crops, to control termites, ants, beetles, aphids, cutworms, various bugs and weevils, stalk borers, flies etc.

"In the evening the walls of the room, especially corners, are beaten with fresh tephrosia branches to repel mosquitoes, lice, ticks, cockroaches, etc. It is fed to animals for intestinal problems."

Roland Lesseps sent a copy of a fact sheet written by his colleague Andy McDavid at the Kasisi Agricultural Training Center in Zambia, from which a few excerpts follow.

"It has been used as a fish poison for hundreds of years and an insecticide for over a hundred." "Cattle deaths have been reported as a result of drinking water of poisoned fish ponds. Also, reports have been made from one village of people getting sick after eating fish poisoned with the extract. I do not advise its use as a fish poison.

"The shrub may grow as rapidly as 2-3 meters in 7 months. The compound leaves contain the highest concentration of rotenoids, which are responsible for its insecticidal effectiveness. ...Its compounds are effective against a number of different pests (tested at least 90% effective against termites, citrus aphids, red spider mites). They break down in about 7 days (2-3 days in bright sunlight)." Seeds should "be soaked in water for about 24 hours for good germination (about 90%). Plant about 1 meter apart." If very large numbers are planted, use 35,000 seeds per ha for greatest leaf yield.

"In harvesting, only the leaves need to be taken off the shrub. ... If removed carefully, the shrub will continue to produce leaves for ... extract or mulch. The most effective concentration for killing insects was found to be 20 g of leaves for every 100 ml of water. If a scale is not available, take the amount of leaves equal to the weight of an empty 300 ml coke bottle, then add 7 coke bottles full of water. ...The crushing of leaves does not need to be done perfectly; a plastic feed bag and large rock can be used." After soaking for 2 hours (NOT in direct sunlight) filter the suspension through a cloth and use directly in the sprayer.

"It is important that the spray have contact with the pest. If the pest is underneath the leaves, be sure to actually hit the pests. ...If all the spray is not used immediately, it will still be approximately 70% effective 24 hours later, IF kept out of direct sunlight." Beyond that its potency drops quickly. The "used" leaves may be reused for a second extract. Tests have not determined concentrations to use but have shown that effective chemicals are left. "The leaves contain an antifeedant, so termites will not eat it. In areas of heavy termite infestation this mulch can be very helpful."

Seeds are available from Emmanuel or Fr. Rupper at P.O. Box 1, Peramiho, TANZANIA, East Africa. If you want more than a small trial packet, correspond with them to determine how much money to send. ECHO also has trial packets.

Samuel Ratnam in Singapore sent a technical note on Tephrosia vogelii. "The tree has a resemblance to Tephrosia candida. However, its pods are larger, longer and very hairy. ... After 5-6 months of growth, the average green material per hectare is about 27 tons. The yield of nitrogen is 112 kg per ha." He adds, "It is used there mainly as a bush green manure in rubber and oil palm plantations and as a shade tree for young tea, cocoa, coffee, and rubber." His company, Inland and Foreign Trading Co., harvests and sells tephrosia seed (Block 79A, Indus Road # 04-418/420; Singapore, 0316; phone 2722711; fax 2716118).

Steve Kennedy in Nepal grew the seeds we sent him and reported back to us: "The tephrosia plants are about a year old and are three meters high. We had no insect problems until flowering, but now about 10% of the flowers have been attacked by aphids. Apparently the flowers do not have the insecticidal compounds that are found in the leaves. I have mixed dried and pounded leaves with water and used as an insect spray on ants and various kinds of caterpillars, with good effect. Caterpillars died after some hours. Spraying or even scattering dried leaves across the path of ants coming into the house stopped them for a few days. I sprayed the tephrosia solution on the tephrosia flowers and two days later had no more aphids. Other expatriates and Nepali co-workers have expressed an interest in planting and using this species in their gardens."

FIGHT MILDEW WITH BAKING SODA. The Avant Gardener newsletter reports that ordinary baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has both prevented and cured powdery mildew on strawberries, eggplant and cucumbers when sprayed weekly at the rate of 1/4 ounce per gallon of water. Powdery mildew is a fungus disease of plants that is most common when days are warm and nights cool. The leaves have a readily visible powdery coating on top. Its incidence is increased by high humidity. In India, powdery mildew was controlled on pea plants by spraying every two weeks with garlic oil. (These generous folks gave us blanket permission to excerpt from their newsletter for your benefit. Their address is P.O. Box 489, New York, NY 10028, USA; $20 per year in USA; $24 overseas.)

MORINGA LEAVES TO PREVENT DAMPING-OFF DISEASE OF SEEDLINGS. Christoph Ochsenbein, an extension officer in Cameroon, requested seeds of Moringa oleifera because he had read they could be used to control damping off. I had heard this rumor, so asked him where he read this. It is in a table in the book Natural Crop Protection (see above). An anonymous, unpublished Filipino handbook is cited as the source. It claims that moringa leaves are worked into the soil one week before sowing. This time is sufficient to release the effective substances into the soil. This seems feasible because antibiotic substances are known to be in parts of the moringa tree. The main use is protecting seedlings in seedbeds. We will list this in a "wish list" publication we send to professors identifying certain hunger-related subjects needing research. In the meantime, if you do a controlled experiment with it, let us know the results.

BLOSSOM END ROT ON TOMATOES. While a fellow gardener and I were sharing gardening experiences the other day, he mentioned that he had added too much nitrogen and caused blossom end rot. This is a very common problem with tomatoes. A spot begins to rot where the blossom was originally attached (opposite from where the stem attaches). I replied that it is calcium deficiency that causes blossom end rot.

It turns out that we were both right. The March/April issue of National Gardening Magazine quotes Ohio State tomato physiologist Dale Kretchman, "Nitrogen fertilizer will encourage lush top growth, at the expense of the root system. The plant will get too big for its roots to supply it with other nutrients and water, and you set the stage for blossom end rot, which is really a response to calcium deficiency. There is no doubt that gardeners [in the USA] fertilize their tomatoes too much."

BUNCHY TOP ON PAPAYA. Some of ECHO's Malaysia exotica papaya trees developed what I presumed to be the disease "bunchy top." Because this is a viral disease, we did nothing to try to control it. Fruit production almost stopped, and what did ripen was so low in sugar as to be uninteresting. We cut the trees and have replanted.

Yong Lee Ming at the Tenom agriculture experiment station in Malaysia sent us some fresh seed, and some important information. "The problem may not be due to a virus. The symptom you described appears to be similar to what we have in Malaysia, but so far is not a big problem and often easily controlled. The so-called bunchy top symptom is often caused by thrips and/or a fungus." He sent us a research report done in Malaysia called "Bunchy and malformed top of papaya cv. 'exsotica' caused by Thrips parvispinus and Clado sporium oxysporum." (Write us if a copy of the article would be helpful.) Excerpts follow.

A previously unrecognized disease of papaya (cv. exsotica) was first observed on nursery plants, then in the field, where more than 50% of plants were affected. Plants showing the symptoms, bunchy and malformed tops, were slow to recover, and had almost no yield if infection occurred before fruiting.

"At a cursory glance, the symptom appeared similar to papaya mosaic virus disease which has not been reported in Malaysia thus far. Closer examination, revealed that the leaves did not exhibit the marked chlorosis and vein clearing of the crown leaves which are characteristic of papaya mosaic disease."

Subsequent research showed conclusively that the syndrome was due to the attack of thrips followed by infection of young leaves with the fungus C. oxysporum. The fungicide benomyl alternated weekly with mancozeb gave complete control. Control of thrips with insecticide was partially effective, but not recommended. It is believed that the thrips are pollinating agents as well; inadequate pollination in papaya may lead to premature fruit drop and reduced fruit size. The cultivar exsotica (developed for its disease resistance) was more susceptible than some other Malaysian cultivars.

[It is almost impossible to hear the "s" in 'exsotica.' I missed it when I was first given this seed in Malaysia and have introduced it widely as 'exotica.' At this late date I will not try to change it back. Besides, 'exotica' has intriguing connotations in our culture and I have become attached to it. I guess this is a living example of how languages change.] For a small packet of Dr. Ming's seed, drop us a line. Bonnie and I much prefer its flavor to any of the other solo papaya cultivars.

CORNELL PREVENTIVE SPRAY is used weekly on ECHO's farm on plants which are susceptible to insect or disease. We mix 5 T (tablespoons) vegetable oil, 1 T baking soda, and 4 T Safer's soap OR 2 teaspoons liquid dishsoap (like Ivory liquid) in one gallon of water. As with any spray, test on a small area if used for the first time on a plant before spraying a large area. The baking soda is apparently helpful in fungal control (see above).

COOKING OIL SPRAY FOR HOME GARDENS. The February 12, 1991 issue of the Wall Street Journal reports that the U. S. Department of Agriculture is recommending that home gardeners use a cooking oil spray to control aphids, white flies and spider mites. "Mix one tablespoon of dishwashing detergent to one cup of oil (soybean oil was used in the trials, but the implication is that other kinds are suitable), then mix between 1-2½ teaspoons of the oil-plus-detergent with one cup of water. The detergent causes the oil to emulsify in the water so that it can be sprayed. Spray directly on plants every 10 days. Eggplants, carrots, lettuce, celery, watermelons, peppers and cucumbers have been successfully protected by the spray, but it burns leaves of squash, cauliflower and red cabbage leaves. Researchers claim that the oil spray is only about one-third as costly as commercial pesticides with equivalent effectiveness." [Thanks to both HortIdeas and Central American Development Foundation for referring us to the article. The latter added a note, "Do not use palm or coconut oil because if not used promptly they will gel within 24 hours."]

MAKING YOUR OWN BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES. (From Int'l Ag-Sieve, Aug-Sept 1988.) The cassava hornworm is being controlled without chemicals in Brazil. Farmers collect hornworm larvae that are infected with a particular viral disease in the field. These diseased larvae are liquefied in blenders and combined with water. The larvae can be frozen and stored. When sprayed on the crop, the virus kills 90-100% of the hornworm larvae. The method is disseminated now in Brazil and frozen virus can even be purchased. Another article reports on a U.S. farmer who uses a similar approach to control soybean caterpillars on his 500-acre farm with a bacterial disease. He grinds dead caterpillars found in the field into a powder which he freezes for use the following summer.

The June 1988 issue of the Cassava Newsletter contained a lot more details about using this method. I am passing it on in some depth not only for those who have a problem with this particular worm, but as an example of an approach that might be successful with many pests.

The cassava hornworm (Erinnyis ello) damages seed stakes, destroys leaves, and increases the incidence of blight. The field is searched for larvae that have a disease caused by the Baculovirus. You can identify them because dead or near-dead larvae are found hanging from leaf petioles by their "false feet". Use only recently killed larvae (those that break open easily and spurt a whitish liquid). Mash 10-12 large larvae (7-9 cm long) or 22 medium-sized larvae (4-6 cm long) in water and strain the solution through a clean cloth or very fine strainer so that it will not clog your sprayer. The filtered liquid containing the Baculovirus is mixed with sufficient water to spray one hectare of cassava.

The best time to spray is 5 days after the larvae hatch. As a rough guideline, apply the virus when the field is infested with 5-7 small larvae (as small as 2 cm) per plant. Younger, smaller plants need protection at a lower population of larvae than do larger plants. Inspect the field at least weekly. Larvae hide on the underside of leaves or in the apical buds. Inspection needs to be thorough because larvae longer than 5 cm are not satisfactorily controlled by the virus.

Larvae become infected only after eating the virus. They stop causing damage after 4 days and die a couple of days later. Spray in the early morning or dusk to avoid the hottest part of the day.

Only recently killed larvae should be collected. If they cannot be used immediately, place them in a container and freeze them. Thaw the frozen larvae before preparing the solution. (It might be a good idea to keep some frozen larvae in case you cannot find diseased caterpillars next season.)

In the initial experiments, larvae in the control plots (no spray) began dying about the same time as those that were sprayed. This shows that the virus can be spread easily, perhaps by wind, rain, people, insects, or birds. This allows it to reach places which the spray did not directly contact.

This work with the cassava hornworm brings to mind something I have been wondering about for some time. Suppose ECHO mailed you in a regular envelope a small packet of Bacillus thuringiensis powder (Dipel), a bacterial spore that is used widely to control many kinds of caterpillars. Would you be able to kill a few cater- pillars with it, then make a spray to kill even more, soon building up a large enough reserve for large-scale use?

I first considered this when Mac Renfro brought a brief note in an old issue of Mother Earth News to my attention. The author sprayed caterpillars, subsequently blended the diseased caterpillars in warm milk and incubated this for a time. This was then used to spray more caterpillars. The work reported in the International Ag-Sieve makes me think the warm milk and incubation might not be needed. Want to give it a try? We will send a very small amount of this harmless (to people) powder if you agree to share your results with us.

A RESEARCH IDEA: CAN AN ORGANIC CATERPILLAR CONTROL BE MADE IN A COCONUT? Bacillus thuringiensis is a common and effective organic method for control of caterpillars and other insects. Though not unusually expensive for an insecticide, its cost can be prohibitive to many small farmers. "BT," as it is sometimes called, is a living bacterium sprayed on plant leaves. Young, growing caterpillars can get a fatal intestinal disease after just one bite of a sprayed leaf. They usually stop feeding quickly and die in a day or so.

A technique has been developed in Peru for multiplying populations of a related Bacillus thuringiensis that is effective in killing mosquito larvae. This raises an interesting possibility that the BT used to kill caterpillars could be multiplied in the same manner. (We have been told that some commercial BT preparations contain the toxin rather than live bacteria. Obviously such preparations would be inappropriate for this technique.)

Mike Fennema, a former ECHO intern now with the CRWRC in Cambodia, shared with us a correspondence he had with Dr. Humberto Guerra of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, A.P. 4314, Lima 100, Peru (e- mail: hguerra@upch.edu.pe) concerning the work. Some of our readers have access to a laboratory where they might be able to investigate this.

"Ripe coconuts that appear to be free of fungal infection are chosen. The area of the 'eyes' is cleared of coconut fibers with a stiff steel brush. A large nail, fitted with a handle, is dipped in alcohol and flamed using a lit candle. This is then used to perforate the coconut, using a twisting motion.

"The inoculum, containing some 10,000 bacteria, is introduced through the hole, then the hole is closed with a piece of cotton and sealed using wax drippings from the candle. The coconut is left at room temperature for 48-96 hours." Because their goal is to control mosquito larvae, the coconuts are cut open and the contents dispersed into ponds.

"The inoculum is being prepared in the laboratory under aseptic conditions. A better-equipped bacteriology lab is necessary, and toxicity tests should be performed. It is not recommended to pass the culture from coconut to coconut because a fungal or bacterial contaminant could appear and the Bacillus culture be lost. The toxicity test we use is to determine the LD50 of each preparation against mosquito larvae."

Large animals

"HOW DO I KEEP BIRDS OUT OF THE GARDEN?" Comments like "How can we keep birds from damaging the ripening millet?" or "How can we 'parrot-proof' our corn?" come up year after year. Bird damage to ripening grain is a common problem. Commercial methods available in the States include: sound repellents (electric, propane, pyrotechnics), taste repellents, visual repellents ("scare-eye" balloons, fake snakes), chemicals that make them timid or uneasy, and various netting or screening materials. It is common knowledge that birds quickly become accustomed to some of these and others are inappropriate for the small-holder overseas.

One relatively "low-tech" approach effective in keeping away at least some bird species is the use of a reflecting mylar tape suspended between posts. These "bird tapes" are about 1.3 cm/0.5 in wide with metallic red color on one side and silver on the other. When properly strung between rows they reflect the sun and move in the wind in such a way as to effectively continue scaring birds away.

An article in HortIdeas (vol 9, number 3, pg 26) mentions the use of mylar tape to control birds in strawberries. Drive strong stakes into the ground no more than 10 m (30 ft) apart. You will need mylar tape, strings (50 cm/20 in long) to connect the mylar tape to the post, and strong adhesive tape to secure the mylar to the strings. About 12 cm (5 in) above the ground, tie the strings to the stakes, leaving 20 cm (8 in) of each end of the string free. Make an "eye" with strong adhesive tape on one end of the mylar tape. Run the strings through this "eye" and tie. Stretch the mylar tape tightly to the next stake. Twist 3 or 4 times and attach in the same manner to that stake. This design allows the mylar to rotate in a breeze without knotting or breaking.

Suspend the tape just above the ground so it can move freely without hitting crops and weeds. Tighten it if it stretches out and replace when the shiny coating wears off (about 6 weeks in the sun). Suppliers: Modern Agri- Products (322 Main St., Lynden, WA 98264; phone 800/352-7496 or 360/354-8884; fax 360/354-8885) who carries "Birdscare Flash Tape"-minimum order: five 290-foot rolls for $15.00 plus postage ($3 in USA); also Brookstine, 1655 Bassford Drive, Mexico, MO 65265-1382, USA, has "Sparkle and Startle"-one 200-foot roll is $5 plus postage.

Some people in Florida keep birds from landing in their pools by stringing monofilament lines (i.e. fishing line) over them. These are hardly noticeable to us, but birds see them. HortIdeas (vol 9, number 4, pg 42) says that a similar approach is used to protect corn and berries. Drive 2-meter/6-foot stakes in the ground around the garden. String the line at about eye-level around the perimeter of the plot and criss-cross it in the middle. According to Cornell University biologists, the reason for success of this technique may be that the fishing line mimics the "impedimenta" warning strings spiders construct near their webs to keep birds from flying through them and destroying their work.

Rosalyn Rappaport, author of Controlling Crop Pests and Diseases, says that West African farmers bend the sorghum heads over when it is nearly ripe to make it hard for seed-eating birds to reach the grain. She also mentions "humming tape," which involves stretching video or cassette tape between posts. When a breeze blows over the tape it hums, which scares birds away. The tape should be about 5 mm wide and should not break when pulled. How you string the tape is crucial. Place posts 4-5 m/15 ft apart and stretch tapes tautly perpendicular to the prevailing winds without any twists. If wind direction is variable, orient them at assorted angles. Hang them high enough to be above the crop at maturity. When protecting large areas (0.5 hectare/1.2 acres or more), place lines 10-20 m/32-65 ft apart. Video or cassette tape will stretch more than commercial tapes and should be replaced every 5 or 6 weeks.

One farmer told us that shooting birds worked fine for him until they learned to avoid the field he was hiding in. He then found that if two people walked into a field and only one walked out, the birds would return. Apparently birds can't count. Some farmers kill one bird and hang it from a stick in the field to scare other ones away.

Tom Datema said that farmers in Sierra Leone keep birds from eating newly planted corn seeds by planting in cone-shaped holes about 20 cm deep. By the time the birds can reach the seedlings, they are too big for them to bother.

Joy Niland in South Africa wrote, "An idea which has proved quite effective in some places is to secure thin, dark-coloured string in a zig-zag pattern across the bed. The string should be about 3 cm above ground level. When the birds try to walk in the beds they trip over the string and generally fly off to less hazardous places. The string also acts as a deterrent to small animals."

If you try any of these methods, please let us know your results. We would also like to hear of other approaches to bird control that you or farmers you work with have personally found to be effective.

WHEN CRAB BURROWS CAUSE WASHOUT OF CANALS. David Ramse asked what he could do about this plague of his work in Nepal. We passed the question on to Dr. Bryan Duncan at Auburn University's International Center for Aquaculture. "I have had to worry a lot about crabs in my coastal pond work, and know of no easy preventive measures. One simply has to patrol ones dikes, canals, etc. and stop crab activity as soon as it appears. Here are a few 'home remedies.' (1) Introduce quicklime, pesticides or other noxious substances into burrows. (2) Introduction of fine rice bran into burrows is said to foul the gills and cause suffocation. (3) Use a stick with a metal hook on the end to pull the crabs from the burrow. (4) Let your imagination be your guide." If any of you have a proven method let us know.

KEEPING ELEPHANTS OUT OF THE FIELDS. I always imagined that elephant damage to a field was akin to hurricane danger at ECHO-it could happen but it might be years before it does. This view changed when I visited Kristin Kroll at her Food for the Hungry project in Marsabit, Kenya. Her experimental plot of Buhrow's white desert sweet corn had been destroyed just before my visit. (It had been doing well and was almost ready to harvest, by the way.) If I recall correctly, elephant damage was so prevalent that people seldom bothered growing crops. Elephants also can be dangerous. Two farmers and a little girl had been killed in the past year, I was told, when they accidentally came across elephants after dark. Kristin was able to obtain a grant for an electric fence, which I understand admirably controlled the problem. But what alternatives are available where an electric fence is too expensive or might be stolen?

A Mennonite missionary told me that some 70 years ago in Tanzania the British government wanted to keep elephants north of an area where crops were grown. It was bounded on two sides by two large bodies of water, I believe he said about 30 miles apart. The government constructed a trench approximately 4 feet wide and 4 feet deep between the two bodies of water. Elephants reportedly are so large that they will not try to cross such a trench. I mentioned this to Harrison Akabala from Kenya who visited ECHO. His face brightened and he said, "That is how farmers near the river keep hippopotamuses from their fields. They dig trenches."

Do any of our readers have first-hand knowledge of this technique, and how well it works, or of the old project in Tanzania? Someone told me that elephants will fill in a trench to cross to the other side. I can also imagine that if the land is sloping, the trenches could cause erosion. And if the land is flat, they might fill with water and lead to mosquito-born diseases or bilharzia. This is a problem I never expect to face at ECHO, so we would like to hear more from those with experience.

The following is excerpted from material from George Atkins. "Henry and Jill Neusinger went as volunteers to Sri Lanka where they developed a demonstration smallholding. Although they had some fencing, in the early days they lost most of their crops and some fruit trees because of the elephants. So Henry set about developing an elephant-proof fence and he managed to create one that really did work!

"The fence consisted of stakes about 2 feet long and 6 inches in diameter. The idea was to bury them in the ground with the points up. With the top sharpened the elephant cannot or will not put his foot on them. No damage is done because elephants kick forward when they walk. The points extend 6 to 9 inches above the ground. This height is very important. Too high out of the ground and the elephants pull them out, or push with their feet and lever them out of the ground. They are very intelligent and if they think they can push out the stakes they will. Of course, if the stakes are too low in the ground, the elephants can just tread on them. So they have to be high enough that the elephant cannot tread on them, yet not so high that he can push them over. They must also be pointed so he cannot get a grip on them with his trunk and pull them up.

"They did trials with tame elephants and tested 5 different methods: distance between stakes, height, point and no points. The only method that succeeded had 9 inches (23 cm) between stakes. The fence is 5.5 feet (1.7 m) wide and runs around the perimeter of the village. It took a lot of effort and expense to build a fence like this, but the village people were losing something like $8,000 worth of crops a year, less than the cost of the fence. They used hardwood. Maintenance consisted of spraying with herbicide to keep down the growth on the stakes. If white ants got to the wood, they also had to spray with pesticide. They expect it to last 20 years."

Jim Ardill in Ethiopia wrote details of a similar technique. "Strong wooden poles, about 15-20 cm diameter and 1 meter long, are sharpened on one end and driven or dug into the ground until about 25 cm are exposed. (Leaving the upper end flat makes the driving part much easier.) Cut the exposed end into a sharp point. Position these spikelike poles at about 30-40 cm intervals in a band about 2 meters wide for a barrier to elephants. Clean off the bark to make the poles slippery and make sure any knots or protrusions are removed (making it difficult to grasp with the trunk). Treat the poles with tar or diesel oil to enhance the lifespan, or a similar pole can be made from concrete. I trust that these ideas will be helpful to someone."

PROTECTING TREES FROM GOATS. This item is excerpted from Rurcon News. "Axel Bosselmann, writing from the University of Tasmania, describes how he stopped his goats from ring-barking and doing other damage to trees. He painted the trees with a mixture of goat, chicken and cow manure, and mud slaked with water or diluted urine. The mixture was applied at the level of his outstretched arms to the bark, branches and twigs and lightly over buds and leaves. It proved effective in keeping the goats away for about a month during the heavy rains before the trees needed repainting."

Roland Bunch in Honduras says, "In Bolivia some years ago, I stumbled across some villagers who had painted some eucalyptus trees with a mixture of water and goat manure, much like your recipe. This had completely stopped the goats from destroying the trees. I would guess this would work with many animals that are territorial in nature."

"HOW CAN WE KEEP GOATS AND OTHER ANIMALS FROM EATING TREE SEEDLINGS WHEN FARMERS PLANT LEUCAENA?" The following is adapted from a discussion of this problem in the March 1985 issue of the Heifer Project Exchange newsletter (free from Heifer Project, P.O. Box 808, Little Rock, AR 72203, USA; phone 501/376-6836).

(1) The nursery must be surrounded by a fence. An effective and inexpensive fence for goats can be built by cutting thorn bushes and stacking them around the nursery. (2) Convince farmers to control their animals before the project starts. This will be more easily done if they are told and believe that the trees will later be a renewable source of food for their animals. (3) Use the "bare-stem" transplanting method to help the seedlings survive grazing by animals. Follow these steps:

Start the nursery at least three months before the rainy season, so that the leucaena seedlings will be at least three feet tall when the rains begin. Soak the seed bed thoroughly before transplanting, so the seedlings can be pulled out of the soil easily. Strip all but the top leaves off the seedlings. If the uprooted seedlings will not be planted for over 12 hours, pack the roots in mud to keep them from drying out. Plant a high number of trees per acre (at least 3,000). Goats will be more likely to eat only the lower leaves and move on to the other trees when the planting is dense. It is better to develop a certain area well and expand the reforested area each rainy season than to spread the trees too thinly. There are three reasons for the success of this method. (1) Because the seedlings will have almost no leaves until the grass turns green, goats and other animals are less likely to be attracted to them. (2) The seedlings can better survive grazing because the root system is already quite well developed. (3) When the leaves start to appear, the seedling is tall enough that the lower branches can be grazed and the upper leaves will allow the tree to grow and establish itself.

IGUANAS ARE A GARDEN PEST for Cory Thede in Brazil. His trials (about 600 miles up the Amazon) were devastated by various lizards. He reports: "The iguanas are 1-2 feet nose to tail, with green/brown/black colors. They eat both false roselle and katuk, but not chaya. Now that we have a dozen cattle, I'm succeeding with vegetables I couldn't grow here two years ago, thanks to the manure. ...Part of the success is that I avoid the plant-eating lizards and ants by hiding or 'camouflage planting' in weeds rather than on bare soil, which the people prefer around their houses. By planting the seeds among weed vines, the seedlings are not found among all the leaves.


iguana

"Some control the iguanas by draping old fishnet over seedbeds for transplants. The elevated gardens are easily covered. [Most gardens are on raised platforms.] Seedlings can grow up through the net, and iguanas/lizards avoid it. I killed a few iguana pests in rat traps. They hide in scrap woodpiles, so keep these away from the garden. In another area (Jurut area in N Brazil), iguanas ate the pigeon peas, but in Santarem, they didn't touch them-perhaps from the resemblance to a similar- leaved stinging vine that grew as a yard weed in Santarem."

KEEPING MONKEYS AND BABOONS OUT OF YOUR CROPS. William Boykin in Zambia asked if anyone in our network has found a way to keep monkeys from fruits, vegetables and peanuts (other than a gun). We asked for your ideas on this and many members of out network contributed helpful solutions. Be forewarned that this article contains some graphic descriptions of controls used in the field which we do not endorse.

Fr. Gerold Rupper in Tanzania sent us the following. It involves a plant that is an old "friend" to our readers- sunn hemp. Sunn hemp is receiving widespread acceptance as a green manure in East Africa. The species they grow is Crotalaria ochroleuca. Fr. Rupper writes, "Early in the campaign for planting sunn hemp (also called zanziberica), we got a report from a youth group that monkeys had been afraid to traverse a belt of sunn hemp around their field of maize. I could not ask the monkeys why they did so. But one can imagine that first of all it is a strange sight to see sunn hemp growing together and forming a barrier. Secondly, the husks give a clattering sound, which may disturb the monkeys. [Ed: the word "crotalaria" comes from the Greek root 'crotal' meaning a rattle or castanet. The genus for rattlesnake is Crotalus.] Thirdly, if they are caught stealing maize, it is almost impossible to flee through the sunn hemp field as the branches form a rather strong network like wire. In the case of maize [corn] there is some synchronization between the maize and sunn hemp. The husks of both crops form about the same time (depending on the maize variety). People let the corn dry in the fields, at which time the barrier effect of sunn hemp becomes important. We have developed a new method of planting sunn hemp. Two rows of maize alternate with one row of sunn hemp. Here the maize is well protected against monkeys.

"By the way, here is another story. Some years ago Tanzania feared an invasion from South Africa. People were told to dig pits and cover them. Of course, before people went into hiding, snakes and other reptiles made their home there. So we sunn hemp people told them to grow sunn hemp. The plants form a solid black coverage where chickens etc. feel very safe from preying birds. If an invasion had come, they would have never suspected that sunn hemp fields are the best air shelters, although not yet listed as a war technology."

Fr. Rupper's comments about how the upright plants fall into each other helps me understand a problem we have had. ECHO grows only very small plots of each plant for our seedbank, perhaps only 2 rows deep. The sunn hemp plots usually look terrible because they fall over. Apparently that is what they are supposed to do, but in the field they fall into each other and so hold each other up. There must be a sermon illustration in there.

[ECHO can send a small packet of sunn hemp seed; see the chapter on soil health for more information. We usually also send another species developed by the University of Hawaii, Crotalaria juncea. You can determine which does best in your conditions. People in Tanzania can contact Fr. Rupper at St. Benedict's Abbey, P.O. Peramiho, TANZANIA. He says that people in Zambia can obtain seeds from Ginnie Goodfellow, Box 61, Siavonga; Marleen Kramer, Dioz. Development Committee, Box 450014, Mpika or White Fathers Missions in Mbala, Kasama and Mansa dioceses.]

Sina Luchen with the Ministry of Agriculture in Zambia sent suggestions on controlling monkeys. "Some years ago I happened to stay in a place where monkeys were a major pest. From my experience, the most effective control method against monkeys is the use of a sharp pitched bell in the field which is rung at intervals of about 30 minutes. This need not be a complicated bell. A small metallic object struck against a hanging piece of rail or old plough disc is adequate. Monkeys are frightened at the sound of the bell. Clearing vegetation around the fields also helps, as monkeys prefer to hide in the bushes surrounding the field to scan for human presence before moving on the crop.

"I stayed where there were pet monkeys for 8 years and learned a few things about their behavior. Monkeys fear cattle. The sight of cattle sends a monkey in a frenzy panic. Our monkeys used to help us detect the presence of stray cattle in the unfenced orchard. Maybe there is a way to use cattle in fending off monkeys."

Cheru Tessema in Ethiopia asked local farmers how they keep monkeys out of their fields. "They catch one monkey in a trap and paint it so that it is a different color than the other monkeys. When they set the differently colored monkey loose it runs to join its group. The whole group runs in fear of the different looking monkey approaching them. The released monkey doesn't know that it looks different and keeps on following its group, thus driving them far from a given farm."

Rev. Herbert Perry, a former missionary in Zimbabwe, wrote in response to this method from Ethiopia. "I suspect your report is somewhat incomplete. Studies of monkey life and behavior have been conducted over a number of years by field workers who routinely dye a monkey so that it may be identified and observed over a period of time. As far as I know, there is no evidence that the alteration in color in any way disturbs the rest of the clan."

"In Zimbabwe monkeys and baboons are frightened away in a way similar to that report, except that instead of paint farmers use the animal's own blood. [Ed: This becomes gory and neither I nor Rev. Perry recommend it. However, it is worth knowing about people's practices.] After trapping a single animal, they strap it securely to a board and proceed to flay large areas of the animal's body, releasing it as a bleeding mass of screaming pain. When this animal attempts to rejoin its compatriots, they indeed are frightened off. Eventually, of course, the wounded animal dies. It strikes me as being unnecessarily cruel and inhumane." If any readers have first-hand and successful experience with the painted monkey technique, please send us every detail you can think of about the process and its effect. It might save a lot of animals from being tortured.

J. D. Balarin in Kenya says that monkeys were a pest on the large banana plantation on the Baobab Farm. "We used a dog on a running line as a deterrent and it worked. A less gruesome solution."

C. H. Hansen in Zimbabwe wrote concerning the monkey painting. "When I worked in the copper belt in Zambia a neighbor told me about the same trick: catching and painting a baboon with bright colors. Only they also drenched it in perfumes and evil smelling chemicals. He said that scared off the troop with the victim in hot pursuit and that they would eventually turn around and kill the victim. Of course, this just moves the problem to some one else's farm."

Fr. Gerold Rupper in Tanzania wrote again about monkeys. "After all you have to kill them if you do not want to simply drive them away from your own field into your neighbor's farm. The common method in this part of Africa is to locate the herd of monkeys. Then you fix a large net on trees for a length of 30 meters. The 'killers' hide themselves behind thick trees with knob-kerries (sticks with knobs). Another group of men, in the very early dawn, chase the herd toward the net. They bypass the trees with the men in hiding, arrive at the net, try to climb it, and are caught in its meshes. They are then killed by the men with knob-kerries. The tribesmen hired for this cruel work get to eat the monkeys." Fr. Rupper prefers using the borders of sunn hemp to protect his own field.

Roger Sharland in Kenya has worse problems with baboons, followed by monkeys, jackals, porcupines, squirrels and rats! He wrote, "After a time of telling people 'We know the problem but can't help,' we decided to do something about it." Someone suggested a development organization buy baboon tails, but that would lead to dependency. He realized that baboons were not always a problem and are not as bad everywhere, so they began interviewing older men and seeing what other communities are doing. I report what was told to Roger, even though some are gruesome.

The common principle seems to be to make the animal so afraid of man that it will not risk coming near your patch for food. In the past people lived in larger communities and had a relatively smaller periphery to defend against animals. People then waged war continually on baboons who became afraid of man and looked elsewhere for food. Some folks located where they roost then went on a baboon hunt. They would burn around the tree or rock and shoot large numbers as they came down. For those who use bows and arrows, this tends to be a big social event. One solution is to encourage eating baboon meat. One medical assistant shot a baboon but did not kill it. It ran away and he has not had trouble with baboons since, even though he is in an area that has a lot of problems with baboons.

Another solution that Roger thinks is practical and seems to work is to put chili powder on the paths that the baboons always use in coming to the garden. Baboons always rub their eyes when they sit down, getting the powder into their eyes. This either frightens them away or makes them easier to shoot. Supposedly in one region baboons became afraid of men but not women, so the men would dress as women and carry a short bow under their skirt, though Roger says this presumably would not work often!

Continue to let us know other ideas you have. It is a pressing problem for many communities.

PORCUPINE CONTROL. Michi Vojta, a Peace Corps volunteer in Kenya, wrote, "One problem that discourages planting of tuber crops (sweet potato, cassava, etc.) is porcupines and other burrowing animals that substantially reduce harvest. Any suggestions to protect foods from the burrowing ones?"

Porcupines live in many habitats, from tropical forests to sandy semi-arid regions, and create extensive underground burrows with several entrances where they shelter and breed. Most are nonselective vegetarians and can be major pests in orchards or areas of reforestation by eating all parts of seedlings and girdling mature trees. In cultivated areas, they may damage root and tuber crops, pumpkins, melons, maize, vegetables-and irrigation tubing. They usually forage alone at night. Porcupines are hunted by large birds-of-prey, wildcats, pythons, scavengers, and even, in various countries, for human food.

Joe Brooks with the Denver Wildlife Research Center writes that porcupines in Pakistan died when they ate bait set out to poison wild boar. The bait was wheat flour or grain, corn oil, brown sugar/molasses, anticoagulant poison (warfarin or coumatetralyl) at a concentration of 0.025%, and enough water to make a stiff dough, rolled into small balls. He suggests that since the porcupines damage root crops, it might be worth trying cubed pieces of the affected crops mixed with the anticoagulant concentrate for a bait. (See below for information about using Gliricidia sepium as a similar rodenticide.) It is also possible to fumigate the burrows with 5-10 aluminum phosphide tablets per burrow system, but care must be taken to close all entrances to the burrow system except the one to be treated.

Porcupines find their food by hearing it fall, feeling it with their whiskers, or with their keen sense of smell. K.S. Ramalingam, visiting ECHO from India, says it is important to make rat baits smell appealing with ghee butter or groundnuts, and to stir them with a stick to avoid imparting the human smell. We have heard of fresh mint tea being poured on the ground or sprayed on plants in Thailand as a rat repellent; similar techniques might work for porcupines. To keep rodents off the bark of young trees, farmers in the Solomon Islands wrap them with a local thorny vine and make bamboo "collars" for the trees. Indian farmers grow sunflowers and build perches to encourage owls and birds-of-prey to perch in their fields and eat rodents. Might the sunken bucket trap (see below) be adapted for porcupines? If anyone in our network has more ideas for control of burrowing animals, please let us know so we can share your idea with others.

SUCCESS WITH HOMEMADE MOUSETRAP. Barry Rands in Mali reports that his gardener recently caught 150 mice in one night with four traps in their garden. Here is what he does. Barry emphasizes that this is not his idea, but is borrowed from local folks that have been doing this for years. He has popularized the technique by including it in his extension program.


a succesful homemade mouse trap

Remove the top from a 20 liter oil can and set the open can (or similar size container or bucket) in the ground so the top edge is flush with the surface. Fill the container water to within 8 cm of the top. Sprinkle sweepings from a millet threshing floor on the surface and around the trap to provide both camouflage and bait. Replace with fresh bait each evening. Other materials that would float would probably serve the same purpose. The mice come at night to eat, drink or play (they are not sure why the trap is so attractive) and fall into the trap by the dozens and drown.

Three or four such traps set around the perimeter of a small (1,000 m2) garden should be sufficient for rodent control, depending on the severity of the problem. Where containers are in short supply you can dig a 40 x 30 cm deep hole then line it with clay or cement to make it hold water. He has also successfully used a brew made from the pods of Acacia nilotica as a sealant.

When floating camouflage bait is not available, he has successfully used two pieces of cloth stretched over the trap with a 5 cm (larger if your rodents are bigger) gap in between. A bait such as millet, corn or other grain is then placed on the cloth and somehow the mice manage to fall in!

There is reference to a similar trap in Natural Crop Protection, which suggests floating a few peanuts and placing a generous ring of peanut butter 3 cm below the rim of the container.

GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (MOTHER OF CACAO, MATA RATON, RAT KILLER) USED IN RAT CONTROL. Some people use Gliricidia to kill rats. Roland Bunch has seen the following done in Honduras. A few good-sized pieces of bark are stripped from the tree and boiled in water with about 20 pounds of corn. The corn is then tossed into the fields. Both rats and mice are killed by the treated corn. It is not as effective as regular commercial rat poison but it does work and is less lethal in case of an accident. It takes a day or two before they start finding dead rats and mice in the fields. We have heard rumors of other methods, including some manner of fermenting the leaves. We asked for help from our readers and received several responses, though not enough to provide a "recipe."

Mike Benge with USAID sent us a 1966 technical report by Harry Hockman titled "Mechanism of Rodenticidal Activity of Gliricidia sepium." The author claims that it is commonly used in Central America as both a rodenticide and an insecticide.

Dr. Hockman isolated a substance called coumarin from the leaves of gliricidia. Although this compound is itself not especially toxic, it is converted by bacteria into dicoumerol. This is chemically so similar to vitamin A that it interferes with the normal role of vitamin A in permitting the blood to clot. This was shown in 1948 to be effective in killing rodents. It is not a rapidly acting substance, but repeated doses result in fatal hemorrhages within a few days. Rats fed baits containing dicoumerol feed freely and do not develop the bait shyness that is so common with other rodenticides. This eventually led to the well known rat poison D-Con (which is actually not dicoumerol but a synthetic substance, warfarin, with a somewhat similar structure that is even more effective).

The authors looked into how Central Americans have used gliricidia. "In southern Mexico the bark or leaves are ground and mixed with damp corn flour or spread on bananas. In Panama the leaves are ground or mashed and then mixed with grain. At this point, however, there are two versions of the proper procedure. One method requires that the bait be cooked or steeped and dried before use, and the other that the uncooked mixture be used. At either locality it is worthy of note that the ground leaves are mixed with grain and allowed to ferment under the conditions of high humidity and temperature that exist in these areas." Others observed that "when rats eat it, their hair stands straight up and they bloat up and die in 4-5 days. This is the type of clinical picture one would expect from a hemorrhagic poison. Unfortunately no autopsy has been performed on a rat killed by gliricidia."

Dr. Hockman quotes research in which rats "fed a normal diet of unincubated gliricidia leaves in amount of 1.5 grams three times a day for six days showed no pathological changes. Those fed on incubated leaves in amounts of 1.5 grams three times a day for six days showed clear signs of hemorrhage in the gut, lung, and spleen."

This research went no further because there were more potent synthetic rat poisons. That may be valid for the U.S. market, but a natural rat poison that could be obtained at no cost to peasant farmers would be an enormous blessing to the third world. (Alternatively it might lead to small-scale village industries.)

I highly recommend this project to our readers within the scientific community. We need more precise "recipes" ready for village-level use with more detailed experiments to show the effect. What is the best method of preparation? With what should it be mixed, and how, to make an attractive bait? How much does a rat need to eat to be killed? How long will it be before the effect takes place? Is there much variation in effectiveness between gliricidia trees from different locations? How long and in what manner can the product be stored? Does it have a short life so it is useful only as produced on the farm, or can it be produced, stored and sold in the city?

Dr. Hockman says that "Gliricidia has two additional uses that one would not normally associate with a toxic plant. First, the young shoots are nontoxic to humans and are considered to be a delicacy in some parts of Central America. Second, silage composed of two-thirds corn and one-third Gliricidia leaves is more acceptable to and shows greater weight gains in cattle than either plant alone." It is commonly used as feed for animals Other uses include living fences, green manure, poles for yams, alley cropping and in barriers for erosion control. Most of you will find gliricidia seeds or cuttings available locally. If not, we can send a small packet of seed. We can send a copy of the article to scientists considering this as a research project. I have summarized all the general material, so the only additional information is highly technical and of no use except for laboratory research.

KEEPING RATS AWAY FROM OIL PALMS. The following is taken from West Africa Link. "Rev. Noah Kyireh, agronomist at the Nyankomasi Methodist Agricultural Project, has found an effective method of keeping rodents away from young oil palms. The young trees can be attacked by rodents, which will eat the stem right at ground level, killing the tree. Wire netting placed around the tree is not completely successful because the rodents can dig under the wire and still get to the tree. Noah Kyireh has been putting logs of dry wood around young oil palms at a distance of some 20 centimeters from the stem. It is the tropical fire ants, which subsequently inhabit the dry wood, which then keep the rodents away. He says it is much more effective than the use of wire netting, and certainly much cheaper."

Insect and mollusk pests

WHAT IS THE HUGE GRUB THAT IS EATING BANANA ROOTS? Mat Huber sent us a large beetle in a bottle of alcohol. The beetle, larger and longer than your thumb, is causing serious damage to bananas in his part of Haiti. Dr. Frank Martin identified it as Cosmopolites sordidus, considered to be the number two problem of banana in the Caribbean, second only to Cigateca disease. It usually occurs in coastal locations; in the interior it usually does not limit banana production. (However, Mat is well inland and it is serious.)

Symptoms are a listless appearance of the plant and spindly leaves. About the only thing that can be done is when digging pups, clean them with a machete so carefully that you will notice damage if the beetle is present on the pup. Use only borer-free pups on clean land. The beetle is large but not very mobile, so infestation of the new planting might not occur if sufficiently distant from infested bananas. His reference book recommends treating pups with a systemic insecticide. Their recommendation, however, is an organophosphate now outlawed in this country because it could kill people!

BLISTER BEETLE CONTROL. Sina Luchen with the Ministry of Agriculture in Zambia sent suggestions on controlling blister beetles (drawing by Rose Elwell). "Recently we had an unusually high infestation of blister beetles (Mylabris sp.) in okra. This can be a devastating pest to a number of crops including beans, cowpeas, cucurbits, and maize by eating flowers, pollen and tender pods. One recommended method of control is hand picking. This must be done with care because the beetles secrete a liquid that causes blisters when it falls on human skin. Intensive sprayings with a number of recommended insecticides could not help much. ...I came across an agricultural bulletin from Lesotho in which it was reported that farmers there were controlling the beetle by use of blue containers filled with soapy water. This insect is irresistibly attracted to the color blue, flies into the container and drowns.

"We tried the technique. We bought 4 blue containers, filled them with detergent and placed them among the experimental plots which covered an area of 180 square meters. On the first day in an 8 hour period, 1200 beetles had drowned. It is recommended to cover the outside of the containers to avoid beetles hitting on the sides. Over a number of days, the infestation of the pest became drastically reduced. ...If the drowned insects are scooped out daily, the detergent can be reused for a number of days without having to change the liquid."

IDEAS FOR CONTROLLING CHICKPEA POD BORER. (From Int'l Agricultural Development, Jan/Feb 1994.) Chickpea leaves and pods exude extremely acidic (pH 2) droplets which repel most pests from attacking the plant. But recently the pod borer, which eats the contents of the pods, has become tolerant to the acid and has devastated crops in Asia. Pod borers have become resistant to many insecticides, and biological control is difficult because beneficial insects do not tolerate the acidic conditions.

Scientists at ICRISAT are breeding low-acid chickpeas and recommend wider planting which gives birds (like cattle egrets) paths to walk through the field to eat the caterpillars. Another creative way to control the pest is to intercrop the chickpeas with coriander, a commercial spice crop. Coriander has an umbel flower (like carrots or Queen Anne's Lace) which serves as a "platform" for predator insects to enjoy nectar and sun and an acid-free home from which they can attack the pod borer. Research showed that using these techniques enables Indian farmers to quadruple their chickpea yields.

TRENCH TRAPS CONTROL COLORADO POTATO BEETLE. Researchers at AgCanada and Cornell University have developed a technique to control the Colorado potato beetle, a major pest not only of potato but also of tomato and eggplant. The beetle is native to Mexico, where it actually feeds on two wild Solanaceous weedy relatives rather than the domesticated potato. It has spread throughout the United States (except California), from western Europe through the Mediterranean region all the way to China. Entomologist Prof. Ward Tingey of Cornell said that the beetle will likely reach North Korea by the year 2000. It is primarily a temperate pest, and does not exist as a crop pest south of Mexico or in the Andes, where potatoes are native. If this beetle is not a problem in your area, the technique may still be helpful with other beetles.


the Colorado potato beetle

The Colorado potato beetle has become resistant to many pesticides. An innovative technique developed by AgCanada and researched by Cornell is the use of "trench traps" to catch the beetles as they walk out of fields in search of new food sources or places to overwinter.

This technique, like most successful pest control programs, relies on a knowledge of the insect's biological cycle. Farmers often rotate their potato crops to adjoining plots of land in an effort to control the beetle's damage to their plants. The effectiveness of this practice is increased by digging deep (minimum 30 cm/12 in, and up to 91 cm/3 feet) trenches around their fields and lining them with 1.5 mil black plastic mulch.

Potato beetles emerge from their winter hibernation in the soil in the previous year's field and disperse to the new field by walking up to 45 m (150 ft) from their hibernation site. They do not generally fly to find new food sources, as many other pests do. In an effort to reach the new potato field, the beetles fall into the plastic-lined trench, and, unable to crawl out, starve to death within 10-14 days.

The design of the trench is important to the success of this control method. It must have at least a 65 angle. The plastic lining is also key in the control: the beetles are able to climb out of the trenches if the plastic is clean (as when new, or just after a rain) due to their fine leg hairs, but they cannot crawl out when the plastic is coated with fine dust particles. Prof. Tingey recommends that growers place their trenches next to roads or well-used pathways so that they are redusted after a rain. Drainage of the trench is effected by perforating the trench bottom every 3m/10 feet. Though some insects may escape the trenches through these perforations, in test areas they have often been killed by a fungus, Beauveria bassiana, which thrives in the dark, moist areas below the trench. Farmers find masses of white webbed fungus on dead beetles when they peel back the plastic.

The technique can be used at both ends of the season: at the beginning, to trap insects as they attempt to enter a field, and at the end, as they leave the field to overwinter after the potato foliage is killed before the potato harvest. One main disadvantage is that the plastic does not usually last more than one year and needs to be replaced as new areas are dug.

The technique is not presently being used for control of other pests, although presumably it could be used for other beetles which disperse primarily through walking or crawling rather than flying. In Controlling Crop Pests and Diseases, Rosalyn Rappaport writes that army worms and cutworms, which migrate into crops by crawling, can be trapped and killed in ditches dug around plants. She specifies that the "side of the ditch nearest the crop must be straight, though it need not be more than 10 cm (4 in) deep. The worms cannot crawl up a sheer slope." In many situations, the plastic lining for the trench may not be necessary, and you could experiment with alternatives. (Scott Sherman used a cut-away PVC pipe buried at ground level to catch chinch bugs.) If you have field success with variations on these methods, please let us know.

James Gordley in Panama responded to this note on using trenches to control potato beetles. "I was experimenting with raising potatoes under different mulches. I would lay old carpet in my garden after working the ground in the spring. Every 30 cm I cut a slit in the carpet and inserted a seed potato. To my surprise there were no potato beetles on the plants growing through the carpet, while the plants in the next row (without carpet) had beetles on them. This was true for 3 years in a row. This method also produced potatoes 2 weeks ahead of my other plantings which were sown the same day. "Another method for beetle control is to run a handful of the insects in some water through the blender. Strain the juice and add 1/2 cup to 1 gallon of water. Spray this solution on the infected plants. Within 2 days there were no more beetles on the plants, and I saw many dead beetles on the ground. The 'beetle concentrate' can be frozen in small portions and then used as needed."

FLY CONTROL WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS. The Heifer Project Exchange quotes Jim Rankin in Togo. "People are seldom bothered by flies because they keep Muscovy ducks. For a fetish ceremony they killed a number of ducks. He opened the crops to see what they had eaten. Each one was filled with hundreds of flies."

BioOptions vol 1 page 6, 1990, also addressed this subject. Don Mock, extension livestock entomologist at Kansas State University says, "The Muscovy duck and the cattle egret may someday be enlisted as a major natural weapon of defence against the housefly and the horse and deer fly." A Canadian study with dairy calves showed that Muscovy ducks removed 30 times more houseflies than manufactured flytraps, baitcards, flypaper, or flysheets. The ducks also ate spilled feed, eliminating a fly breeding site.

FRUIT FLY TRAP MADE FROM BASIL. [The following is taken from a note in Ileia Newsletter, vol 9, # 3, p. 31.] "In Keralea (southern India) fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis and D. cucurbitae) incidence is severe in mango trees. P. Reghunath and M. Indira describe a low-cost technology to combat this insect pest."

A fruit fly trap is prepared as follows: "20 g of Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) leaves are crushed and the extract together with the crushed leaves are placed inside a coconut shell, which is then filled with 100 ml water. To increase the keeping quality of the extract, 0.5 g citric acid is added and the extract is then poisoned by mixing 0.5 g carbofuran 3G. The traps are suspended from mango tree branches at a rate of 4 traps per tree. The fruit flies feed on the ocimum extract and are killed in a few minutes. In our trial, over a hundred flies per week were caught in this way.

"To successfully control pests we advise an integrated strategy. Set the traps in the trees at the above rate, as soon as fruit set begins and continue till harvest. Change the traps every week and set fresh traps. When the population of flies is heavy, give a spray with malathion 0.1% and sugar 2%. Collect and destroy attacked fruits that rot and drop down."

CATCHING FLIES WITH VINEGAR AND HONEY. Jimmy Richardson in Australia wrote, "Your note on a fruit fly trap made from basil and insecticide prompts me to send the simple plans for the one that we use. The trap uses harmless ingredients VERY effectively against the fruit fly. To make the trap, cut two holes about 4 fingers high from the bottom in the side of a 2-liter container with a screw-on cap. To suspend the trap, drill a hole in the center of the cap, then push a double width of string through and knot on the inside.


. Flies enter the container and fall into the attractant.

"To make the attractant mixture, mix 1 cup of vinegar, 2 cups of water and 1 tablespoon of honey and shake well. Fill the trap to just below the holes with this mixture and hang the container about 5 feet high. Flies enter the container and fall into the attractant. I estimate it is 90-95% effective, and no poisons."

LEAF-CUTTER ANTS ARE A CHALLENGE TO MANY. Marianne Frederick contacted ECHO with a vivid description of problems of leaf-cutter ants in Guyana. She said that farmers even tried building water filled moats around plants but the ants built leaf bridges and crossed right over. She wonders if there are controls that do not involve commercial insecticides.

Dr. Keith Andrews at Zamorano in Honduras told us of a technique using freshly cut leaves of jack bean Canavalia ensiformis. The following comes from "The use of jackbean as a biological control for leaf-cutting ants" in Biotropica, vol 11(4) 1979 pp 313-14. Five to 15 kg of leaves were placed nightly on top of and around mounds covering an area of 25 to 100 square meters for three consecutive nights. All the leaves disappeared by the following morning, the ants apparently preferring them over the plants surrounding the colony ...[including citrus, cashew and mango trees]. A single three-night treatment usually resulted in complete cessation of ant activity for periods ranging from four months to five years (when observation ended). Infrequently, very small black ants (possibly forms of the same species) would appear 2-3 weeks following treatment of the colonies. Because of their random and disorganized activity, they were controlled with small doses of insecticide.

"It is presumed that the effect of jackbean on leaf-cutting ant colonies is due to the action of fungicides such as demethylhomopterocarpin contained in jackbean leaves on the ants' fungus gardens." The ants carry the leaves into the mound where they are normally transformed by fungal activity into the food upon which they depend. That's about all the article reported, and no data was included.

Tom Post had trouble establishing neem trees in Belize because of leaf-cutter ant damage. "They would strip whole trees. I planted jack bean around the trees. When the plants got about a foot tall all damage stopped. But there was no evidence that they were stripping jackbean leaves. In fact, we placed leaves on their trails and on the mound and ants would not pick them up. A project in El Salvador likewise found they would not pick up leaves spread on the trail or the mound."

Dr. Warwick Kerr in Brazil writes that "One recent research revealed that sesame, Sesamum indicum, protects the plantations against leaf-cutter ants, Atta sexden. The ants bring it to the ant hill and it stops growth of fungi."

Leaf-cutter ants are a serious problem. Let us know if you try jack bean or sesame control, or if you have another method. There are too many unanswered questions to recommend the method with much conviction. This would be a good research project for some of the scientists among our readers.

Alfredo Petrov in Cochabamba, Bolivia shared his experience in controlling leaf-cutter ants. "I work in a semi- arid valley, 2,700 meters above sea level. Leaf-cutter ants have defoliated our peach trees, rose bushes, potato fields and tree plantation seedlings. So they are not only a problem of the humid tropics.

"The best protection for tall plants with narrow stems, such as roses or young peach trees, is loosely-wadded sheep wool tied around the stem! Ants don't like to cross it and it is almost totally effective. Local sheep conveniently deposit the necessary tufts of wool on our barbed wire fences. This method is not practical for older trees with thick trunks or for tree nurseries with thousands of seedlings.

"For trees with thick trunks, merely whitewashing a section of the trunk with lime seems to somewhat reduce leaf- cutter damage. We mix the lime with mucilaginous cactus (Opuntia sp.) juice to help it stick on longer. Perhaps the black ants don't like to cross the contrasting white background, which makes their black march easily visible to predators?

"Several Bolivians have recommended wrapping fruit tree trunks with sticky tape, sticky side outward. I haven't found this to be very practical; in our intense mountain sunshine it doesn't last long - the tape soon dries out and turns brittle. There is a sticky liquid sold in the USA for painting on tree trunks to trap crawling pests called "Tanglefoot". Does anyone have more information on this? [Ed: This product is indeed very sticky, not affected by temperature or weather, and very effective at trapping insects until it traps a lot of dirt and no longer has a sticky surface. It does not dry out and can last several months. The price in one U.S. catalogue is $25/5 lbs-not exactly inexpensive; does anyone have experience with alternatives? See page 198 for description of using STP oil treatment as a substitute.]

"One local person suggested that I protect prized plants with a circle of sugar poured on the ground around the stem. I don't know why this would work, and haven't been desperate enough to try it yet. One successful elderly farmer has effectively protected his potato field with a barrier strip of organic debris taken from distant ant colonies. Presumably the ants avoid the smell of ants from other ant colonies.

"The other philosophy is to find the local ant colonies and kill them, instead of protecting the plants directly. This is usually done by sprinkling powerful insecticide powders around the entrance holes, a practice to which I am ecologically opposed. Since human urine contains a fungicide, I tried attacking a colony's fungus garden by pouring urine down the entrance hole. It did get rid of the colony, but took several applications a day for eight days-too much trouble for more than one colony."

Marsha Hanzi in Bahia, Brazil wrote that leaf-cutter ants are the "janitors" of a forest ecosystem. They remove weak plants and produce compost richer than worm castings, enriching the soil and preparing it to support trees. "These ants dominate the scene where most organic matter has been removed [so] if we increase the amount of organic matter on the ground (by planting leguminous trees and pruning them every two months during the rainy season), the leaf-cutters go back to cleaning out the system without serious damage to our crops and trees.

"This I can affirm from personal experience; in the first year of my permaculture system, on hardened poor clays, the ants cut everything I planted. Today, three years later, they still exist, and sometimes nibble something, but normally go next door and cut the neighbor's plants! (His soil has very little organic matter.)"

To begin building a system in highly degraded areas with leaf-cutter ants in a balanced role, she recommends planting local pioneer plants every meter and pruning them frequently to build organic matter and restore soil fertility. Bananas can also be used, three meters apart. Then she looks for leguminous trees adapted to the area; Marsha has not lost leguminous trees to ants. She uses native Ingas, Erythrina, and Gliricidia in the humid and transitional zones and plants food plants among these species. In transitional zones, she has seen cashew and guava trees growing in ant mounds; perhaps their thick leathery leaves make them less prone to attack.

One creative idea for keeping the ants off new plantings is to distract the ants by planting "enormous quantities of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), which has incredible resprouting capacity if eaten by the ants. Ants prefer the flowers of these to practically anything else other than, perhaps, young citrus trees, which need to be protected. Although planting sesame does work, killing the fungi which feed the young, I prefer to feed the ants and not kill them" for their long-term benefits to the soil. She also suggests that guinea fowl and chickens might help control the ant population in outbreak situations. She welcomes correspondence at: Instituto de Permacultura da Bahia, Condomnio Aguas Finas QE L4, Lauro de Freitas, Bahia, BRAZIL, CEP 42700-000; fax 55 71 378 1520.

FALLEN ORANGES FILLED WITH INSECTS. Jiwan Dewan in Nepal wrote that half of his navel orange fruit was dropping and was filled with maggots. I called Dr. Carl Campbell for help. Carl said this is a tough one to figure out, but here are some thoughts. The first step is to determine if the insects are causing the drop or if they are a secondary cause, entering after some other problem. The letter did not say at what stage they dropped, whether as very young fruit or more mature fruit. If it is the mature fruit that is dropping, then it is perhaps more likely that the problem is directly caused by eggs laid in the fruit.

Fruit drops are very serious some years in Florida. It turns out to be due to the fungus anthracnose that is attacking the blossoms combined with both thrips and midges feeding on the ovaries of the flowers. A careful look at the blooms will show if there is either fungus or insect damage. It could be that a fungicide at bloom time would solve the problem. Another common cause of fruit drop is dry weather. If it does not rain at least an inch a week one should irrigate (if that is a possibility). Citrus is very sensitive to lack of water.

It would help to know whether it is fly, beetle or lepidoptera larvae in the fruit. Here is a rough way to tell. Fly larvae have no legs, whereas both beetle and lepidoptera larvae do. Beetle larvae "look like grubs." Lepidoptera larvae tend to be longer and slimmer than beetle larvae and somewhat flattened.

If the fallen fruits are of a good size, see if there are any obvious puncture wounds. In the equatorial tropics an adult fruit-piercing moth causes a lot of problems in citrus. Usually no one even knows the moth is around. It pierces the fruit and sucks juice at night, then quickly leaves. What most people see is the fungal lesion that develops around the spot.

MEALYBUG CONTROL. In 1991, Wayne Teel in Mozambique asked about controlling cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) without commercial insecticides. The mealybug destroyed up to 80% of the cassava crop.

Natural Crop Protection says that cow urine is used against mealy bugs, thrips, mites, and other insects in Sri Lanka. Cows are penned overnight on a concrete floor which slopes to a tank. Collected urine stands exposed to sun for 2 weeks, then is diluted with 1-6 parts water and applied to plants. Tender vegetables require a more dilute urine solution than fully grown trees, as too concentrated a solution can burn the leaves. Test dilutions on different plants.

The 1995 World Food Prize was awarded to Dr. Hans Herren for his successful efforts in finding and implementing the biological control of the cassava mealybug in Africa. Based at Nigeria's International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Dr. Herren coordinated the worldwide collaboration (1979-1992) which resulted in mealybug control in 95% of the cassava-growing zones of Africa. Researchers found natural enemies in the pest's South American home, and tested them in Africa. The most successful was the parasitic wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi, which was released in Nigeria in 1981. This wasp has been dispersed and established throughout Africa. We hope it has reached Mozambique by now.

LEUCAENA PSYLLID OUTBREAK AND CONTROL. Pest outbreaks can be sudden and devastating. After years of promoting Leucaena leucocephala for erosion control on hillsides and an important tree in agroforestry systems, the psyllid became a serious problem in Asia in 1986. Control efforts included screening for psyllid- resistant leucaenas and introducing parasitic wasps for biological control. This "story" illustrates many important principles of plant protection and pest control: avoiding dependency on just a few species and achieving a balance between pest and predator insects. Below, you can follow the development of solutions to this problem.

FROM MARCH 1986: INSECT PEST CAUSING SERIOUS DAMAGE TO LEUCAENA PLANTINGS IN THE PHILIPPINES. Five of our readers in the Philippines have written about this problem. It is a good warning to others also that there is always danger in planting incredibly large areas to one species. The Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association (NFTA) has published a two page analysis of the problem. It is caused by psyllid insects (Heteropsylla spp.) or jumping plant lice, which have spread rapidly around the world in the past few years. The insects are native to the Caribbean and eastern Mexico, where they seldom cause severe damage because of natural predators. This suggests that introduction of predators [or even gradual natural build-up of local predators?] may be the best control. Some ladybird beetle larvae are outstanding predators, e.g. Curinus abdominalis. The insects are not spread by seeds. The most likely methods include high-altitude air movements, cargo in airplanes, or illicitly shipped live plants.

What can we learn? I would be hesitant to rely exclusively on one species of tree for a particular purpose. Leucaena may outperform most trees in your setting, but other species have exceptional qualities as well. In the long run, a mixture is better. Also, you can plant more than one variety of leucaena. Folks who write to ECHO for seed are sent four leucaena varieties for this very reason. Readers who are heavily involved in reforestation should receive the NFTA bulletins on a wide variety of species with potential for their area; write Winrock International, Petit Jean Mountain, Rt. 3, Box 376, Morrilton, Arkansas 72110-9537, USA.

FROM OCTOBER 1993: PSYLLID-RESISTANT LEUCAENA. We asked Mark Powell at the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association what Leucaena leucocephala variety he would recommend where psyllid insects are a problem. He sent us a variety called K636, the top performer in their 'New Giants' trial at Waimanalo, Hawaii. "Although this variety has performed well especially after it achieves heights above 5 meters, it will support large psyllid population buildup which can defoliate all juvenile leaves. It has been observed that it tends to retain its older leaves during periods of high psyllid pressure." The K8 variety was one favored giant type several years ago, but it is now "disfavored due to its relatively high susceptibility to psyllid defoliation."

FROM JUNE 1992: LEUCAENA PSYLLID IN AFRICA. Mike Benge with USAID tells us that the leucaena psyllid that had such a devastating effect on leucaena trees in parts of Asia (e.g. Philippines) has reached Africa. It has been identified on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion. ICRAF and the CAB International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC) are coordinating the design of a strategy for biological control of this pest. Host- specific parasitic wasps found in the Americas as well as other natural enemies are bringing it under control in Asia. "In situations like this I do not believe that resistant varieties are the best answer. People should be cautioned not to lay too many hopes on resistance as breeding takes a long time and insects adapt so quickly and so well. They are like people, when sirloin isn't available anymore they'll eat hamburger."

IN 1995 AND 1996, Mike Benge with USAID gave us an update on the damage to leucaena trees by the psyllid insect in Asia. "The introduction of the parasitic wasp seems to have reduced the damage to a somewhat acceptable economical level." "The biocontrol of the psyllid in SE Asia has gone well with the host-specific parasitic wasps Psyllaephagus yaseeni and Tamarixia leucaenae (the region); ladybird and ladybug beetles Olla abdominialis and Curinus coerulus (particularly in Indonesia); and other naturally-occurring [controls] such as spiders." "A survey in the Philippines conducted by Winrock...determined that leucaena is still the tree of choice by farmers. The leucaena systems heavily damaged in the past are recouping and are productive again in most places. As you know, the psyllid has spread to Africa, and there is now an effort to introduce the parasitic wasps there...the IIBC in England is involved."

USING GRAPEFRUIT TO CONTROL SLUGS? The "Letters" section of Organic Gardening Magazine contained the following suggestion. The writer lived in Oregon where she was "surrounded by slugs." She tried oyster shells, rough bark dust, rosemary, hunting them down and sprinkling salt on them and beer baits, and found them all inadequate. "Then I discovered grapefruit. After you've used the pulpy insides for breakfast, set the rinds (with a little pulp left) upside down igloo-style around your garden." She says that the slugs will hide underneath the grapefruit and die. We have no slug problem at ECHO, so we cannot verify this technique. If you do, please let us know whether it worked. This seems too good to be true, but it would be wonderful it is does work.

IRON SULFATE MOLLUSCICIDE. The horticultural newsletter HortIdeas (September 1990 and April 1992) has reviewed several reports on using iron sulfate (green vitriol) to control slugs. "Recent laboratory trials in England support the notion that iron sulfate is rapidly absorbed by slugs which contact it and is highly toxic to slugs. ...Iron sulfate is cheap, easily available, and not very toxic to humans." In fact "it is a widely prescribed iron supplement for people suffering from anemia."

A subscriber in Spain, Brian Lynas, reports great success by spraying or sprinkling (especially following rain) a solution of iron sulfate. "For over a year I have intermittently sprayed iron sulfate solution around lettuces, brassicas [Ed: cabbage family] and any other plants which were under attack from mollusks. The concentration does not seem to be critical. I use four heaping teaspoons in a five-quart sprayer (twice that concentration if using a watering can) on the soil around slug-attracting plants. ...I've sprayed the soil and also sprayed the plants directly. There's no doubt that either is effective, especially if you can directly spray the mollusks themselves.

"The spray seems to act as a contact poison, so if the animals are wetted or have to cross a sprayed area like a leaf, they die. Unfortunately, when sprayed onto soil, the soluble iron sulfate is quickly changed to insoluble hydrous iron oxides and is ... inactivated.

"Iron sulfate burns some sensitive (usually young) plants. The damage is minor, and my impression is that the anti-mollusk benefit far outweighs the disadvantage. In fact, ferrous sulfate solution at around 3% strength is often used for correcting iron deficiencies by direct spraying on foliage.

"Regular spraying-especially after rains-around the plant bases where the creatures hide, as well as generally around the cultivated area, dramatically decreases the mollusk population with almost immediate effect. [In Mallorca] a small conical snail occurs by the hundreds of thousands. A couple months ago these were infesting a patch in which I'd planted small brassicas and lettuces. Sometimes each plant would have 30 or more snails lying around underneath. I sprayed the solution over them, and they evidently all died. What's more, it seems this killed ... the eggs also, for even now there are practically no mollusks in the area."

GARLIC TO KILL SNAILS? Drs. D.K. Singh and A. Singh at the University of Gorakhpur in India looked at the molluscicidal properties of an extract of common garlic, Allium sativum. Aquatic snails, Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host for parasites which cause fascioliasis of cattle, were used in the experiment. Ten snails were placed in each aquarium. The required amount of garlic cloves was minced in 5 ml water, homogenized for 5 minutes [in a blender], and centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 minutes and added to the water. [Ed: For other than experimental use, this procedure could be greatly simplified; e.g. filtering could probably replace centrifuging.] Each experiment was repeated six times. Concentrations are expressed as weight of garlic clove per liter.

The LC50 value (the Lethal Concentration required to kill 50% of the snails) was both dose and time dependent. Thus with an increase in exposure time, the LC50 of garlic decreased from 55 mg per liter at 24 hours to 30 at 48 hours and 12 at 96 hours. The LC90 (the concentration to skill 90% of the snails) at 96 hours was 36 mg garlic.

How does this compare with commercial molluscicides? The 96 hour LC50 of two synthetic molluscicides is higher (i.e. less effective): phorate is 15 mg and carbaryl is 14 compared to 12 for garlic. However, the standard molluscicide niclosamide has five times higher toxicity in 24 hours (LC50 = 12 mg) than garlic (55 mg). The authors believe that if the active ingredient were further purified, it would probably be more toxic than the best synthetic.

NEEM LEAF TEA TO CONTROL TERMITES. We seldom hear of any natural control that works with termites. Don Mansfield in Mali sent the following. "A Norwegian missionary here in Mali told me how to control termite damage to trees with neem leaf tea (Azadirachta indica). A barrel or bucket is filled with green neem leaves. They cover the leaves with water and after 4 days use the liquid against termites. I don't know whether it kills them or just keeps them away. The missionaries swear it really works.

"It has been a great success for me. Most of the time when I've used it, it has been setting for at least 2 weeks. When I see where the termites are starting up a tree or pole, I knock them and their clay off. Then I take a paint brush and paint the whole area where the termites had been on with the tea. I make sure that plenty runs down around the base. Twice I have had to do it a second time after about a week, but all the other times I have only done it once and the termites have not come back. It has been 5 or 6 months since I treated a few mango trees, and they have not been bothered since."

TERMITE-RESISTANT TREE reported by Roland Lesseps, S. J., in Zambia. "Termites here make it very difficult to establish tree seedlings in the field. In some places at Kasisi we have lost about 90% of our Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. So we are always on the lookout for a tree that is termite resistant. An excellent one is Senna (Cassia) siamea. We planted four rows four years ago (about 70 trees per row) in a field terribly infested with termites. Almost all the trees are alive and growing luxuriantly. We have coppiced them three times and used the leaves in compost piles. The cut branches make good poles or firewood. We earlier fed the leaves to cattle, then we heard at an ICRAF meeting that the leaves, though eaten by goats, are not good for cattle."

SUGGESTIONS TO HELP AGROFORESTERS REDUCE SEEDLING LOSSES FROM TERMITES. [Taken from Agroforestry Today, July-Sept. 1990 pp 4-6].

1. Select trees that are resistant to termites. These include species of Cassia, Acacia, Grevillea, Markhamia, and Terminalia.

2. Use plant extracts and minerals as protectants. These include finely chopped leaves of Euphorbia tirucalli or wood ash applied to planting holes; leaf or berry extracts of Aloe graminicola, Melia azedarach [Ed: Chinaberry, a freeze-tolerant relative of neem], Lippia javanica or Ocimum sp. (basil); and leaf mulches of Cassia siamea or Azadirachta indica (neem).

3. Plant extra seedlings, to allow for termite losses, both in the nursery and after planting out.

4. Use containers of polyethylene tubing. Pots made of banana fibre should not be used for seedlings where termites are a threat. It is of paramount importance at transplanting to remove the plastic sleeve carefully and retain an intact soil-root ball.

5. Use healthy and vigorous planting stock. Any root pruning should be scheduled to allow sufficient recovery and repair of damaged tissues before transplanting.

6. Give nursery stock enough water just before planting out.

7. Plant seedlings on time, soon after the first annual crops are sown or when the soil is wet to a depth of 20-30 cm.

8. Provide substitute food sources for termites. This could involve leaving as much cleared plant debris as possible on the soil surface when preparing tree planting sites; using organic manure in planting holes; ring weeding rather than clear-weeding stands of young seedlings; retaining grass residues as mulch in and around planting holes; and placing a row of cut banana pseudostems along nursery perimeters.

9. Apply spot treatments of a controlled-release granular formulation of carbosulfan (0.3 to 1.0 grams active ingredient per plant). Other non-persistent insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and carbofuran are not recommended due to severe phytotoxic effects.

Research is currently in progress on another novel approach to control of subterranean termites [which rely on fungi to make suitable food from decaying vegetation carried into the colony]. This approach is to apply fungicides to deprive them of their major food source by controlling these symbiotic fungi.

ARE BRUCHID BEETLES THE SAME AS WEEVILS? We have mentioned using cooking oil to control bruchid beetles in stored seeds. We were asked if they are the same as weevils. Good question. The answer is yes. Quoting from Insect Life, "There are two general groups of seed borers: species that feed in green or living seeds and those that attack dry seeds. The [former] deposit eggs in the seeds by means of a long ovipositor that penetrates the flesh of the fruit. The adults usually emerge after the fruits have decayed. The latter, the common feeders upon dried seeds, are known as weevils." Several generations can develop in a container of stored seeds.

SHORT-TERM HEATING KILLS COWPEA WEEVILS. The January 1992 issue of HortIdeas reports that two Purdue University entomologists have developed an extremely low-cost technique for ridding dried cowpeas of weevils (Callosobruchus maculatus). If you have some clear plastic, a piece of dark cloth, a few rocks, a semi- sunny day, and about an hour, you should be able to eradicate the weevils in a few pounds of cowpeas.

"A simple solar heater was made by placing a 3 ft x 3 ft (1 m2) black plastic sheet on the ground, adding 1 kg (2.2 pounds) of cowpeas (spread out only one layer thick), and adding a cover of clear plastic sheeting, held down at the edges by rocks. It was discovered that the ambient temperature doesn't affect the temperature inside the solar heater very much on clear or bright-hazy days; the temperature inside cowpeas within the solar heater was 149 F 15 minutes after exposure began on a slightly hazy day at noon."

After solar heating for different times, the numbers of beetles emerging were counted (time in minutes followed by numbers in parentheses): 0 (227 adults), 30 (12 adults), 60 (2 adults), 120 (no adults), 180 (no adults). The treatment did not significantly alter either cooking times or germination percentages. The seeds did lose water, which was probably beneficial. Different types and colors were tried for the sheet on the ground (including cloth) and seemed to make little difference. This time, in all cases no adults emerged after a 45-minute treatment.

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL PROBLEMS. Matt Huber wrote from Haiti, "An insect is severely damaging the roots of sweet potatoes. What can be done?" He sent us a jar containing several of the tiny worms (a few mm long) in alcohol. Dr. Frank Martin identified them as sweet potato weevils, and made these recommendations for their control. It is very important to plant where sweet potatoes have not grown for about a year. It is also important to keep any wild relatives of the sweet potato from the field (e.g. morning glories). When cuttings are taken to start a new planting, soak them for up to 24 hours in a 1% solution of a systemic insecticide. One such insecticide is furadan. This will prevent introduction of the weevil into the new field.

He mentioned that the tubers are damaged extensively. Frank said that the observation that there is this much damage most likely means that farmers are using a long maturing variety [or are "storing" them in the field, harvesting as needed]. Sweet potatoes differ widely in time required for maturity. Matt needs to search for some short-maturing alternatives. In the meantime, harvest as early as possible.

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