In the Chapters of Part I we discussed the nutritional, economic, environmental, and social contributions of gardens to sustainable development. Part II presented the principles of plant, soil, and water management to meet these goals and ideas for applying these principles in ways consistant with the criteria for sustainable development. But the story does not end with the harvest. Many of the benefits of gardens depend on what happens to seeds and food after they are harvested. The goals of local self-reliance and control, and an approach to gardens that builds on local resources and knowledge, will help insure that the garden harvest promotes equity as well as social and environmental sustainability, and that the benefits will endure well beyond the life of the project.
Gardeners and farmers all over the world have been selecting and saving seeds and other plant propagation materials since the beginning of agriculture and plant domestication over 10,000 years ago. Almost all of the crops grown today are products of this selection and new varieties created by scientists are based on the work of these past generations. Plant selection by gardeners and farmers continues to be vital for conserving genetic resources and for producing crop varieties best suited to local needs. Years of experience and observation give people an understanding of desirable crop characteristics. This long and successful history is the reason why existing seed selection and saving techniques must be understood before suggestions for improvement are made.
Even when appropriate seeds are available for purchase, the advantages of saving her own seeds often make it worthwhile for the gardener. Saving seeds reduces the costs of gardening and takes advantage of locally adapted varieties. If the gardener does not save her own seeds, a good alternative is some other source of locally selected and grown seeds, such as other gardeners, local seed co-ops, or regional seed houses. (Suggestions for selecting materials for vegetative propagation are given in Chapter 7).
Introducing new crops and crop varieties has a long history and many now traditional or indigenous local crops or crop varieties, such as watermelon in southwestern North America and chilis in West Africa, were introduced from other continents or regions. (See section 1.1 for a definition of the word indigenous as it is used in this book). However, the most common obstacles to productive gardens for improving household nutrition or economic conditions - such as lack of control over resources, poor water quality, or marketplace competition from agri-business - will not be resolved by introducing a new crop. For this reason we believe that nonlocal, new crops should not be the focus of garden projects, and if used, should only be introduced as part of an experiment, and never as a replacement for local garden crops.
The implications of saving seeds, especially of local varieties, go far beyond the effects on the gardener and her garden. Genetic resources for the future world food supply are becoming scarcer with the loss of indigenous varieties and the diverse local agricultural systems that produce and maintain them. At the same time, new and expensive plant-breeding technologies are being used by commercial, multinational seed companies. These changes raise new issues about the control and economics of seed production, and the genetic diversity upon which all food systems rely. These are issues that affect the gardener and that she addresses when saving her own seeds.
In this book the terms folk variety or indigenous variety refer to crop varieties that have been selected and managed by local people and the local growing environment. In the past these varieties have been called land races or primitive varieties. We use the term folk varieties in support of the efforts of Third World countries and the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to have these varieties recognized as a part of the folk heritage of indigenous communities, and thus give them control over and compensation for the use of these genetic resources.1
Saving garden seeds for planting is important because it reduces investments and risks while promoting self-reliance. When local seeds are saved, genetically diverse folk varieties are conserved on-site for future generations.
Diversity in indigenous gardens results from planting genetically diverse varieties, several varieties of some crops, and many different crops, with combinations changing over the seasons and years. Commercial or industrial crop varieties are usually bred for industrial agriculture, have more genetic uniformity among individual plants of the same variety, and fewer varieties are grown in the cropping system. Bred for production under optimal conditions, industrial varieties generally require more purchased inputs and are a greater risk for the gardener in marginal lands. Although they may be appropriate in some situations, such as intensely managed gardens with abundant water and nutrients, they should not be promoted as a replacement for folk varieties.
Saving seeds can be done easily along with other work in the garden. Seeds should be harvested after they are mature, or they may not grow. Techniques for cleaning, drying, and storing seeds are easy to learn and are vital for maintaining seed stocks for next seasons garden and for future generations. If not properly cared for, stored seeds can spoil or be damaged by pests. However, simple methods, many of them locally developed, can prevent or greatly reduce these problems.
The indigenous crops, gardens, and fields of the world contain great biological diversity. This diversity occurs on several levels:
· Folk crop varieties contain a diversity of genetic information.
· Often there are many different varieties of each crop.
· Gardens and fields frequently contain mixtures of many different crops and varieties.
· Gardens and fields in different ecological or cultural settings have different crops and crop mixtures.
The biological and ecological diversity of indigenous systems is good for gardens and other small-scale food production because it increases yield stability and local self-reliance. Yield stability is a measure of the variation in the amount of usable harvest from year to year. When exposed to stresses such as drought, flooding, pests, diseases, and high temperatures, total crop yields will decrease relatively little in mixed plantings of diverse indigenous varieties compared to monocultures of genetically uniform industrial varieties.2 In other words, diversity reduces the risk of having nothing to harvest from the garden. Indigenous agriculture also reduces the risk of going into debt and losing land, because it is more self-reliant, and does not depend on obtaining credit to purchase expensive seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, and irrigation pumps.
Industrial agriculture is characterized by varieties that respond to favorable growing conditions created by increased inputs of irrigation water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and often mechanization. Compared with traditional agriculture, industrial agriculture often increases yields per unit of land and labor, and has contributed a great deal to increasing the world food supply, not only through production in industrialized countries, but as the green revolution in the Third World. This industrial approach has also been applied to gardens.3
In contrast to indigenous varieties, very few varieties of industrial crops are bred and released to the public. Within each industrial crop variety there is less diversity than in folk varieties, and the industrial varieties are developed for, and planted over, much larger areas. Table 14.1 is a simplified comparison of the differences in diversity at several levels between industrial and indigenous agriculture.
Choosing between indigenous and industrial varieties and gardens involves a trade-off. Even though the individual plants lack diversity, industrial varieties can sometimes be desirable for dryland gardeners. Also, not all new varieties are genetically uniform or dependent on expensive inputs. To minimize risk to the gardener, some diversity should be maintained at all levels (individual plants, crop varieties, and crops in the garden). This can be done by encouraging gardeners to continue growing their local folk varieties even when they are also trying new, industrial varieties, and to plant their gardens with a mixture of different indigenous and new crops and crop varieties.
There is some evidence that small farmers who do grow industrial varieties often continue to grow folk varieties for a number of reasons.4 For example, Hopi Native American farmers in dryland southwestern United States continue to maintain their own Hopi sweet corn variety even when cultivating an industrial sweet corn variety.5 A common reason given by farmers for doing this is that the industrial varieties produce large sweet ears, but the Hopi variety is better adapted to the local environment. If the growing conditions are especially dry the Hopi variety will produce a harvest but the industrial varieties will fail.
Table 14.1 The Diversity Continuum at Different Levels in Agriculturea
In the Crop
Heterogeneous folk varieties
Homogeneous industrial varieties
In the Garden or Field
Number of varieties
Number of crops
Number of types of gardens or crops
a From Cleveland and Soleri n.d.c.
Folk varieties have been selected for their adaptation to local growing conditions and local peoples needs. Along with related wild species, they are the worlds major store of genetic diversity for crop plants (Box 14.1). The number and genetic diversity of folk varieties is maintained, or even increased, by gardeners and farmers over generations in the following ways:
· Domestication of new wild plants.
· Introduction of new genetic information by crossing between folk varieties, and between crops and their wild and weedy relatives.
· Introduction of new crops and varieties from other villages or regions
· Selection of advantageous spontaneous mutations.6
In these ways genetic diversity is conserved even though some folk varieties are always being lost, either abruptly through replacement by other varieties, or slowly through selection by gardeners, farmers, and the environment.
While indigenous crop selection has not been well documented, some examples do exist, such as Richards description of rice variety selection be Mende farmers in West Africa.7 The farmers keep not only their existing 70 rice varieties pure, but are constantly searching for and experimenting with new varieties, a process they enjoy greatly. When potential new varieties appear in their fields as a result of mutations, cross pollination, or accidental mixing, the farmers carefully remove plants with undesirable variations and save those with desirable traits. Farmers test these new varieties, or ones aquired from neighbors or markets, in fertile, moist patches of soil near their houses. If the tests appear successful they will multiply the seed for full-scale planting. Farmers also sort a variety into separate lines when it becomes highly variable, harvesting seeds with different characteristics separately.
Many crops grown in both indigenous and industrial gardens are introductions from other regions. For example, in southwestern North America beans, maize, chili peppers, and other crops came from Central America, while watermelon, wheat, fava beans, garbanzos, and peaches were introduced from the Mediterranean and Africa by Spanish colonialists only a few centuries ago. Over time both native and introduced crops have diversified into many folk varieties which are important in local food systems today.
Folk varieties are constantly evolving in response to changes in the environment and in gardeners needs. The gardener who selects and saves her own seeds may be particularly interested in a few characteristics, such as timing of production or flavor. But at the same time, the plants she chooses are being selected for their ability to grow and produce in the garden environment. In choosing the most vigorous and desirable plants, the gardener is selecting for a complex combination of characteristics particularly suited to her resources and needs as well as the garden environment.
The increasing production and promotion of industrial seeds, many of which are hybrids (Box 14.2), is radically changing this traditional system of conserving genetic diversity in folk varieties.8 When folk varieties with their adaptive characteristics selected for by generations of gardeners and farmers are replaced by industrial varieties, the result is usually a reduction in diversity, both within the variety and often in the cropping system itself. When this happens, gardeners and farmers must rely on seeds that they may not be able to produce themselves and that may not meet their needs as well as the abandoned folk varieties. The result may be to increase the risk of survival for the food system as well as the social and cultural foundation of the community.
Genetic structures and processes are complex, but the following simplified explanation will help readers understand how the issue of diversity is affected by the kind of seeds used in the garden.
A plants genotype is the genetic information that it inherited. A genotype is composed of all the genes located on the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell (Figure 14.1). Each cell in that plant contains this same genotype (except the gametes, as explained below). The genes contain all of the information the plant needs to grow and reproduce. In all plant cells except gametes, chromosomes come in pairs. Onions, for example, have 16 pairs, and tomatoes 12 pairs of chromosomes. However, there is only one of each chromosome in sex cells or gametes, the pollen from the male parent and the ovule in the female parent. That is, 16 single chromosomes in onion gametes and 12 single chromosomes in tomato gametes. When the male and female gametes are united at fertilization, they form an embryo which again has two of each chromosome. In each chromosome pair in the embryo one chromosome is from the male parent and the other from the female parent. This embryo will grow into a seed.
Alleles are the two or more alternative forms of one gene and are used as a gauge of diversity in individual plants and varieties. Because chromosomes usually occur in pairs there are two locations for each gene in each cell. Therefore an individual plant can have a maximum of two different alleles for each gene. However, within all the plants of a crop variety there can be many alleles for one gene, with different combinations of these alleles being expressed in individual plants in the population.
That is, a single plant or a crop variety can be either genetically diverse or uniform (Figure 14.1). Homozygous plants are those with only one allele for a gene. A homogeneous variety is one with many plants which are homozygous for one or more genes, that is they all contain the same allele for that gene. Individual heterozygous plants contain two different alleles for a gene and heterogeneous varieties include plants heterozygous for many genes, having two or more alleles for those genes.
Many industrial seeds have been selected for high production under conditions where there is pest protection with chemicals, plant nutrients supplied with chemical fertilizers, good soil, plenty of water, a single large harvest, and no competition from other crops or weeds. Maximum yield/disease and pest resistance, adaptedness to mechanized cultivation and harvesting, and fruit size and appearance are frequently the kinds of traits selected for. Other characteristics like drought hardiness, tolerance of marginal soils, continuous harvesting, adaptation to mixed cropping, taste, grinding texture, and by-products like bean leaves as a green vegetable, have not been considered relevant. This means that industrial varieties will often not be adapted to the low-input, and less-than-optimal conditions of most dryland gardens and fields.9 Seed produced this way, frequently far from the environment where it will be grown and the people who will grow it, fails to take advantage of local expertise and the genetic resources available from folk varieties. Industrial varieties usually cannot fulfill the combination of gardeners needs and demands of the local growing conditions.
It is now recognized that the costs of controlled, optimum-environment agriculture are prohibitive for gardeners and farmers in many parts of the world. This is especially true for low-resource gardeners and farmers in the Third World. As a result, some breeding programs at international agricultural research centers have been changing. For example, the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is working to develop cowpea varieties that are drought-resistant and others that can be grown for both food and fodder, and the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISATs) recent work with sorghum and millet focuses on drought adaptation.10 ICRISAT is also working on mixed cropping of cereals and legumes such as millet and cowpeas. The dominance of production as a breeding criteria has lessened somewhat, and some crop breeders are focusing their work on developing varieties adapted to local growing conditions, sometimes using local folk varieties as raw breeding material.11 However, there is still a long way to go in terms of breeding programs recognizing the value of folk varieties, the expertise of local gardeners and farmers, and the adaptive complexity of the varietal selection that occurs in indigenous gardening and farming.13
The major influence on crop breeding in the decades to come will be the new agricultural biotechnologies, especially genetic engineering, which makes possible the direct transfer of genes even from distantly related organisms to crop plants. While this technology has the potential to help gardeners and small-scale farmers, this help is not inevitable. Agricultural biotechnology is dominated by private industry, and their profit making goals will undoubtedly have an influence on the varieties produced.14 For example, many of the worlds largest seed companies are now owned by private, multinational corporations which specialize in chemical manufacturing.15 A major objective of this new corporate strategy is developing varieties that will increase sales of the companys other products. Worldwide, over 27 corporations have begun research on creating crops that are tolerant to herbicides, thus encouraging increased herbicide use.16 An example is Monsantos new soybean (Glycine max) which was bred to tolerate large quantities of that companys herbicide glyphosate, known commercially as Roundup.
Figure 14.1 Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles, and Their Role in Genetic Diversity
A hybrid is the product of the cross between any two genetically different individuals. However, in popular usage the word has come to refer to a particular kind of hybrid developed for propagating agricultural crops.12 This more common definition is the one we use here. Hybrid seeds are the product of a cross between homogeneous inbred lines.
To help understand the process we give a simplified description of how single-cross hybrid maize seeds are produced (Figure 14.2). First, different plants from the same species (Zea mays in this case) are inbred, or self-pollinated, for many generations, with offspring selected for particular desirable traits. Eventually this inbreeding results in very homogeneous populations of plants whose offspring therefore, always have the desired characteristics. These breeding populations are referred to as inbred lines, for example, lines A and B.
While inbreeding fixes desirable traits, it also fixes undesirable traits and can produce weak, unhealthy plants. However, these undesirable characteristics are unimportant to the breeder as long as they do not interfere with the characteristics being selected for.
In the second step, selected inbred lines are paired. To ensure that all of the seed saved is the result of cross-pollination, one line is identified as the female parent and the other as the male. The female line is rendered incapable of self-pollinating either by cutting off the male flowers (tassels) of these plants in the field, or through introducing male sterility genes when creating that line. Thus, all of the seeds borne by the plants of the female parent line are a cross of lines A and B (A × B).
Because all A plants are genetically identical to each other, and all B plants are genetically identical to each other, the result of the A × B cross is predictable. The seeds produced by this cross are F1 generation hybrids, which are sold to farmers. These seeds produce strong, healthy F1 plants because of the mixing of genetic material. The cross-pollination of these identical F1 plants (F1 × F1) or [(A × B) × (A × B)], produces seed meant for consumption. However, if this seed is saved and planted it grows into F2 plants, different both from their parents and from each other. Some of these plants are weak and lack vigor and many of them will show the undesirable traits of the original inbred parent lines, A and B. They may have some desirable traits but overall are unpredictable, unhealthy, and inadequate for food production. Therefore new hybrid seed must be purchased by the gardener or farmer every year.
Commercial seed production of some other crop hybrids also depends on male sterility in one parent. For example, if seeds saved from fruit of most hybrid watermelon varieties are planted, there will be a complete crop failure, because there will be no pollen to fertilize female flowers. In the 1970s the genetic material widely used to create male sterility in maize in the United States resulted in widespread genetic uniformity and vulnerability to disease (Box 14.3).
Today many varieties of commercially produced garden vegetable seeds are hybrids. This includes tomatoes, peppers, squash, melons, cabbage, lettuce, onions, and other popular garden crops.
Figure 14.2 An Example of Hybrid Seed Production in Maize (1)
Figure 14.2 An Example of Hybrid Seed Production in Maize (2)
A well-known recent example of the risks of genetic uniformity is the southern leaf blight epidemic which swept maize (corn) plantings in the United States in 1970.17 At the time, approximately 75% of the maize grown in that country shared identical genetic material for male sterility used in hybrid seed production. However, this was linked genetically to susceptibility to a fungus causing leaf blight. The blight spread rapidly through the country and losses were estimated at 710,000,000 bushels of maize, worth US $1 billion in 1970. New genetic material was essential in subsequent breeding programs seeking resistance to the fungus and other problems. This disaster drew attention to the trend in industrial agriculture away from biological diversity, and the risks of this trend.
Indigenously based mixed gardens are living gene banks that conserve genetic diversity while serving gardeners needs. Gardens change through time as the household changes in size and needs, as perennial crops grow bigger, or die and are cut down, and as new crops and varieties are introduced or old ones are abandoned. In addition, gardens differ from household to household, community to community, and region to region, with changing climate, soils, diets, and history.
Gardens often contain many crops that serve different purposes. Some may provide fruits or vegetables, some medicine or craft materials, others may be grown for the beauty of their flowers, and all may also be grown for market. An irrigated garden in arid northern Pakistan may include vegetables such as egg-plants, tomatoes, bitter gourds, amaranth, portulaca, and chilis; perennial fruit producers like grapes and mulberries; chinaberry trees (Melia azedarach), whose wood is used for construction; and a species of jute for making rope.18 In northern Mexico, household gardens produce fruits, vegetables, flowers, and chicken eggs for sale and household consumption, and medicinal herbs for home use.19 A survey of 145 gardens of Tswana agropastoralists in Botswana revealed 45 domestic species and 8 wild species which had been transplanted or were sprouting spontaneously.20
Different varieties of the same crop may be grown in gardens for several reasons,21 such as their adapted-ness to environmental conditions at a specific growing time. Data on different varieties is scarce for gardens, but there are examples for field crops. For example, Mende farmers in Sierra Leone (section 14.2.1), recognize 70 different rice (Orriza spp) varieties by name and sight, and each household grows an average of 4 to 8 varieties.22 These varieties are suited to different growing conditions and have diverse growing characteristics, especially time from sowing to harvest. In one short-season variety, some farmers are selecting for tough outer glumes (the papery coat or bract around the seed) and long awns (the hair-like bristle growing out from the glume) which help protect the grains from birds, a major pest of early rice.
In the small country of Malawi in southern Africa there are many varieties of common bean. Even though only 4 varieties make up the majority of area planted, farmers grow an average of 13 varieties per household.23 Local farmers, primarily women, explain that they grow so many varieties because of differences in flavor, cooking quality, market demand, time to maturity, digestibility, and ability to cope with pests, disease, and environmental stress like drought. For example, most farmers plant early-, middle- and late-maturing varieties to maintain a constant food supply. Other varieties are planted for good leaf and pod production or fast cooking time. Similarly, in Rwanda 18 bean varieties are grown.24 One of these varieties is almost completely destroyed by pests under normal conditions. However, when drought occurs every 5 to 15 years, this variety produces a harvest when the others do not, and it is for this reason that farmers continue to grow it.
Another advantage of diversity in the garden is that it can provide a number of crops that meet the same needs. This adds variety to the diet, increasing production stability and diminishing the risk of reduced food or income should one crop fail. For example, a West African garden can provide dark green leaves from amaranths, jute, baobab, or cowpea, and oil-rich nuts and seeds from groundnuts, sesame, or egusi melon seeds. An Egyptian oasis garden produces many popular tree fruits such as guavas, pomegranates, apricots, and oranges which can be sold in local markets or consumed at home as delicious, high-vitamin treats.
In southern Mexico new housing projects do not provide as much garden area as local people are accustomed to having. A nutritionist working with children in the area found that these new gardens contained significantly less crop diversity than more traditional village gardens in the same area.25 She also found that as garden crop diversity decreased, so did household vitamin C intake. Research on homegardens in Java found that the greater the cropping diversity the higher the overall nutrient production/m2, and the higher the production of vitamins and minerals, in particular.26
Whether the goal of feeding the world population in the future is pursued primarily through industrializing world agriculture or improving on indigenous agriculture, genetic diversity will be essential.27 By contributing resistance to pests, disease, drought, and poor soil, and to improved processing, cooking, and nutritional quality, the genetic diversity contained in folk varieties and wild crop relatives is a valuable resource both for gardeners and farmers, as well as for government and private commercial plant breeders.
Folk varieties and wild crop relatives are essential as sources of resistance when industrial varieties succumb to diseases and pests. This happens regularly and leads to what is called the breeding treadmill or varietal relay race as breeders rush to replace varieties that have broken down with new ones containing a new source of resistance.28
But the need for crop genetic diversity is even more critical for low resource gardeners and small-scale farmers in marginal areas. Diversity is one of their most important resources, giving them the flexibility to adapt and survive, minimizing the risk of working in an unpredictable, harsh environment. When gardeners and farmers are less vulnerable to environmental stress and input shortages, they can be more self-reliant and have more control over their own food system.
One of the most important sources of genetic material is the crops center of diversity. The center of diversity is the area in which the species has its greatest genetic variety, in number of varieties of both that species and of related ones. The center of diversity can be, but is not necessarily, the area where the species originated or was domesticated, and where diversity is maintained and increased by crossing with related wild and weedy species. Varieties from areas outside the center of diversity may also possess valuable characteristics because they have adapted to different conditions.29
The growing destruction of both the natural environment and indigenous farms and gardens means that genetic diversity is rapidly disappearing. Loss of genetic diversity is also occurring for most major commercial vegetables in the industrial world, where diverse, open-pollinated local varieties are being replaced by a few hybrids marketed by multinational corporations.30 Once all plants of a species or crop variety are gone, the information they carried in their genes can never be recovered.
There are two major ways of saving crop genetic diversity. In situ (or on-site) conservation is maintaining genetic diversity in gardens and fields, or in wild natural areas. Ex situ conservation is collecting and preserving plant genes in seed or gene banks, away from the environment where they are growing. More and more of our genetic diversity is being stored in freezers in gene banks for plant breeders creating industrial varieties. For those who assume that progress means eliminating indigenous agriculture, there is little need for alternative approaches to crop genetic conservation.
However, along with an increasing number of people, we believe that indigenous gardening and farming have important cultural and biological value and in many situations offer advantages over industrial food production (Part II).31 According to this perspective, in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity is essential and offers some of the following advantages:
· Genetic diversity is widespread and available to local gardeners and farmers; it is not controlled by a distant bureaucracy unfamiliar with local needs whose main purpose is to serve the needs of plant breeders.
· Genetic diversity is not isolated from its growing environment and subject to deterioration and accidental loss.
· In situ conservation is not dependent on expensive equipment which may break down, or on government or international financing which can fail.
· At the same time that in situ conservation maintains crop genetic diversity, it maintains local knowledge of plants and their uses, and diversity in the food system; it also helps support the communities that depend on it.
· Growing folk varieties and encouraging wild and weedy crop relatives not only conserves genetic diversity, but supports socially and environmentally sustainable food production.
This is not to say there is no use for ex situ conservation. Ex situ conservation can still play an important role as a complement to in situ efforts. Small-scale, low-technology, locally controlled community or regional seed banks can avoid many of the shortcomings of larger, more expensive ones, and provide a valuable back-up in cases of emergency. For example, in Ethiopia researchers from that countrys Plant Genetics Resources Centre are working with farmers to identify important folk varieties. They are establishing regional seed banks to maintain reserves of these varieties and make them available to people who have lost their own seed stocks due to war and famine.32
No matter where genetic diversity is preserved, very controversial questions remain about the control and use of this diversity. In the capitalist world economic system, genetic resources have become a commodity; they are being turned into property with a monetary value which can be owned and sold. There is now a heated debate about new laws created in the industrialized countries enabling plant breeders to patent crop varieties.33 A patent is a legal contract which, for a designated time, gives an individual or organization the sole right to produce and sell a particular commodity such as seeds for a new crop variety.
Such laws favor the industrialized nations and their commercial plant breeders over the Third World which has few commercial breeders or the facilities they require. The cost of large-scale commercial breeding programs is prohibitive for Third World countries, therefore most of the patents and profits go to industrialized nations.
Another reason for the current controversy is that much of the genetic material used in modern breeding programs for the worlds major food crops comes from centers of crop genetic diversity in the Third World. For example, although the United States and Canada make up one of the worlds major food-producing regions, all of their 20 major food crops (measured in quantity produced) originated in other areas, mostly in the Third World.34 Over 40% came from Latin America (e.g., maize, tomatoes, and potatoes), 36% from the Middle East (e.g., wheat, grapes, and apples), and 4% from Africa (e.g., sorghum and millet). Of the remaining 20%, 16% are from China and Japan (e.g., rice, soybeans, and oranges).
As the center of diversity of most major food crops, the Third World would be the source of the so-called raw materials used to develop many patented crops. Until now these materials have been seen as the common heritage of all people and collected free of charge. However, when genetic material is used in the breeding program of a commercial seed company it is that company, not the Third World, that will earn the profits from it. There is even a chance the product may end up being sold to the Third World. Third World gardeners and farmers would then purchase a new crop variety created with genetic material from folk varieties which they and their families have been developing for generations.
This aspect of the debate is an excellent example of how values and assumptions have a major effect on scientific activity and national and international policy. Current laws and procedures for control of plant genetic resources and compensation for them is based on the assumption that the work of a few individual breeders in laboratories and test plots over several years is more worthy of recognition and compensation than the work of a farming community over many generations. Factors contributing to this value-based assumption include the disregard of the skills and knowledge of indigenous farmers and gardeners, and a world economic system that favors the rich and powerful.
Since 1975, coordinating the collection and seed banking of crop genetic diversity worldwide has been the responsibility of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). CGIAR is controlled by private donors, primarily from the industrial nations, causing many Third World countries to fear that they may lose control over their own genetic resources.35 In fact, most major collections of genetic material are in seed banks in industrial nations or at CGIAR member organizations.36 Exceptions to this are the growing number of small, independent seed banks being established by regional conservation groups.
Concern about the pattern of genetic resource control and use resulted in demands by some members of the FAO that the world community recognize the contributions of Third World ecosystems, gardeners, and farmers to the worlds genetic resources. Two suggestions of how to do this have been: 1) extending the principle of free exchange to include not only gardeners and farmers folk varieties and wild plants in Third World countries, but also the plant breeders varieties and elite breeding lines which are currently considered private property, or 2) recognizing farmers rights and offering compensation to Third World countries for their plant genetic resources, as is now given to commercial plant breeders and seed companies.37 More recently discussion of this last idea was continued at an international conference on plant genetic resources in Madras, India.38 The consensus statement issued by the group of participants from both industrial and Third World countries calls for a US $500 million fund to compensate Third World countries for the use of their genetic resources and to assist their efforts to conserve them. The fund, representing only 3% of the global seed industrys annual sales, would be maintained through subscription fees paid by industrial countries based on the size of their commercial seed industry and their use of Third World genetic resources. Many questions, including how and to whom such a fund would be distributed remain to be resolved. Meanwhile the larger debate about control and ownership of genetic resources continues.
Saving of seeds by gardeners and farmers is the only way to preserve the full diversity of locally adapted folk varietes. Seeds from many garden crops can simply be collected in the garden and stored, while others need to be processed and dried for best results.
Seed saving is selection in action. Gardeners look for seed produced by plants with desirable characteristics such as drought and heat adaptation or pest and disease resistance. In addition to characteristics affecting production, the flavor, texture, size, color, and cooking and storage qualities of the food the plants produce are also important. For example, in Togo, local maize varieties are preferred over high-yielding new hybrids because the tight husks of the local ones significantly reduce damage by grain beetles during storage.39
Still other characteristics are sought in garden plants used for medicine, crafts, and other purposes. By selecting seeds of devils claw plants (Proboscidea parviflora) with dark, long fibers, the most desirable characteristics for their craft, Tohono OOdham Native American basket weavers in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico have created several new folk varieties.40
Saving seed from several of the best and healthiest plants in the garden maintains genetic diversity and reduces the risk of having poor seeds. Seeds that are saved for planting must be viable, that is, capable of growing into a healthy plant (section 6.2.4). If seeds are harvested before they are mature, development of the embryo and seed coat will be interrupted and the seed will not be viable. Seeds that are an abnormal shape, very small, or damaged in some way should not be saved. Larger seeds are best because they contain more food to support the seed embryo before and during germination.
The length of time seed can be stored depends on the type of seed, its quality, and the storage conditions. As seeds get older they become less viable, because the embryos weaken and die. Therefore the longer they are stored, the lower their germination percentage becomes (section 6.6.1). If stored for a long time, some seeds such as beans become so hard and dry that water cannot penetrate them to swell and break the seed coat. Growing out saved seed after 2 to 3 years helps avoid this problem and ensures fresh, viable seed stock. To allow for losses during storage, germination, and early growth, about 50% more seed than needed for planting should be saved.
Harvesting and processing seeds from different types of plants is described below and summarized in Table 14.2. (Section 14.4 discusses tree seeds.)
POD-BEARING Seeds of plants like fenugreek, sesame, beans/peas, and arugola are mature when the pods have dried to a light brown color and are starting to become brittle. At this time the pods are ready to dehisce, or pop open to distribute the seeds. Pods of some crops such as peas, do not easily dehisce, but others, such as arugola, do so at the slightest touch, throwing seeds quite a distance (Figure 14.3). If dehiscing is a problem, seed stalks can be harvested while the pods are turning brown but are not brittle, and left to finish drying, out of the sun in a bag or on a piece of cloth, where the seeds can be easily collected.
Figure 14.3 Arugola Pods Dehisce Readily
Table 14.2 Seed Harvest and Processing
When to harvest seeds
Pod-bearing: e.g., pulses, okra, crucifers, sesame, peas
Just before pod dries, while it is turning brown but still pliable
Dry pods on cloth, paper, mat, so that seeds can be collected when pods open
Cucurbits: e.g., squash, gourds watermelons, melons
Squash and gourds: at least 6 weeks after fruit is considered ripe; watermelon: when fruit is eaten; other melons: when fruit is overripe
Wash seeds and dry slowly in shade
When fruit is ripe; remove seeds as fruit is eaten, either fresh or dried
Soft, small-seeded fruit: e.g., tomatoes, tomatillos, eggplant
When fruit is ripe to overripe
Fermentation (see description in text); for eggplant no fermentation, wash seeds and dry
Seed-bearing flower heads: e.g., cilantro, Niger seed, sunflowers, amaranth
Just before seed head becomes completely dry and brittle
Cut seed heads, lay on cloth or in bag, when dry remove seeds by rubbing
Past milk stage, when color has developed, may be left on plant until dry if no pest or mold problems
Dry seeds on cob, husk may be left on or removed
Fruit trees: e.g., mango, cashew dates, citrus, papaya, jujube, stone fruits
When fruit is completely ripe
Remove fruit flesh and clean seed; plant fresh, dry, and/or stratify, depending on crop
Figure 14.4 Squash Seeds can be Dried in a Basket
CUCURBITS The seeds of most squashes, pumpkins, and gourds continue to mature even after the fruit has reached its full size and is ripe for eating. Keeping mature fruit from which seed is to be saved in cool, dry storage for 6 weeks or longer, known as after-ripening, ensures time for seed development.42 When slightly immature fruit is picked, for example after an early frost, viable seeds can sometimes be saved if the fruit is allowed to after-ripen. When the seeds are removed from the fruit they should be rinsed and separated from the pulp. Any small, flat seeds that float while being washed can be composted, as they are hollow and not viable. Seeds should be dried in a well-ventilated place like a basket (Figure 14.4).
Watermelon seeds are mature when the ripe fruit is eaten, and they can be rinsed and dried immediately. Leaving other melons to continue ripening for a few days after they are first ready to eat allows the pulp and seeds to separate more easily. After cutting the melon open, the seeds are rinsed, and all remaining pulp is removed before they are laid out to dry.
PEPPERS Seeds from sweet peppers and hot chilis are obtained from fruit that has matured on the plant to a red, orange, or black color, depending on the variety. The fruit can be either fresh or dried (Figure 14.5). Seeds taken from fresh fruit may need rinsing before drying.
SOFT SMALL-SEEDED FRUIT Tomatoes and tomatillos contain many small seeds, so only a spoonful of pulp provides more than enough seeds for most gardens. The mashed pulp of mature fruits from several selected plants is placed in an uncovered container such as a bowl or jar. The pulp is left to ferment (section 15.6) with occasional stirring. Fermentation takes 3 to 7 days depending upon the air temperature:41 the warmer the air temperature, the less time required. A sour smell and bubbles on the pulps surface are signs that fermentation is occurring.
Fermentation destroys microorganisms on the seeds which can cause some diseases, and it thins out the pulp, allowing the heavier seeds to separate and sink to the bottom (Figure 14.6). Fermentation also removes the gelatinous coating on these seeds, changing their texture from slippery, to rough and nonslippery. This can be felt by rubbing them between two fingers. This stage of seed processing is complete when the seeds and pulp have separated. Any seeds floating near the surface are hollow and not viable. These and the pulp can be skimmed off the surface and composted. The viable seeds are rinsed with water and laid on a cloth, piece of screen, or similar material, to dry in a place protected from the wind and direct sun.
Figure 14.5 It is Easy to Collect Seeds from Chilis
Eggplant or garden egg seeds do not need to be fermented. The pulp of soft, overripe fruits from several selected plants is mashed. The seeds are separated by rinsing them with water, after which they are laid out to dry.
Figure 14.6 Fermentation and Separation of Tomato Pulp and Viable Seeds
SEED-BEARING FLOWER HEADS Cutting off the seed heads of plants like sunflower, onion, carrot, amaranth, cilantro, and chia just before they have completely dried is a great help in collecting their many seeds. The seed heads are placed in bags or on cloth in the shade to finish drying. When brittle and dry, seeds are easy to remove by rubbing or shaking the seed heads (Figure 14.7).
Figure 14.7 Gently Rubbing Dried Cilantro Seed Heads on a Firm Surface Easily Removes the Seeds
MAIZE A good indicator of seed maturity in maize is the browning of the husk or leaves around the ear. If birds and other pests are not a problem the ears do not need to be harvested until the whole plant has died. However, in very hot areas the sugars in the kernels may start to ferment inside tight husks, especially in the sweet varieties. The fermentation causes the kernels to explode, destroying them as seeds. To avoid this the husks can be opened slightly although this may allow pests inside. If the kernels have passed the stage when the juice inside is milky, and have developed their mature markings or color, they can be harvested and allowed to dry in the shade with their husks open or removed.
Maize is frequently stored on the cob which may reduce some pest damage to the softer part of the seed where it was attached to the cob. There are many traditional ways to store maize seed, either with or without the cob or husks: in containers, hung in bunches, or strung up in hanging racks as is done in parts of northern Mexico (Figure 14.8).
Figure 14.8 Maize Hung to Dry for Planting Seed in Northern Mexico
All seeds must be dry before storage. Small hard seeds harvested in the dry season can be stored immediately with no further drying. Larger, moister seeds usually require extra drying after harvest. When seeds are spread out to dry, turning or mixing them several times a day speeds drying and helps prevent mold. In dryland areas with high daytime temperatures (greater than 35°C or 95°F), it is best to dry seeds in the shade to avoid the danger of overheating and overdrying, which can damage the seed coat and embryo. Sometimes if drying is too rapid, case hardening can occur in larger, moist seeds such as those of squash and melons. Case hardening is the drying of the outside surface while the inside is still moist. The moisture trapped inside the seed encourages the growth of fungi and bacteria,43 and can also attract insects. However, some people such as the Tohono OOdham of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico have a long tradition of drying seed in the sun with good results.44 The exposure to sun and heat may also help rid the seeds of some insect pests. If a successful tradition like this does exist, understanding how it works and supporting its continuation is the best approach.
Baskets, pieces of cloth or mats, calabashes, and pots can all be used for drying seed. Seeds may need protection to prevent birds and insects from eating them and to keep insects from laying eggs which may later hatch in storage. An upside-down basket (Figure 14.9), or a piece of cloth stretched over the container, protects the seeds while still allowing air circulation.
Figure 14.9 An Upside-Down Basket can be Set on Top of Drying Seeds to Protect Them from Birds, Insects, and Wind
Rubbing dry seeds between hands or on a piece of cloth will separate seeds that may be stuck together. This is easy if the seeds are clean and dry. Only gentle rubbing is needed; hard pressure can scratch the seed coat and result in disease problems or drying of the embryo. Seeds from moist fruits such as squash, melons, tomatoes, chilis, and eggplants are brittle when dry, and will break if bent in half.
Seeds with some sort of pod or casing such as pulses are easier to store and plant if separated from this casing. There may be exceptions to this when pods offer some protection in storage. To remove pods after drying, any mature pods that have not opened can be threshed or rubbed to break them open, then winnowed in a light breeze as is done with grain. When dropped from shoulder or waist height the heavier seeds will fall straight down into an awaiting container while the pods and other debris will be blown away. Before storing, large pod-borne seeds should be dried for several days after removing their pods.
After drying, it is a good idea to keep seeds for several days at the same temperature at which they will be stored. If the seeds do not feel damp and do not stick to each other during this time they are probably dry enough for storage. The length of time to dry seeds varies greatly depending on the air humidity, drying conditions, seed size, and how clean the seeds are.
Although many trees are propagated vegetatively (Chapter 7), some are grown from seeds with good results. Seedlings are also grown as root stock for later grafting. Seedlings have a stronger root structure than plants started from cuttings, especially during the first few years, and therefore are hardier under stress. However, if the tree is dioecious the sex of the seedling will not be known until it flowers, which could take many years. This is an important reason why some trees are not propagated from seeds.
To ensure that the seed collected is fully developed, only healthy, mature fruits, including those that have just fallen from the tree, should be gathered. The seed of some dryland garden trees such as olive, date, cashew, carob, and baobob can be easily stored for later planting. First, any fleshy part of the fruit or sweet pod which could attract pests or host seed-damaging bacteria and fungi should be removed. The seed is then dried in the shade for a few days, depending upon its size. Finally, seeds are stored in a cool, dry, ventilated place, in a breathable container such as a basket or bag.
Cashew seed can be stored for 7 to 12 months.45 Olive, date, carob, and baobob remain viable for several years, although germination percentages may drop (section 6.6.1). We have planted baobob seed stored for over 15 years with excellent germination.
The hard outer coat of olive and stone fruit seed provides good protection during storage and can be cracked when it is time to plant. Seeds for planting pistachios are picked when the hard outer hulls turn blue green. These hulls are also useful for storage, but are thought to inhibit germination, and so they should be carefully cracked or removed before planting.46
Seeds of mangoes, avocados, and citrus, should be planted when fresh, although limited storage may be possible. In eastern Senegal, cleaned mango seed is briefly air dried in the shade and then stored for up to 100 days packed in ceramic containers with moist charcoal.47 The charcoal acts as an evaporative cooling system keeping the seeds cool and moist but not wet. Similarly, clean, partially dried citrus seed can also be stored for short periods in ground charcoal.48
Cold stratification is the process of chilling seeds, which is required for good germination of some seeds and the production of healthy seedlings. Even if these seeds do germinate without stratification, the seedling is frequently dwarfed and growth is abnormal. Dryland tree seeds that require cold stratification are those of species or varieties that grow in high altitude or latitude drylands with a marked cold season, such as the stone fruits, olive, jujube, and pistachio. The seeds of these and other trees whose fruits ripen in these areas during the late summer and fall often need cold stratification.
Good temperatures for cold stratification are 2°C to 7°C (36°F to 45°F), but they can be lower.49 The best way for dryland gardeners to stratify their tree seeds is to leave them exposed to the cold winter weather of their area. Selected seeds should not be stored in the house or other places where they would be protected from low winter temperatures. They can be buried in the ground, or in a container filled with moist sand or soil and left outdoors for the cold season, and then removed and planted when the cold weather has passed. Seeds can also be planted directly in the ground approximately 15-20 cm (6-8 in) deep at the beginning of the cold season.
The Navajo Native Americans living in the southwestern United States grow peaches, a crop introduced to the area by the Spanish several centuries ago. At the end of the hot season, fruits are cut up and dried for storage, and their seeds discarded nearby.50 The seeds are stratified by exposure to the winter temperatures. The following spring the viable seeds produce seedlings, the best of which are selected and transplanted to permanent growing sites.
Good seed storage conditions include low moisture and temperature, and protection against rodents and insects. High temperatures and moisture encourage seed-damaging fungi and bacteria and increase respiration, shortening the seeds life. Extremely high temperatures can kill the seed. Locally available storage containers and additives can prevent or minimize pest damage to stored seeds.
A sealed, airtight container can keep out moisture, rodents, and insects. A calabash or clay pot, for example, can be plugged and sealed with clay or wax. A piece of cloth dipped in hot wax can be draped over the container opening to seal it. The Tohono OOdham of the Sonoran Desert traditionally stored seeds in small ceramic vessels called hahawa.51 A piece of broken pottery was trimmed to fit the vessels mouth where it was sealed in place using the heated sap of a local tree. Lidded jars and wooden or metal boxes also work well. On the other hand, a container that is closed but not sealed allows the gardener to check periodically on the condition of the seeds. However, this may lead to problems with moisture if the outside air is humid. Leather pouches, pots, cans, boxes, or jars can all be used. Table 14.3 summarizes dryland seed storage problems and responses.
In some dryland areas moisture may not be a problem and periodically opening containers or storing seed in closed but breathable containers like unglazed clay pots, baskets, cloth, or leather pouches is fine. However, even in very arid areas the increased humidity during a short rainy season can lead to damage of the stored seeds, greatly reducing their viability. Sealed containers of glass, metal, or glazed clay are non-breathable or airtight and will keep out moisture (Figure 14.10).
Toasted grains or pulses can be added to absorb excess moisture in an airtight storage container.52 The grains or pulses are toasted by slow heating without burning, which dries them out completely so they readily absorb water. As soon as the toasted materials have cooled to room temperature, they are mixed with the seeds and put into an airtight container which is then sealed. The stored mixture should contain twice as much toasted material as seed. Each time the container is opened, the old toasted grain or pulses must be replaced with some that are freshly toasted. Fresh ashes absorb moisture given off by stored seeds and are a good additive for this purpose, as well as for pest control as discussed in section 14.5.2. If available and inexpensive, corn starch, salt, and baking powder can also be used to absorb any moisture seeds give off. However, unlike ashes or toasted grains, these additives should not be mixed in directly with the seeds but kept in a cloth or paper bag inside the seed storage container. These additives, especially salt, draw so much moisture out of the seeds that seeds can become desicated and die if they are surrounded, for example, with salt. When using any additive it is a good idea to check the condition of the seeds regularly.
Table 14.3 Summary of Dryland Seed Storage Problems and Responses
Shade, insulate, keep away from source of heat, take precautions for moisture
Moisture (encouraging fungi and bacteria)
Dry seeds thoroughly, add toasted grain and/or ashes to container, avoid heat
Keep storage area clean, use sealed containers, guards on container legs, or stone-based container
Keep storage area clean, use sealed container, use additives; e.g., sand, ashes, smoke, herbs, oil
Figure 14.10 Breathable and Nonbreathable Storage Containers (1)
Figure 14.10 Breathable and Nonbreathable Storage Containers (2)
Figure 14.10 Breathable and Nonbreathable Storage Containers (3)
Figure 14.10 Breathable and Nonbreathable Storage Containers (4)
Closed seed storage containers should be shaded from the sun and kept away from cooking fires or walls heated by the sun or fire. Even well-dried seeds contain some moisture, and will produce water vapor if they get hot. Containers with thick walls offer some insulation from rapid temperature changes.
There are two ways to deal with pest problems in stored seed. One is to repel pests by making the seeds or the storage environment undesirable. The second method is to kill the pests. Indigenous methods of pest control in stored seed and foods operate by repelling or killing pests while manufactured pesticides act by killing them.
As discussed in Chapter 13, manufactured synthetic pesticides pose a number of problems: they must be purchased; their availability may not be reliable; directions for correct and safe use may not be available or accessible; and they are poisonous not only to pests but to humans and other animals as well (section 13.2.4). Pesticides can not only poison those handling them or seeds treated with them, but can affect others now and in the future through contamination of rooms, containers, soil, and water.
Some indigenous, as well as recently developed methods for controlling pests in stored seed using inexpensive, locally available materials have been found to be just as effective as manufactured pesticides.53 These methods are practical and much safer, and there is growing interest in them worldwide.
Just like people, insects and rodents living in a dry environment are attracted to moisture, so storage containers and areas should be kept dry. Keeping the storage area clean is also important because an unclean storage area attracts pests, offering them not only food but also places to hide or nest (Figure 14.11).
Some insects like weevils (Apionidae family) and bruchids (Bruchidae family) can lay their eggs on seeds such as beans while they are still in the garden. If conditions are right, the eggs will hatch later and the larvae will eat the seeds. Holes in the seeds and powder at the bottom of the container from the damaged seeds are signs of these pests and their small white larvae can probably be found inside or around the seeds. These and other pests in stored seeds will die if they cannot obtain enough oxygen. Therefore, storing seeds in sealed, airtight containers with as little extra air space as possible will help to reduce pest damage. This does not limit the amount of oxygen enough to harm the seeds themselves.54
Rats, mice, or other rodents can also be kept out by sealing the containers, or by storing seeds in containers with leg guards that prevent rodents from reaching the seeds. Indigenous storage bins for grains frequently include these leg guards (Figure 14.12). Another method used in some parts of Sahelian West Africa is to build the storage bin on a stone base which rodents cannot climb up or chew through.55 Similar smaller containers may be appropriate for seeds, or a container of garden seeds can be placed inside such a bin.
In addition to the condition and care of the storage area, another way to reduce pests is by using a repelling substance, such as a local plant. For example, the compound azadirachtin contained in the leaves and seeds of neem trees (Azadirachta indica), which grow in the drylands of Africa and Asia, has been found to be an effective insect repellent.56 One method used by farmers in western India and Pakistan is to grind the leaves into a paste which is mixed with clay and formed into seed storage containers.57 In West Africa dried, powdered neem leaves are also used as an insect repellent.58 Spicey, strong-smelling dried chili peppers and onion leaves, used in southern Nigeria in stored cowpea seed, may also repel weevils to some extent.59 Some Native Americans used wild tobacco leaves (Nicotiana rustica) to repel insects from stored seeds.
Figure 14.11 A Clean Storage Area with Sealed Ceramic Seed Jars in Burkina Faso (After Dupriez and De Leener 1983:157)
Certain additives operate primarily by killing pests but may also repel them. Fine sand can be added to seeds in a ratio of one or more volumes of sand to one volume of seed.60 Because it fills the spaces between seeds and because of its weight the sand prevents insects from moving around easily. Adult bruchid beetles, common pests in stored beans, are unable to move around enough to mate and reproduce in beans mixed with sand, and so the population dies out. The sand also scratches the thin wax coating of the insects outer cuticle and its delicate limb joints, causing it to dry out and eventually die.
Dust additives operate the same way as sand although some may scratch while others absorb the insects protective waxy layer, exposing it to dehydration. Ashes and finely ground limestone are other common additives that fill spaces between seeds and absorb insects waxy protective layer.61
In the West African country of Togo, one volume of bean seeds is thoroughly mixed with between one and two volumes of cooking fire ashes.62 The ashes should also completely cover the surface of the stored seeds. Some people feel that the ashes from burnt goat and cattle dung or from burning certain local trees are particularly effective.63 Sand mixed with the seed coats of Polygala butracea or with the leaves and husks of Cassia nigricans provided good protection of cowpeas stored in locally made clay jars in northern Togo.64
Figure 14.12 A Traditional Storage Bin in Iran with Wooden Disks as Leg Guards Against Rodents (After NAS 1978:73)
Another additive used to protect stored seeds from insect damage is oil. In Nigeria, weevil infestations in dried cowpeas are minimized by coating the seeds with a layer of groundnut or palm oil, (approximately 5-8 ml of oil/kg of seed, 0.1 fl oz of oil/lb of seed).65 The oil is believed to act both chemically as an insect repellent, and mechanically by sealing air out of the peas and preventing growth of any weevil larvae they contain. In rural India, castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil is used to protect stored seed.66 Similarly, neem oil was found to be very effective for controlling pests in stored cowpeas in northern Togo.67 Hulled, ground neem seed powder was kneaded by hand to squeeze out the oil. These cowpeas had a germination rate of 27% after 8 months of storage, compared with only 2% for untreated seeds. Those stored in sand, however, had a better germination rate of 47%.
In many areas smoke is traditionally used to protect stored food, seed, and even houses from pests.68 Seed or food can be stored over the cooking fire or in a raised container under which a fire is periodically built (Figure 14.13). The important points to remember about this method of pest control are not to overheat the seeds or food by placing them too close to the fire, and to only use containers such as loosely woven baskets that allow ventilation so that any moisture released due to increased temperatures will not be trapped inside. Bundles of unthreshed grains or pulses can be treated with smoke, but care must be taken that they do not dehisce while in storage.
Control of crop genetic resources has become an important issue of international debate, in part because it reflects larger questions about the relationship between the industrial and Third Worlds, the north and the south. This debate is represented by a rapidly growing number of publications on genetic resources including Shattering (Fowler and Mooney 1990), The Gene Hunters (Juma 1989), First the Seed (Kloppenburg 1988) and Altered Harvest (Doyle 1985). For Spanish speakers and readers there is Daniel Querols Recursos Genticos, Nuestro Tesoro Olvidado (1988). In addition, this issue is being discussed now in both popular and academic periodicals all over the world.
Botany books can be good sources of information on plant genetics. For example. The Biology of Plants (Raven, et al. 1981:115-166) has a section on genetics and evolution. Cox and Atkins (1979:513-536) look at plant and animal genetics in agriculture.
Figure 14.13 Using Smoke to Protect Stored Seeds and Grain from Pests (After FAO 1970:161)
Resources with simple practical information about seed saving and storage for the low-resource gardener are GTZ (1980) and Stoll (1987). The new On Farm Seed Project was started by the private US organization Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development (see Chapter 19 for the address). The project is conducting experiments and workshops on on-farm seed storage methods in Senegal and The Gambia. They also publish a bilingual (French and English) newsletter Seed Sowers/Les Semeurs.
1 African Diversity 1990.
2 Cleveland and Soleri 1989.
3 Cleveland and Soleri 1987.
4 Brush 1986; Brush, et al. 1988.
5 Soleri and Cleveland 1989.
6 Oldfield 1984:27-32.
7 Richards 1986:131-146.
8 Plucknett, et al. 1987:3.
9 Atlin and Frey 1989.
10 IITA 1986:52-55; ICRISAT 1986:15, 33,54.
11 Andrews 1989.
12 Cox and Atkins 1979:553.
13 Cleveland and Soleri 1989.
14 Could 1988.
15 Buttel, et al. 1985; Doyle 1985:94-113,167-172.
16 Goldburg, et al. 1990.
17 Cox and Atkins 1979:520-521; Doyle 1985:1-17; NAS 1972; Oldfield 1984:22-23.
18 Cleveland and Soleri n.d.b.
19 Cleveland 1986.
20 Grivetti 1978.
21 Clawson 1985.
22 Richards 1985:98-99; Richards 1986:133-138,142,149.
23 Ferguson and Sprecher 1987.
24 Dupriez and De Leener 1987:199-200.
25 Dewey 1981:35.
26 Marten and Abdoellah 1988.
27 Harlan 1976; Plucknett, et al. 1987.
28 Crisp and Astley 1985; Plucknett et al 1987:3-4,17-26.
29 Oldfield 1984:27-32.
30 Crisp and Astley 1985.
31 Oldfield and Alcorn 1987.
32 Fowler and Mooney 1990:206-207.
33 Kloppenburg and Kleinman 1987.
34 Kloppenburg and Kleinman 1987.
35 Kloppenburg and Kleinman 1987.
36 IBPGR 1987.
37 Kloppenburg and Kleinman 1987.
38 African Diversity 1990; Keystone Center 1990.
39 Zehrer 1980:52.
40 Nabhan and Rea 1988.
41 Leon and Withers 1986:70.
42 Leon and Withers 1986:72.
43 NAS 1978:50-53.
44 Nabhan, et al. 1981.
45 Garner, et al. 1976:193.
46 Hartmann and Kester 1983:628.
47 Bittenbender 1984:81; Tuck 1985.
48 Purseglove 1974:512.
49 Hartmann and Kester 1983:135.
50 Jett 1979.
51 Nabhan, et al. 1981:6.
52 DCFRN #8-1.
53 Zehrer, et al. 1980.
54 Zehrer 1980:115.
55 Zehrer 1980:48.
56 Ahmed and Grainge 1986; NAS 1980:114.
57 Ahmed and Grainge 1986:204.
58 Zehrer 1980:120.
59 Ofuya 1986.
60 Zehrer 1980:110.
61 NAS 1978:55.
62 Zehrer 1980:114.
63 DCFRN #4-2.
64 Zehrer 1984:453-460.
65 King, et al. 1985:218.
66 Zehrer 1980:121.
67 Zehrer 1984:459.
68 FAO 1970:158-160; Dupriez and De Leener 1983:156; NAS 1978:55; Zehrer 1980.
The majority of fruits and vegetables are most nutritious when eaten fresh from the garden without processing or storage of any kind. Yet year-round harvests may be limited by the climate, garden space, or lack of time. Also, some garden crops like mangoes or peaches can produce a larger harvest at one time than can be used. For example, market gardeners in southern Senegal say that at least 50% of their abundant, peak-season mango harvest rots each year.1 In these situations processing and storing some of the produce is a way to save it for use later in the year.
In many areas there is a long tradition of food processing and storage which is important economically, nutritionally, and socially (Figure 15.1). However, in some cases the time and resources required for processing and storing garden produce just do not make sense under local conditions. This will be decided by the gardener or whoever else is doing the work.
The goals of processing garden produce are to:
· Maintain the best possible nutritional value.
· Require as little time and as few resources as possible.
· Use inexpensive, locally available inputs.
· Produce foods that appeal to local tastes and do not cause illness.
Marketing is another way gardeners or their households can use the garden harvest, and income is a strong incentive, especially for poor households. Marketing a small amount from a household garden is often an easy way to earn a little money, but marketing a large amount of produce, is far more complicated and risky. Reducing the gardeners dependence on factors beyond his control is the best way to cope with this.
Fresh garden crops harvested when ripe should be eaten or processed quickly for the greatest nutritional benefit. Most fruits are best when harvested ripe and handled gently to avoid bruising, although some may be harvested while still unripe.
Preservation and processing of garden foods affects different nutrients in different ways. Vitamins are the most sensitive: the longer the time from harvest to consumption, and the longer and hotter they are cooked, the greater the loss.
Drying is one of the easiest and most effective ways to preserve dryland garden produce if a few simple guidelines are followed. Sprouting, making, drying, and fermenting of some foods increases the nutritional value per unit weight. Many popular indigenous foods are prepared these ways. Some foods, like olives, African locust beans, and cassava, can only be eaten after processing to remove toxins and anti-nutrients. Processing also produces foods that taste good.
Garden produce can be stored fresh or processed. Fresh produce has a relatively short storage life. Dried garden foods can be stored much longer using simple techniques to eliminate pests and microorganisms that cause spoilage.
Special considerations when harvesting garden produce for market include finding reliable and affordable transportation, picking fruits before they are fully ripe, and packing produce to protect it during transportation. Once at the market, simple measures such as shading and sprinkling fresh garden produce with water protects its quality and appearance.
Most garden foods have the highest nutrient content and best flavor when they are harvested as close as possible to the time they will be eaten or processed. The exceptions are pulses, cereals, sunflower and sesame seeds, and other crops that are allowed to ripen and dry on the plant before harvesting.
Figure 15.1 In Many Areas there is a Successful Tradition of Food Drying
Harvesting fruit or leaves from perennials or young annuals can affect the plants future production. For example, when harvesting apricots, care should be taken not to damage the fruiting spurs which will continue to produce fruit for 3 to 4 years. When harvesting leaves, enough must be left on the plant for adequate photosynthesis for future growth.
In some parts of Nigeria both the leaves and pods of okra are eaten. Studies there found that if only leaves on the lower half of the plant are harvested, pod production will not be reduced.2 In Zambia, researchers working with Ethiopian mustard greens found that harvesting up to half of the total leaf area every 1 or 2 weeks increases leaf production.3 However, harvesting three-quarters of the leaf area causes yields to drop. Research on the effects of harvesting cowpea leaves concluded that moderate leaf harvesting reduced pod production but the combined edible yield of pods and leaves (in dry weight) was greater for most varieties than the yield when only pods were harvested.4
As fruits ripen, there is an increase in the amount of vitamins they contain, especially vitamin C. Sugar content also increases, making them more flavorful. A color change from green to yellow, orange, or red is a sign of ripening in many fruits like tomatoes, peppers, stone fruits, papayas, mangoes, and bananas. Other fruits are green when ripe, but become softer, like avocados, or softer and sweet smelling, like some melons and guavas.
Many fruits bruise and spoil easily and should be carefully harvested and handled. Including a little of the stem, or pedicel, directly above the fruit when harvesting it helps reduce spoiling (Figure 15.2). Removing the place at the top of the fruit where it is attached to the plant often exposes some of the moist flesh under the fruits skin, which easily rots. With dates, removing the attachment, or cap, allows dirt and insects to get deep inside the fruit. However, no matter how carefully harvested, the stem may drop off of very ripe fruit and this fruit should be eaten or processed as soon as possible.
Some fruits can be eaten before they are fully ripe. Unripe fruits add new flavors and textures to the diet and can be used differently than ripe ones. For example, both sweet peppers and chilis can be used when green. Green papayas and tomatoes can be cooked to reduce their bitterness. Green mangoes are used to make relishes, and in some areas such as southern Sudan we have seen them eaten fresh, sprinkled with lime juice, salt, and chili powder. Bananas and plantains are higher in starch and lower in sugar before they ripen, and unripe ones are cooked and eaten.
Figure 15.2 Harvesting Garden Fruits with the Stem still Attached (1)
Figure 15.2 Harvesting Garden Fruits with the Stem still Attached (2)
Figure 15.2 Harvesting Garden Fruits with the Stem still Attached (3)
Figure 15.2 Harvesting Garden Fruits with the Stem still Attached (4)
Unripe fruits may also be eaten when other food is scarce. In southern Pakistan, for example, people whose food supplies are running low before the dates ripen, process and eat unripe dates.5 The bright green, unripe dates called kimri are mashed in a basket, releasing some of their tannin-loaded juices. These kimri are then put in a ceramic jar which is wrapped in a blanket and left overnight. By the next day the kimri have turned a mud color and lost much of their bitterness.
Cooking can improve the nutritional value of food and helps soften or break down the cellulose in plant cell walls, making the nutrients inside available for digestion. It destroys toxins present in some uncooked pulses such as lima beans, cowpeas, and lentils. Cooking can also destroy some nutrients. However, great efforts need not be made to retain high levels of a nutrient in one food when the nutrient is abundant and readily available in the diet. For example, if a child is eating fresh guavas every day, the loss of vitamin C from cooking malted beans should not be a concern. Table 15.1 summarizes suggestions for minimizing nutrient losses in cooking.
The greatest concentration of nutrients is usually in the outer layers of fruits and vegetables, so trimming and peeling should be kept to a minimum. Gardening without toxic chemicals means that lots of peeling and trimming is not necessary. In urban areas, garden produce grown above ground, like leaves and fruits, often has toxic lead residues from the lead in gasoline (petrol) used in vehicles. This is especially true of gardens grown near busy city streets. Washing this produce in a mixture of vinegar and water can remove most of these residues.6 If this is not possible it is a good idea to peel city-grown fruits, especially for children.
The hotter and longer most fresh fruits and vegetables are cooked, the more vitamins will be destroyed. Even though boiling and steaming does not raise the temperature much above 100°C (212°F), the boiling point of water, it can still destroy vitamins. Vitamin C is the most sensitive to heat, although vitamin A is also affected. A study of eight vegetable leaves commonly eaten in Ghana showed vitamin C losses of 44-78% when boiled for 10 minutes in a covered container with just enough water to cover the leaves.7 Frying in oil can be much hotter than boiling or steaming, and therefore destroys more of these heat-sensitive vitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins, like vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin, are dissolved out of foods by water. To minimize these losses:
· Avoid cutting food into small pieces, exposing more surface area to air and water.
· Avoid soaking fresh fruits and vegetables before cooking (exceptions include some root crops like cassava).
· Cook for the shortest possible time with a minimal amount of water.
· Drink vitamin-rich cooking water, or use it in other dishes.
· Do not salt raw fruits and vegetables because this draws out water containing dissolved nutrients.
Both cutting and cooking will cause losses in nutrients due to oxidation. Vitamins A, C, E, and folacin oxidize, meaning that their chemical structure is altered, and their nutritional value reduced. Exposure to the air (which contains 20% oxygen) and to heat both increase oxidation. For example, an orange cut open long before it is eaten loses vitamin C by oxidation.
Raising the pH of cooking solutions by adding bicarbonate of soda, ashes, or other alkaline substances can shorten the cooking time and improve the color of some vegetables. However, it destroys vitamin C and thiamin in foods. Similarly, acids contribute to the destruction of carotenoids, an important source of vitamin A in fruits and vegetables.8
Table 15.1 Cooking and Nutrient Content of Foods
Suggested cooking method
Heat sensitive (vitamins A, C, and thiamin)
Many fruits and vegetables
Where appropriate, eat produce fresh, soon after harvest; keep cooking time brief and temperatures low; avoid frying
Water soluble (vitamin C, niacin riboflavin, thiamin)
Tomatoes, peppers, squash, greens
If cooking with water, try steaming with minimal amount of water; use this cooking water in other foods
Alkaline sensitive (vitamin C, thiamin)
Do not add bicarbonate of soda or ashes while cooking
Dried fruits are a flavorful treat and can be eaten with or without first cooking them in water. Other dried foods such as green leaves, onions, okra, or tomatoes, are cooked before being eaten and are often used for making sauces or soups. Unlike fresh fruits and vegetables, presoaking most dried foods is recommended because it shortens cooking time and saves precious fuel, and the soaking water can be used for cooking. Dried leaves and small fruits only need presoaking for an hour or less. Pulses and tubers, which are bigger than leaves, have a greater volume and need to be soaked longer, often overnight. One volume of dried food can absorb two volumes or more of water (Figure 15.3).
Soaking dried pulses such as pigeon peas or chick-peas dissolves anti-nutrients like tannins and phytates into the water (section 2.10).9 In these cases the soaking water should be poured on the garden, and fresh water used for cooking.
The seed coats of pulses are high in fiber which is fine for most adults but should be removed when making weaning foods or food for someone with a stomach or intestinal infection or diarrhea. Seed coats can be removed by soaking beans or seeds and rubbing the coats off while they are still wet, or by parching.10 Parching is soaking pulses in oil or water and then drying them so that their seed coats crack and can be easily rubbed off. Lightly roasting groundnuts (which are not soaked) makes it easy to remove their papery coats.
Drying is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of processing food for storage. In Egypt, for example, a popular green called mulukhiyah (jute) is grown or purchased in large quantities during the warm season. The washed leaves are stripped from the stalks and dried on palm-fiber mats. Some people partially dry the mulukhiyah in the sun, then move it indoors to complete the drying, while others dry it entirely in the shade.
In central Mali the Dogon grow bunching onions in dry-season gardens.11 The onions are harvested in two stages so that they may be dried for sale or household use. First, the green onion tops or leaves are removed. These are then pounded into a pulp which is formed into balls, with any extra liquid being squeezed out. These balls ferment and are left to dry in the sun for about 10 days. The day after removing their tops the onion bulbs are dug up. If possible they are eaten or sold immediately. Otherwise they are also pounded and formed into balls which are fermented and sun-dried for later sale or home use.
Figure 15.3 One Volume of Dried Garden Produce can Absorb Two or More Volumes of Water
Drying preserves foods by removing the water which spoiling microorganisms need to grow. Since fresh fruits and vegetables contain about 80% water,12 drying reduces their volume and weight substantially. It also concentrates their nutrients and preserves them for times when these nutrients may not be available in fresh foods. For example, an experiment in Senegal found that on average, after drying and storage for 6 months a 100-gm (3.5-oz) piece of mango contained 100% of the RDAs for vitamins A and C for children.13
Drying is a quick and easy method for preserving many garden foods, including leafy greens, okra, onions, tomatoes, eggplants, squash, roots, and tubers. Sweet fruits such as dates, cashew apples, figs, peaches, apricots, mangoes, bananas, papayas, and loquats do not need to be dried as completely as vegetables because their high sugar content also acts as a preservative (section 15.4.3).
High temperatures make drying go faster by increasing the rate of evaporation. However, sunlight destroys vitamins A and riboflavin, and high temperatures destroy vitamins A, C, folacin and thiamin14 by increasing oxidation. One study showed that cowpea leaves dried in the open sun kept only 11% of their vitamin C and 42% of their vitamin A compared with 24% and 57% for leaves dried in the cooler shade.15 Flavor and color are also lost by exposure to heat and light.
The best way to dry food is in the shade, using warm air to evaporate the moisture out of the food. Good air circulation is essential because high humidity encourages bacteria and fungi, which spoil the foods, ruin their taste, and cause illness. Many of the same principles and procedures discussed in Chapter 14 for drying and storing seeds are also appropriate when drying and storing food.
Figure 15.4 Food Drying on a Woven Mat
Woven mats or baskets are good drying surfaces and can also be used to cover and shade drying food because they are rigid and well ventilated. In addition, mats or baskets are often locally made. Cloth, netting, or wood can also be used. Painted surfaces or metals other than stainless steel should not be used because food can absorb bad flavors or poisons from them. Soft, wet fruits like tomatoes, bananas, and peaches must be laid out on a clean surface such as a woven mat, shallow basket, or wooden tray (Figure 15.4). Bunches of leaves or chilis and slices of firm-fleshed vegetables like eggplant, squash, and tubers such as sweet potato can be tied together and hung up to dry.
Many foods, especially fruits with high sugar content, will darken as they dry. Drying foods should be examined for signs of spoiling if there is any other dramatic change in their color or surface texture. The drying area should be kept clean and free of dirt, sand, and rocks which can stick to the food and make it unpleasant and dangerous to eat. Protecting food from wind, which could coat it with sand and dirt, is also a good idea.
There are simple ways to protect drying food from insects such as ants, weevils, or flies which may eat it or lay eggs on it (Figure 15.5). A basket or other covering which permits air circulation across the foods protects them from flying insects and birds while providing shade (Figure 14.9 in section 14.3.2). Ants and other crawling insects can be discouraged by placing the dryer up on legs or on a pedestal standing in containers of water. Another method is to ring the legs with tree sap or other locally available sticky materials (Figure 15.6) so that anything crawling into it becomes stuck and will not reach the food.
Most fruits, tubers, roots, and leaves for drying should be picked at the same stage of growth as for eating fresh. For example, fruits should be picked when ripe. The best time to pick herbs such as mint or oregano for drying is just before their flowers open. This is when they are most flavorful because they contain the highest quantity of aromatic oils. Any produce that is overripe or bruised will spoil, and contaminate other food stored with it. Washing the produce after harvesting removes dirt, insects, and their eggs. If the rind of the fruit or vegetable, such as some squash, is not to be eaten, it is often easier to remove it before drying.
Figure 15.5 Some Insects will Lay Eggs on Drying Food
Figure 15.6 Protecting Drying Food from Crawling Insects
Drying methods for different types of dryland garden produce are summarized in Table 15.2. Blanching is an optional process discussed in Box 15.1. Whether fruits and vegetables are sliced for drying depends on their size and moisture content. The thicker the slice the longer its drying time and the greater the chances of case hardening if the weather is hot and dry. Case hardening results when the exposed surface of the food dries faster than the inside, forming a barrier and sealing in the remaining moisture. Fungi and bacteria can grow easily in this moisture, spoiling the food. Cutting the food up into many thin slices, however, exposes more surface area to oxidation and results in a greater loss of vitamins. The best approach is to keep these considerations in mind and experiment.
Leaves such as amaranth are dried whole because they are so thin. Small okra may also be dried whole. Chilis, onions, and garlic are often left whole and hung in strands for drying and later storage. Bunches of leaves and herbs may also be dried this way. Tomatoes, eggplant, and okra, and root crops such as yams, sweet potatoes, and carrots, are often sliced into pieces approximately 1 cm (0.4 in) thick so that they dry thoroughly and quickly. Native Americans of southwestern North America sometimes dry cut up squashes and peaches on their rooftops (Figure 15.7), or hang long strips of squash from wooden poles to dry for later use.
Dates and grapes are dried whole, but larger, juicier fruits should be sliced. Peaches, loquats, and apricots can be cut in halves or quarters. Cutting mangoes, bananas, and papayas into slices about 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) thick helps them dry faster.
Drying time will depend upon the climate, the food being dried, and how it will be stored. Turning the food over occasionally helps it dry more quickly and evenly. The longer the dried food is to be stored, or the hotter the storage conditions, the drier it should be. Leaves, chilis, roots, and tomatoes are usually dried until brittle. The high sugar content of fruits such as mangoes, bananas, stone fruits, figs, and dates acts as a preservative, therefore, they need be dried only until pliable and leathery. For example, the moisture content of leaves dried for storage is approximately 6-10%,16 while dried sweet fruits containing up to 25% moisture can be stored without spoilage.17 In some drylands such as southern Italy, tomatoes, sweet peppers, and eggplants are dried until leathery then layered in containers with herbs and garlic and covered with oil. The oil preserves and protects the vegetables from contamination so they need not be dried as thoroughly as they would if stored without the oil.
Table 15.2 Summary of Drying Methods
Type of produce
Preparation and drying method
Leaves: e.g., amaranth, other greens, cabbage leaves, herbs
Whole, on a flat, ventilated surface or hung in bunches (blanch 1 minute or less)
Onions, chilis, garlic
Whole, in hanging strands (no blanching)
Onions, peppers, tomatoes, okra, eggplants
Sliced, on a flat, ventilated surface (no blanching)
Sliced, on flat, ventilated surface (blanch 3 minutes)
Sliced, on a flat, ventilated surface; firm fleshed ones hung in strips (blanch 2 minutes)
Dates, grapes, figs
Figs and dates whole or split, on a flat, ventilated surface or strung; grapes in bunches or singly (no blanching)
Moist fruits: e.g., stone fruits, mangoes, bananas, papayas, loquats
Sliced, on a flat, well ventilated surface, turn regularly (no blanching)
Figure 15.7 Squash and Peaches Cut and Drying on Rooftops in a Hopi Village (After Kennard 1979:555)
Sprouting seeds improves their nutritional value and digestibility. Dried or toasted (malted) sprouts can be ground into flour and used to make flavorful, nutrient-dense foods (section 16.3.4).
Sprouting is the process of germinating seeds before eating or further processing. It has several benefits:19
· The amount and/or availability of vitamin C, iron, riboflavin, niacin, and phosphorus in some foods is increased.
· The amount of anti-nutrients such as phytates, tannins, and oligosaccharides are decreased (section 2.10).
· Starches are converted into simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and maltose, improving taste and digestibility. This does not occur as quickly in pulses as it does in cereals.
· Since cooking is eliminated or reduced, fuel is saved.
Nutritionists sometimes recommend blanching, a brief boiling or steaming, as a pretreatment before drying some foods. Tree fruits are not usually blanched, nor are chilis, onions, garlic, or herbs. Blanching does several things:
· Kills enzymes in the food
which might otherwise continue the ripening process after harvesting.
Blanching is not necessary, although it may improve the storage life, flavor, and appearance of some dried garden produce. In the dry season, getting food quickly and sufficiently dried to prevent contamination and continued ripening is usually easy. In the humid rainy season it can be more difficult, and blanching may be helpful. Otherwise, we do not recommend blanching because it uses cooking fuel and destroys nutrients, especially vitamins A and C. For example, fresh okra and amaranth lose 30% and 35% of vitamin A as well as 41% and 51% of their vitamin C, respectively, after blanching for 3 minutes in water.18
If garden produce is blanched before drying, the following suggestions can minimize nutrient losses:
· Instead of immersing it in water, blanch the produce with steam to reduce loss of water-soluble nutrients.
· Steam only long enough to heat the produce thoroughly and soften it slightly. In many cases like leaf amaranth and carrots, the color will appear brighter when sufficiently steamed.
· Change the water after each batch is steamed because sugars and enzymes from the food accumulate in the water, making the blanching less effective. This flavorful water can be drunk or used in cooking.
Steaming can be done using a covered pot containing about 3 cm (1 in) of water. Clean rocks placed in the pot will support a clean piece of matting, sticks, or rigid stainless steel screen, keeping it and the food on it above the water (Figure 15.8). Wrapping the food in a cloth bundle and hanging this from a stick above the boiling water is another way to steam produce.
Mustards, radishes, sunflowers, sesame, pulses like the moth bean, cowpea, and pigeon pea, and some cereals such as wheat are among the many plants whose seeds can be sprouted. However, not all seeds produce sprouts good for eating. Plants with poisonous leaves such as tomatoes should not be used for sprouting. Sorghum seed sprouts form the poison hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (section 2.10) during digestion and should not be eaten.20
Sprouted seed can be eaten fresh, cooked, or malted (section 15.5.2). Sprouting takes about 2 to 4 days depending on the seed and the stage at which it is to be used (Figure 15.9). First, the seed is soaked until softened, usually overnight, depending on the seed coat and size. This water should not be drunk or used for cooking, but poured on the garden. Second, the softened seed is kept in a moist (but not wet), dark place, such as a covered bowl, jug, tray, or mat. Seeds are often spread between woven mats or leaves and sprinkled occasionally with water to keep them moist. Gently rinsing seeds, at least once a day in hot weather, helps prevent molds from growing.
When germination has occurred the sprouts are ready to be cooked or malted. Sprouts for eating raw or for cooking as a fresh vegetable can be left long enough to develop leaves if they do not get too tough. Before eating raw, sprouts should be exposed to sunlight for about 1 day, while keeping them moist and protected from high temperatures. Unlike harvested produce, the sprouts are living plants and their leaves turn green when exposed to sunlight, giving them a sweeter taste and increasing their vitamin A and C content. Before eating, the seed coat or hull can be removed by rinsing the sprouts.
Mailing is drying or toasting sprouted seeds which are then ground into a meal or flour that can be cooked into a porridge or used for making beverages. The sprouted seeds are dried or toasted before they develop any leaves (Figure 15.10). The seed coats can be removed before the seeds are ground.
Because making breaks starches down into simple sugars, malted flour absorbs less water than unmalted flour and so it makes a more nutrient-rich food (section 16.3). Malted porridge has a slightly sweet taste which children like. Although some heat-sensitive nutrients such as vitamin C will be destroyed during cooking, making increases the iron, riboflavin, and niacin content of foods.21
Figure 15.9 Sprouting
Figure 15.10 Malting
Fermentation is a process in which certain bacteria or fungi are allowed to grow in a food to improve its flavor and/or digestibility. As these microorganisms absorb and process nutrients and excrete waste products they affect the flavor, nutritional value, texture, and storage life of the food. The organisms break down proteins, convert starches to simple sugars, and can increase or make various vitamins and minerals more available. In other words, these organisms are feeding on and digesting the food.
Because the process of breaking foods down into their constituent parts has already begun, fermented foods can be easier for people to digest than the same food before fermentation. For example, the seeds of the African locust bean are inedible before fermentation and processing to make dawadawa or iru, a flavorful condiment used for sauces in West Africa. Fermentation can also reduce or eliminate some anti-nutrients such as phytates and oligosaccharides (section 2.10). In this book we do not have space to cover in detail how to develop fermentation techniques, and this should not be done unless expert advice is available. It is best to work with existing fermentation techniques. The following brief discussion is given to help readers understand the fermentation process and enable them to support improvements in indigenous food fermentation where appropriate.
Fermentation lengthens the storage life of foods because the presence of the fermenting organisms prevents other, spoiling organisms from becoming established. Often this is because fermentation changes the pH of the food, for example making it so acid that only Lactobacilli spp. bacteria will survive. This is a kind of fermentation called pickling which is discussed in section 15.6.1.
Care and experience are important in food fermentation, otherwise the wrong organisms may start growing and will spoil the food and make people sick. Traditional fermentation processes often include ways to select desirable organisms. For example, the Sudanese beverage hulu mur is made from sorghum, dates, tamarind, and ground spices. The spices are an important ingredient not only because they add flavor, but because they determine which organisms grow, thus influencing the kind of fermentation.22 The spices also decrease oxidation rates, aiding preservation.
The method of fermentation varies according to the specific food and local processing traditions. The essential step is a period of rest during which the food is undisturbed while the fermenting organisms grow and multiply. In the case of dawadawa, the bean seeds are cooked several times and the seed coats removed before being packed in moist leaves for about 36 hours for fermentation.23
The balls of onion greens made in savanna West Africa (section 15.4), rice and pulse breads such as idli and dhosai from India, and taamiah, the fried bean and vegetable balls popular in Egypt,24 are some fermented foods made with ingredients from dryland gardens. Sometimes fermented products such as dawadawa and onion balls are dried or smoked to halt the fermentation process at the point when the food is most flavorful and easy to preserve.
In Nepal, mustard, radish, and cauliflower leaves are fermented to make gundruk, a traditional condiment.25 The leaves are dried, crushed, soaked in water, and then allowed to ferment in a warm, dark place for several weeks. Following fermentation the gundruk is sun dried, after which it can be stored for about 1 year without spoiling.
Pickling is fermentation that results in an acidic (low pH) food. Bacteria (including many that produce lactic acid) and some yeasts, are the microorganisms responsible for this type of fermentation. In many cases the fruits or vegetables are soaked in a mixture of salt and water and/or vinegar, creating a medium that encourages the growth of the pickling microorganisms. As they multiply, the pH of the solution drops even further (it becomes more acid). High salt content in the pickling solution draws water out of the foods due to osmosis (section 5.2), also contributing to their keeping qualities.
The nutritional value of pickled foods is much lower than that of the same foods when fresh. However, they keep well, and are important as flavorful appetizers, which make the staple food more appealing.
Pickled garden foods are eaten in many parts of the world. In Egypt, carrots, turnips, onions, tomatoes, chilis, and sweet peppers are among the vegetables commonly pickled in the home using salt solutions. Vegetables are also pickled this way in Mexico and are often sold from small street stands where they are displayed in large glass jars (Figure 15.11). In Asia, leaf vegetables, root crops, citrus fruits, and mangoes are also pickled.
Olives are popular throughout the Mediterranean, Middle East, and southwestern North America. There are many ways to process olives, and fermentation is a common method. A salt brine is the medium and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria are responsible for the fermentation. In this case the brine should contain enough salt to keep an uncooked egg (still in its shell) afloat. The olives are left in this solution for 4 weeks to 3 months, depending on the type of olives and how ripe they are. When the olives no longer taste bitter they are placed in fresh, unsalted water for about 1 week, and the water is changed every other day. Finally the olives are marinated with an oil, vinegar, and salt solution, adding herbs and other condiments to taste.
Storing food can reduce a households vulnerability to unforseen food shortages and saves produce for marketing later in the year. However, no matter what methods are used, there will almost always be a loss of nutrients during storage. Except for roots, tubers, and some nuts and seeds, most garden produce deteriorates rapidly in storage unless processed in some way. Processing and storing garden foods takes time and resources. For some poor households or those in remote locations, storing garden produce is well worth-while. For other households it may not be worthwhile, and alternatives to storage should be considered.
Figure 15.11 Selling Pickled Vegetables in Mexico
Some roots, bulbs, and tubers can be stored in the ground for several months or more after the crop has matured. This method will not work well if the soil is very wet, and so is best used to store crops maturing at the end of the rainy season. Cassava, garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, onion, potato, and sweet potato can be stored this way, but yams and tiger nuts cannot. It is a good idea to select some produce from different areas of the garden at each harvest to make sure there are no problems with pests or disease.
Only produce in the best condition with no insect damage, disease, or bruising should be stored. Bruises are places where plant cells have been crushed and are good sites for the growth of microorganisms which spoil food. Damaged fruit or tubers should be stored separately after harvest and used or processed as soon as possible. Emerging shoots on onions, garlic, and root crops make them vulnerable to contamination and rot. Before storing freshly harvested bulbs, tubers, and roots, they should be allowed to dry until a skin has formed over any surface cuts, otherwise they will rot. Water is rapidly lost from cracks or insect holes in fruits like tomatoes, melons, loquats, or pomegranates, and these are signs that insects may already be inside the fruit. Keeping the storage area clean helps minimize pest problems (section 14.5.2).
Garden produce continues to transpire after harvesting, and to release carbon dioxide and heat from respiration. Water losses due to transpiration should be minimized by storing produce out of the sun and protecting it from heat or wind. The cool, shady conditions described in section 5.4 as lowering transpiration rates in living plants will do the same for harvested garden produce. Gentle air circulation helps remove the heat being given off by respiration. If heat or humidity is high it is better to spread produce out to minimize points of contact where heat and moisture from respiration and storage conditions become concentrated and lead to spoilage. Leaving the stem attached to fruits as discussed in section 15.2 also improves storage life.
If the weather is very hot and dry wilting can be reduced by sprinkling water on the produce or gently covering it with moist leaves, cloth, or mats, as long as there is still some air circulation. Some leaf vegetables, like arugola, leaf amaranth, or spinach, can be made into bundles and the base of the stems kept in a container of water for a day or so (Figure 15.12).
Roots and tubers can be stored loose in piles or in baskets or other well-ventilated containers, in a cool, dry, dark place. By checking them regularly, sprouts can be rubbed off and any other problems caught in the early stages.
Pumpkins, melons, and squash with hard rinds can also be stored whole in a cool, dark place. Any stored squash should be checked regularly for black spots on the surface, signs of spoilage due to bacteria inside the fruit. The Hopi Native Americans grow varieties of squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma) and watermelons that they have selected for their good storage qualities, among other things. For example, the watermelons have thick rinds and firm, sweet flesh. If these fruit are harvested in September and kept in a cool, dry corner of the house they will be good for eating throughout the winter and even as late as the following May.
The Pima Bajo Native Americans gather watermelons when not quite ripe, take them to a sandy place, and bury them to protect them from birds and other animals. They say that they choose open places where the heat of the sun will help ripen the buried watermelons.26
Nuts and seeds contain a large proportion of oils that are unsaturated fats which are liquid at room temperature, and an important nutrient. When exposed to light and air for a long time oils become rancid. This means that they oxidize (section 15.3.1), acquiring an unpleasant, bitter taste and losing nutrients; rancid oils can make people very sick. Storing nuts and seeds in their shells and protecting them from heat, moisture, light, and pest damage reduces the chances of oils becoming rancid and prevents the growth of poisonous molds such as aflatoxin (section 2.10).
Figure 15.12 A Bundle of Arugola with its Stems in Water to Keep it Fresh
Before being stored in containers, dried foods should be given a cooling off period of 2 or 3 days, when they are kept at the temperature and humidity at which they will be stored and are occasionally turned or mixed. This final drying period prevents later moisture condensation in containers due to temperature change.
Dried fruits and vegetables continue to lose nutritional quality if exposed to light or heat during storage. Keeping them in a cool, dark part of the house or in containers that light cannot pass through, will improve their retention of vitamins A and C. Dried foods absorb moisture readily from the air, and should be checked occasionally during the rainy season for the molds and bacteria that tend to grow when the humidity is high.
Dried garden produce can be stored in covered containers such as calabashes, baskets, pots, cans, or jars. These containers can be sealed to keep insects and other pests out more effectively, but should be opened regularly to check for spoilage. The contents of an unsealed container, although more accessible for pests, can be constantly and easily surveyed. The discussion of airtight and breathable containers in section 14.5.1 is relevant for storing dried foods as well as seeds.
Most of the storage guidelines for dried foods apply to the storage of other kinds of processed garden produce as well:
· Keep foods out of the direct sunlight and in opaque containers if possible.
· Avoid storing foods in warm places, such as near the cooking fire or a wall that receives much exposure to sun and heat.
· Unlike many dried and malted foods, some fermented and sprouted foods are eaten without cooking. To prevent spoiling or contamination it is especially important to keep the storage area clean and the container covered.
· When storing some fermented foods, containers made of certain materials should not be used. Pickled foods should never be stored in aluminum or iron containers, or in containers with lids made from those materials. Wood, ceramic, glass, and stainless steel containers are fine.
Many of the same guidelines for harvesting, processing, and storing garden produce already discussed are appropriate for produce that will be marketed. However, there are some special considerations for handling produce for market because of the time between harvest and consumption and the transportation and sale of the produce in the marketplace.
Harvesting should be done as close as possible to market time (section 15.2). The longer the produce is stored, the poorer its quality and the more likely it is to be damaged during transport. Some fruits, like tomatoes, avocados, mangoes, bananas, and melons should be harvested before they are fully ripe and soft, because they are less likely to be damaged if they are transported while still firm.
Ethylene is a hormone that promotes ripening and is given off as a gas by many fruits including bananas, guavas, melons, papayas, peaches, and avocados. For example, ripe banana peels give off ethylene and can be used to speed ripening of harvested produce at home or for market. Ethylene-producing fruits or their peels can be placed in a covered basket, bag, or other closed, breathable container with the fruits that are being ripened.
It is best to pick leaf crops in the cool, early morning while they are still full of water. The heat and sun during the day increase transpiration and can make even healthy, living plants wilt. Individual leaves of crops like amaranth and basil wilt quickly. They will last much longer if a stem or branch is harvested instead of single leaves. Bunches of these stems can be bundled together and placed in water to keep them fresh as described in section 15.7.2.
How garden produce will get to market is an important consideration that should be planned for before market gardens are planted. The closer the market is the better, because produce is fresher, cost of transport and sellers time is less, and the local economy is supported.
However, markets are often far away and gardeners must pay to have their produce transported. If the cost and time involved in transporting produce to market is too great for individual gardeners, they can join together to form a cooperative. For example, in southern Senegal women formed gardening cooperatives to work together on problems of marketing garden produce. Asking members to contribute very small annual fees, the cooperatives pooled these funds and were able to maintain and operate a truck donated to the group by UNICEF.27
Once an affordable means of transportation has been found, garden produce must be packed and loaded so that it will not be damaged during the trip. Bruising or exposure to the sun during transport makes produce unmarketable or greatly diminishes its value. Coverings made of a variety of materials can be used to shade produce. Packing produce into containers padded by leaves, straw, or cloth helps protect it. In Egypt fresh produce is often packed into hand-built crates (Figure 15.13). The crates are made in village and town markets from the central ribs of date palm fronds. These readily available, rigid containers prevent soft fruits and vegetables from being crushed during transport to market.
Fresh garden produce kept in an airtight container in the sun will spoil rapidly. As the air inside the container gets hot, the produce wilts, giving off water vapor and creating a hot, wet environment perfect for the growth of spoiling microorganisms.
Many of the common causes of spoiling in fresh fruits and vegetables can be avoided by marketing dried garden produce. But dried foods can also spoil, and in the hot season care should be taken to keep them out of the sun and heat as much as possible. Dried foods should also be protected from contamination by dust, insects, and rodents. This can be done by wrapping them in cloth or leaves or storing them in containers during transportation to the market and even while in the marketplace.
If well cleaned and dried, seeds that are to be marketed are easy to package and transport. They should be kept out of the sun, especially if inside an airtight container.
Figure 15.13 Making Packing Crates from Palm Frond Ribs in Egypt
Figure 15.14 Protecting Garden Produce at the Market
Exposure to heat and sun causes big losses of fruits and vegetables at many markets, especially in the hot season. In addition to the foods that are spoiled, the nutritional quality of any remaining food is significantly reduced. For example, if fresh okra and fluted pumpkin leaves are exposed to the sun for several hours, as often happens in the market, they lose approximately 57% and 67% of vitamin A-containing carotenoids and 63% and 74% of vitamin C, respectively.28
There are some simple ways to protect the nutritional quality and appearance of garden produce at the market. All goods including fresh and dried produce, processed foods, and seeds should be shaded. Covering them with a cloth, basket, or leaves shades them and gives some protection from insects and blowing dirt. However, this may be a problem because it prevents customers from seeing the goods and comparing them with others. Therefore finding a shady spot to sell from or setting up an umbrella or other kind of shade may be the best solution (Figure 15.14). Occasionally sprinkling fresh produce with water helps cool it and reduces wilting. Even if produce is to be marketed immediately, the concepts and techniques discussed in section 15.7.2 about storing fresh produce are useful.
The best ideas for locally appropriate food processing are often experienced local people. Project workers can find information elsewhere as to how to support and improve existing methods. High school or college texts on food science or nutrition can be helpful for explaining the basic principles of processing or preserving garden produce. Another resource may be extension service materials on simple food processing methods.
1 Rankins, et al. 1989.
2 Iremiren 1987.
3 Mnzava 1986.
4 Barrett 1987.
5 FAO 1982b:164.
6 Bassuk 1986.
7 Watson 1976.
8 Simpson 1983.
9 Akpapunam and Achinewu 1985; Khokhar and Chauhaw 1986; Rao and Deosthale 1982.
10 Aykroyd and Doughty 1982:45.
11 Eskelinen 1977.
12 Oomen and Grubben 1978:29.
13 Rankins, et al. 1989.
14 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:45-48.
15 Maeda and Salunkhe 1981.
16 Ali and Sakr 1981; Chen and Saad 1981.
17 Ayres, et al. 1980:76.
18 Akpapunam 1984.
19 Akpapunam and Achinewhu 1985; Cameron and Hofvander 1983:66; Aykroyd and Doughty 1982:44,59-60.
20 Panasiuk and Bills 1984.
21 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:66.
22 Agab 1985.
23 Odunfa 1985:181.
24 Aykroyd and Doughty 1982:48-49.
25 Tamang, et al. 1988.
26 Pennington 1979:160.
27 Yoon 1983.
28 Akpapunam 1984.
Breast milk should be the childs primary food for the first year of its life, with breast-feeding continuing until 2 years of age or more. In addition to nourishment, breast-feeding is important for forming a loving bond between a mother and her baby (Figure 16.1). Weaning is the process of supplementing the childs diet of breast milk with weaning foods, starting a transition to an adult diet. It is a time of change for the child and its mother and other caretakers. Successful weaning must fit the schedules and needs of all involved.
Weaning is a critical period for children in drylands. Without nutritious and appetizing weaning foods malnutrition may easily result, leading, in turn, to underweight children who grow slowly and get sick easily. Malnutrition in childhood can cause major health problems later in life.
Weaning food ingredients from the garden can play an important role in the growth of healthy, well-nourished children. Although many commercially produced breast milk substitutes and weaning foods are advertised and promoted by manufacturers, breast milk and homemade weaning foods are better because they are more nutritious, widely available, much less expensive, and more easily prepared.
Nutritious weaning foods are essential for the healthy growth of children. Minor changes in adult foods and in the proportions of different kinds of these foods in the diet, can easily produce good, inexpensive weaning foods.
Many garden foods make excellent weaning foods, contributing nutrients essential for rapidly growing young children. Weaning foods should have a consistency and flavor that children like, and because of their small stomachs, must be nutrient-dense.
Because they are so rich in nutrients, weaning foods can spoil easily. Care should be taken in preparing and serving them to reduce chances of the child becoming sick since this can quickly undo the benefits of good care and nutritious foods.
The preparation of weaning foods must fit into peoples daily schedule. The mother or others responsible for the child are often very busy and weaning foods requiring lengthy preparation are not appropriate. This is especially critical during the peak labor periods such as planting, weeding, and harvest time for mothers who are farmers, or year-round for mothers who are wage laborers working away from the home.
Weaning foods are first given as a complement to breast milk at approximately 4 to 6 months of age. At this time they are important as an introduction to solid foods, even though breast milk is still providing most of the infants nutritional needs. One or two mouthfuls of a bland, peeled and mashed garden fruit or vegetable such as banana, papaya, avocado, steamed or boiled squash, or sweet potato after breast-feeding is a good start. If there is no interest in the food, it can be offered before breast-feeding, when the child is more eager to eat.
Each new food should be added to the weaning childs diet one at a time, in small quantities, with several days wait until another new food is introduced. This makes it easy to identify foods to which the child may be allergic. An allergy is a sensitivity to a specific substance that stimulates an immune response. The infants undeveloped intestine allows some large molecules from foods to pass through into the circulatory system. There the immature immune system may respond with an allergic reaction like a rash or diarrhea. Breast milk contains immunoglobins which help protect the child from some allergies and illnesses. Citrus fruits, cows milk, egg whites, and wheat are some foods commonly cited as sources of food-induced allergies in infants and young children. Not all children will be allergic to these foods and there are other foods that can cause allergies as well. If a child does have a negative reaction the food should be avoided, at least for a while.
Figure 16.1 Breast-Feeding
As the child becomes familiar with solid foods, the frequency, quantity, and variety of feedings can be increased. Breast milk continues to be an important part of the childs diet at least until it is 2 years old. However, by 6 to 7 months of age, breast milk alone cannot sustain the childs healthy growth, and small quantities of nutritious weaning foods, given four or more times a day, become more and more essential.
Homemade weaning foods should be prepared from a combination of ingredients that supply energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals, all of which are needed by the rapidly growing child. Some nutritionists categorize weaning food ingredients into four groups, which are then combined into nutritionally complete weaning foods referred to as multi-mixes:1
· Main energy source (usually the staple crop, e.g., sorghum or maize).
· Protein supplement (e.g., beans, nuts, dried dark green leafy vegetables, eggs or meat).
· Vitamin and mineral supplement (e.g., fruits and vegetables).
· Energy-dense supplement (e.g., oil).
Local adult diets usually consist of a staple food flavored with a small amount of vegetable sauce or legumes. Weaning foods are created from adult foods by increasing the proportion of the most nutrient-rich ingredients (such as sauces), improving the consistency by thoroughly mashing the foods, and eliminating hot spices. A study in Nigeria of 228 weaning-age children found that those who were fed a modified adult diet of food that was well cooked and mashed were better nourished than those children fed a weaning diet of only unnutritious weaning foods such as pap, a watery maize gruel, or commercial weaning foods and formulas.2
It is important to distinguish between good weaning foods and a good weaning diet. Porridges made from local staple crops are excellent weaning foods. For example, in many areas a fermented grain porridge is an important part of the weaning childs diet, frequently supplying the main source of energy. When diluted with water these porridges become drinks, such as the pap described above, that are useful for preventing dehydration caused by diarrhea and vomiting (Box 16.1 in section 16.4) but are not adequate as weaning foods. The weaning diet must include other foods that will provide the additional nutrients needed by the growing child. Household gardens are an excellent source of ingredients that can be easily made into nutritious, good-tasting weaning foods, which are especially important as supplements to the staple food porridges traditionally used for weaning.
A nutrient-dense food is one that contains a relatively high proportion of a beneficial nutrient or nutrients per unit volume. Energy (calories), protein, vitamins A and C, and iron are the main nutrients that become deficient during weaning (sections 2.3.1 and 2.11). Children need more nutrients in proportion to their size than adults because they are growing so fast. For example, for each kilogram of body weight an infant needs more than three times more energy and protein than a moderately active adult woman.3 This is why nutrient-dense weaning foods are so important, especially when a spoonful of food may be all the child can eat. A weaning diet of only the adult staple food or a thin, watery weaning gruel prepared from it simply does not contain a high enough concentration of nutrients. This causes children to become malnourished because their small stomachs do not allow them to eat enough of the food to obtain the nutrients they need.
Oil-rich garden fruits like olives and avocados are energy dense and make excellent additions to weaning foods. (Olives that are very salty or prepared with very spicy or acid flavorings are not appropriate.) This is also true of pastes made from garden nuts and seeds like sunflower, sesame, and melon seeds, groundnuts, cashews, pistachios, pine nuts, and almonds. In addition to calories, these pastes add protein, minerals, flavor, and a creamy consistency. Vegetable oils made from garden nuts or seeds, and fats like butter or ghee are other good, energy-dense additions to weaning foods. For example, 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of fat contains about 44 calories,4 but a teaspoon of cooked sorghum flour contains only about 10 calories.5 Thus, over 4 teaspoons of cooked sorghum porridge are needed to provide the same amount of energy as 1 teaspoon of fat (Figure 16.2). However, no more than 20-30% of the childs calories should come from fats.6 A greater proportion of fats results in a diet with inadequate quantities of other kinds of foods and the nutrients they provide.
Figure 16.2 Comparing the Caloric Density of Oil and Cooked Sorghum Porridge
Figure 16.3 Some Garden Foods that Add Energy to the Weaning Diet
Other garden foods contain concentrated energy in the form of carbohydrates. They include vegetables such as tiger nut and dried sweet potato, and yam, and many dried fruits such as dates, figs, and peaches (Figure 16.3). The caloric value of these foods is as high as, or higher than, that of dry cereals, which is about 350 kcal/100 gm (100 kcal/oz). All of these foods must be prepared so that weaning children can eat them.
Many high-energy garden foods are also good sources of protein, including groundnuts, cashews, sesame, squash, melon, and sunflower seeds, and pulses like cowpeas, beans, and lentils (Figure 16.4). These should all be thoroughly ground or mashed so they will not choke the child. Drying fresh leaves that contain 80% or more water significantly reduces their bulk and concentrates nutrients. The leaves of many dryland garden plants such as amaranth, jute, pumpkin, cow-pea, and cassava contain 20-30% protein when dried.7 For example, 100 gm (3.5 oz) of dried amaranth leaves can provide up to 28% of the protein requirements for a 1-year-old child.8 Dried leaves can be easily added to a weaning porridge for the last 5 minutes that it is cooking.
Figure 16.4 Some Garden Foods that Add Protein and Energy to the Weaning Diet
Drying increases the protein density of insects and their larvae, which are an excellent source of calories and calcium. Some, like dried caterpillars, are rich in niacin, vitamin A, and riboflavin as well.9 Foods like yogurt or cheese are good sources of proteins, fats, and other nutrients for weaning-age children. Meat from both wild or domesticated animals is another good source of protein although it is often very expensive or difficult to obtain.
The yeast used to brew local grain beers in many dryland areas is a nutrient-rich flavoring commonly added to soups, and makes an excellent weaning food. It is high in protein, iron, niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin. In northern Ghana, soups made with the yeast used to brew sorghum beer are traditionally used as weaning foods.10 However, use of beer yeast may be inappropriate for some households because of religious dietary restrictions on alcohol and foods associated with it.
Gardens are especially important for their contribution of vitamins and minerals (Figure 16.5) (sections 2.6 and 2.7). Vitamins can, however, be lost through cooking (section 15.3). Many of the orange and yellow tree fruits such as mangoes, oranges, apricots, peaches, and papayas are rich in vitamins A and C, and their natural sweetness appeals to children. Ripe cactus fruits contain much vitamin C and some calcium, and can be eaten fresh, although it may be better to strain out their large seeds and make a flavorful juice. Carrots and vegetables like yellow and orange squash, tomatoes, and sweet red and yellow peppers are good sources of vitamins A and C - they are flavorful weaning-food ingredients and a good source of those vitamins for older children as well (Figure 16.6).
Figure 16.5 Some Garden Foods that Add Vitamins A and C to the Weaning Diet
Figure 16.6 Many Children Enjoy Carrots which are Good Sources of Vitamins A and C
Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are high in vitamin A and often easier to grow or less costly than many fruits. Fresh or dried leaves can be chopped and added to porridge at least 5 minutes before it has finished cooking. In some areas of Asia DGLVs may not be given to children because of dietary restrictions or because they may not taste good to children. Cooking greens and then rinsing them before eating improves their taste by removing some of the bitter-tasting compounds such as tannins or oxalic acid.
Figure 16.7 Some Garden Foods that Add Iron to the Weaning Diet
Iron is an important mineral for the healthy development of the young child (section 2.7.1). Dates, DGLVs, figs, nuts, and beans are all sources of iron from the garden (Figure 16.7). Eggs are another good source of iron which can be used in the weaning diet as the child gets older and if she has shown no allergic reaction to them. Lack of vitamin C can be a limiting factor in iron utilization and so the child must receive an adequate supply of this vitamin to avoid iron deficiency.
Processing and preparing weaning foods affects their nutrient density and the availability of nutrients to the child. The seed coats of pulses such as dried beans, groundnuts, and sesame seeds should be removed because they are high in fiber. High-fiber weaning foods can inhibit absorption of nutrients and cause gas and discomfort. In addition, the coat or hull may contain anti-nutrients. For example, sesame seed hulls contain oxalates which inhibit absorption of the calcium contained in the seeds (section 2.10). Dark-colored hulls contain tannins that decrease protein and carbohydrate digestibility.11
Smooth, semisolid weaning foods are easier to eat and more readily accepted than foods that are thick and coarse. For these reasons, and to avoid the danger of the child choking, all food fed to the child during the first few months of weaning should be thoroughly mashed. Mashing the food through a wire sieve makes it softer and smoother, and also removes the tough skins or seed coats of beans.
While water or other liquids can improve the consistency of weaning foods, they also dilute the foods nutritional value. Adding a little fat such as oil, ghee (clarified butter), or butter to the weaning food is one way to give it an acceptable consistency without diluting its energy density. The fat helps moisten the food, adding calories without noticeably increasing the quantity of food the child must eat. Some fats provide other nutrients as well, such as the vitamin A in red palm oil and ghee.
By using malted flours (section 15.5.2) for making weaning porridge, nutrient density for an acceptable consistency will be greater than if the porridge were made with unmalted flours. Malted flour does not absorb as much water as unmalted flour because making breaks starches down into sugars. Therefore, malted porridge can be made much thinner and easier for the child to eat, while still having a high energy density. For example, 100 gm (3.5 oz) of millet porridge made with unmalted flour contains 25 kcal and 0.4 gm (0.01 oz) of protein. One hundred gm (3.5 oz) of porridge of the same consistency made with malted millet flour has 83 kcal and 1.3 gm (0.05 oz) of protein.12 To prepare 230 gm (8 oz) of semisolid porridge from unmalted flour requires 14 gm (0.5 oz) of flour and 213 gm (7.5 oz) of water. Two hundred and thirty gm (8 oz) of a porridge of the same consistency using malted flour takes 57 gm (2 oz) of flour and only 170 gm (6 oz) of water (Figure 16.8).
Figure 16.8 Comparing the Caloric Density of Malted and Unmalted Millet Flour
One of the greatest health hazards for the weaning child is eating unclean weaning foods that cause sickness. When the child's body is experiencing the nutritional demands of rapid growth, the stress of illness makes good nutrition even more difficult to achieve. (Box 16.1 gives some suggestions about what to do should the weaning-age child become sick.)
There are several ways to minimize contamination problems in the preparation and serving of weaning foods. First, foods and any utensils used must be kept as clean as possible and away from disease vectors such as flies. Whether weaning foods are fed to infants with a spoon or directly by hand is not important (Figure 16.9). Whatever is used should be carefully cleaned and washed. A nutritionist working in northern Ghana noted that a nutrition education program which advised, among other things, using spoons for feeding weaning foods, was actually encouraging practices that were less hygienic than the traditional method of feeding directly by hand.13 This was because the spoons often fell on the floor and were left uncleaned between feedings, while there was a strong traditional practice of washing the right hand before eating a meal or feeding a small child.
Figure 16.9 Weaning Foods can be Served by Hand
Second, any liquids added to weaning foods to produce the right consistency should be added during cooking. They should never be added to weaning foods that have already been cooked and removed from the heat, as this may introduce disease-causing microorganisms. These microorganisms will not be killed unless the food is boiled for a minimum of 5 minutes.14 The same is true of any fats added to weaning foods. For this reason it is best to cook all ingredients together. Making the porridge a little thin allows for the tendency of most weaning porridges to thicken slightly as they cool.
When weaning-age children do become sick, the loss of liquids due to diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating from fever can be serious. If these fluids are not replaced the child can easily become dehydrated and eventually may die from lack of liquids and nourishment. This is why it is essential to give food and liquids to a child with diarrhea. If the sickness continues and/or the child does not want to eat, she must keep drinking liquids.
In addition to lack of fluids, dehydration means losses of the carbohydrates and minerals necessary for the body to absorb the liquids and nutrients it needs from the digestive system into the bloodstream. For this reason, although plain water is better than nothing, a drink that replaces some of those carbohydrates and minerals is the best.
In the 1970s and early 1980s a mixture of water, salts, and sugar, known as ORS (oral rehydration solution), for treating diarrhea and dehydration was strongly promoted by international organizations like WHO and UNICEF (Chapter 19 lists these resource organizations). This campaign included the production of packets of premeasured salts and sugars, and recipes for homemade salt and sugar mixes. The campaign saved millions of lives but current research shows that cereal- or potato-based gruels are just as effective if not better, and for many households are easier, and less expensive to obtain.16
A drinkable gruel made from the local staple grain (or root such as potato) is an available food that most households can easily make and give to their children when diarrhea or vomiting is a problem (this is not adequate as a weaning food, however). This drink may be simply a diluted version of the homemade weaning foods discussed earlier, although it should only contain a cereal and water, no oil or spices. In Mozambique mothers have a tradition of preparing such a gruel, called papinha, from wheat, rice, or various roots.17 Spoonfuls or small sips of the gruel should be given to the child constantly, even if she has been vomiting. The goal is to get her to swallow as much or more liquid than she has lost through sickness. The child should be watched carefully and if problems persist, taken to a health clinic.
Third, prepared weaning foods should not be stored for later use unless they are thoroughly recooked because their high protein and carbohydrate content make them ideal sites for bacterial growth. In warm weather, bacteria can begin growing within 2 hours even if the food is kept in a covered container in a relatively cool place.15 Traditional, fermented weaning porridges that contain only the staple crop may be exceptions. The acidity of these fermented foods helps preserve them, preventing the growth of spoiling microorganisms. Leftover weaning food can be eaten by other members of the household while it is still fresh, but if given to the child it should be boiled again for at least 5 minutes. Again, the advantages of easy-to-make weaning foods are obvious, especially for households with limited time and/or cooking fuel.
For weaning foods to fufill their important role in child nutrition, the preparation and use of these foods must fit into peoples daily schedules, household economy, and their beliefs about the kinds of foods appropriate for weaning.
LOCAL PRACTICES In most areas there are strong beliefs and feelings about food habits. Weaning foods are often a special category of foods and there may be a number of rules and practices for what and how weaning-age children are to eat. Understanding what these practices are and why they are followed is the first priority for someone working with community members on improving the nutrition of weaning-age children.
ACCESSIBILITY AND COST Even the most nutritious weaning food will do little good if it is difficult to obtain and prepare. Commercial weaning foods are relatively expensive, and most Third World women have no experience in preparing them. Often, written directions are inadequate because even those women who are literate may not know the language in which directions are written. In contrast, home-prepared weaning foods can be made from ingredients that are easily available, inexpensive, and familiar to the mother, or whoever is responsible for preparing them. The household garden is an excellent source of such ingredients.
PREPARATION TIME Child care is an important activity, but it must be integrated into a schedule of other work. Womens workloads affect the time available for weaning food preparation, and thus food quality and cleanliness. During periods of high labor demand, food for both children and adults is often prepared well in advance. During the period between when the food is prepared and when it is eaten conditions for contamination are perfect. It is likely that this is a major cause of increased child illness at these times.18 Modifications of the normal household diet or simple, quick recipes based on the local staple food plus some garden produce are best. Other solutions to the problem could vary from decreasing womens workloads to exploring cooperative cooking arrangements.
WHO IS CARING FOR THE CHILD? Although the childs mother is often the one responsible for providing weaning foods, this responsibility may be shared among other members of the household or even community. Older brothers and sisters frequently care for infants and small children so that their mothers can work (Figure 16.10). In recognition of this UNICEF began a Child to Child program in 1979, the International Year of the Child. Child to Child programs all over the world help older children take better care of younger ones.19 An example of this is a community health program in Brazil which trains adolescents how to prepare weaning foods for their younger sisters and brothers, and neighbors.20
The Manual on Feeding Infants and Young Children (Cameron and Hofvander 1983) is a good resource for anyone involved with projects concerning the health of infants and young children. While there is much practical advice, some of the nutritional formulas and tables for making weaning foods will only be useful to someone in a clinical or academic setting.
Figure 16.10 Children are often Responsible for the Care of Their Younger Brothers and Sisters
Chapter 7 (Feeding the Family) in Nutrition for Developing Countries (King, et al. 1972) includes a discussion of weaning foods and their preparation. Human Nutrition in Tropical Africa (Latham 1979), which emphasizes infant and child health, is a very useful reference and textbook for health care workers. It includes a section (number 35) on recipes for infants and young children.
Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition (WHO 1986) is devoted primarily to maternal and child nutrition, and Module Four discusses weaning foods. Chapter 7 The Malnourished Child in Primary Child Care: Book One (King, et al. 1980) briefly discusses weaning foods while covering clinical diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition in infants and small children.
The Best Diet for Small Children in Where There is No Doctor (Werner 1977:121-124) gives a brief overview of important ideas for weaning and its effects on child health.
Jellife and Jellife (1978) is an academic review of both biological and sociocultural aspects of breast-feeding.
1 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:117-118.
2 Isenalumhe 1986.
3 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:38.
4 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:126.
5 Calculated from Cameron and Hofvander 1983:189 and Leung, et al. 1968.
6 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:61.
7 Calculated from Leung, et al. 1968.
8 Oomen and Grubben 1978:31.
9 Latham 1979:272.
10 Gordon 1973:42-43, 434.
11 Aykroyd and Doughty 1982:57.
12 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:67.
13 Gordon 1969:5.
14 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:70.
15 Cameron and Hofvander 1983:78.
16 Greenough 1987:29-32.
17 Werner 1986:14-15.
18 Longhurst 1983:4.
19 Werner and Bower 1982:24-1 to 24-30.
20 Gibbons and Griffiths 1984:30.
Following are abbreviations and equivalencies for metric and English units of measurement, atomic symbols and molecular formulas, and other abbreviations or acronyms that are used in this book.
a = acre
AF = acre foot, the amount of water needed to cover 1 acre 1 foot deep
AI = acre inch, the amount of water needed to cover 1 acre 1 inch deep
°C = degrees centigrade
cal = calorie
Cal = Calorie
cc = cubic centimeter = cm3
cm = centimeter
dS = deciSiemens
°F = degrees farenheight
fl oz = fluid ounce
ft = foot
gm = gram
gal = gallon (US)
ha = hectare
hr = hour
in = inch
kcal = kilocalorie
kg = kilogram
km = kilometer
m = meter
mcg = microgram
mg = milligram
mi = mile
min = minute
mm = millimeter
mmhos = millimhos
MT = metric ton
oz = ounce
(= 3.14 (the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter)
pt = pint
S = Siemens
sec = second
T = ton (US)
1 km2 = 100 ha
1 ha = 10,000 m2 = 0.01 km2 = 2.47 a = 107,639 ft2
1 m2 = 1 × 106 mm2 = 10.76 ft2
1 mi2 = 640 a = 2.59 km2
1 a = 43,560 ft2 = 0.404 ha = 4,047 m2
1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2
1 km = 1,000 m = 0.621 mi
1 m = 100 cm = 1,000 mm = 3.28 ft
1 cm = 10 mm = 0.394 in
1 mi =1.609 km
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 in = 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm
I(= 0.0001 mm
1 m3 = 1,000 liters = 26.42 gal = 35.31
1 liter = 1,000 ml = 1,000 cm3 = 0.264 gal = 34 fl oz = 1 mm depth of water from rain or irrigation on 1 m2 = 61.02 in3 = 0.035 ft3
1 ft3 = 7.48 gal = 28.31 liters
1 gal == 8 pt = 3.785 liters = 0.1337 ft3
1 pt = 16 fl oz
1 fl oz = 1.804 in3 = 29.59 cm3
1 AF = 3.26 × 105 gal = 1.23 × 106 liters = 12 AI
1 AI = 2.72 × 104 gal = 1.03 × 105 liters
1 MT = 1,000 kg = 1.103 T
1 kg = 1,000 gm = 2.205 lb
1 gm = 1,000 mg = 1.0 × 106 mcg
1 mg = 1,000 mcg
1 T = 2,000 lb = 0.906 MT
1 lb = 16 oz = 0.453 kg
1 oz = 28.4 gm
1 Cal (with upper case C) = 1,000 cal (with lower
case c) = 1 kcal
Temperature in °C = (Temperature in °F - 32) × 5/9
Temperature in °F = (Temperature in °C × 9/5) + 32
Freezing point of water = 0°C = 32°F
Boiling point of water = 100°C = 212°F
Al = aluminum
B = boron
C = carbon
Ca = calcium
CaCO3 = calcium carbonate
Ch = chromium
Cl = chlorine
Co = cobalt
CO2 = carbon dioxide
Cu = copper
C6H12O6 = simple sugar
Fl = florine
Fe = iron
H = hydrogen
H2CO3 = carbonic acid
H2O = water
K2PO4- = soluble phosphate
I = iodine
K = potassium
K2O = potassium oxide
Li = lithium
Mb = molybdenum
Mg = magnesium
MgCO3 = magnesium carbonate
Mn = mangenese
Mo = molybdenum
N = nitrogen
Na = sodium
NH3 = ammonia gas
NH4+ = ammonium
NH2CONK2 = urea
NO3- = nitrate
O = oxygen
P = phosphorus
S = sulfur
Se = selenium
Si = silica
SO4- = sulfate
Zn = zinc
AW = plant available soil water
Bt = Bacillus thuringiensis
CAM = crassulacean acid metabolism
CBH = carbohydrate
CEC = cation exchange capacity
C:N = carbon to nitrogen ratio
d = crop root depth
DGLV = dark green leafy vegetable
DDT = dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid
Ea = water application efficiency
EAA = essential amino acid
ECc = salinity of soil allowing acceptable yield
ECw = salinity of irrigation water
ET = evapotranspiration
ETa = actual evapotranspiration
ETm = maximum evapotranspiration
ETo = theoretical evapotranspiration
FC = field capacity
i = irrigation interval (in days)
Id = irrigation water applied
IPM = integrated pest management
kc = crop coefficient
LR = leaching requirement
NGO = nongovernmental organization
ORS = oral rehydration solution
p = probability
P = precipitation
PCM = protein calorie malnutrition
PEM = protein energy malnutrition
ppm = parts per million
pr = proportion of plant available soil water which a crop can use without ETa becoming less than ETm
PVO = private voluntary organization
PWP = permanent wilting point
R = runoff
R% = runoff percent
RDA = recommended dietary allowance
RE = retinol equivalents (vitamin A)
W = amount of water needed to bring soil in root zone to field capacity
WCE = watery compost extract
In the text we use common English names for crops and plant families, and in this Chapter we provide their scientific names. This is not meant to be a list for putting together demonstration gardens; it is not an exhaustive list and does not include the many important local crops and crop varieties.
The best sources for information about dryland garden crops are local gardeners and farmers. Researchers at university botany departments can also be helpful. Useful books include Acland 1971; Dupriez and De Leener 1987; FAO 1983, 1988; Irvine 1969; Kassam 1976; NAS 1975, 1979, 1989b; Purseglove 1974, 1983; Purseglove, et al. 1981; van Epenhuijsen 1978.
In the text we use the English common names of dryland garden crops. Here we list them alphabetically (with alternative English names in parentheses), and provide the genus and species name for each. Also listed are names for groups of crops.
agave. Agave spp.
African fan palm, Borassus aethiopum
African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa
almond, Prunus dulcis
amaranth (some species and varieties grown primarily for leaves, others for grain), Amaranthus spp.
apple, Malus spp.
apricot, Prunus armeniaca
artichoke, globe, Cynara scolymus
artichoke, Jerusalem, Helianthus tuberosus
arugola (rocket salad), Eruca sativa
asparagus. Asparagus officinalis
asparagus bean (black-eyed pea, cowpea, yard-long bean), Vigna unguiculata
artichoke, globe, Cynara scolymus
artichoke, Jerusalum, Helianthus tuberosus
aubergine (brinjal, eggplant, garden egg), Solanum spp.
avocado, Persea americana
Bambara groundnut, Voandzeia subterranea
banana, Musa spp.
baobab, Adansonia digitata
basil, Ocimum basilicum
bean, African locust, Parkia biglobosa
bean, asparagus (black-eyed pea, cowpea, yard-long bean), Vigna unguiculata
bean, broad (fava bean), Vicia faba
bean, common, Phaseolus vulgaris
bean, Egyptian (hyacinth bean), Lablab niger
bean, fava (broad bean), Vicia faba
bean, jack (horse bean), Canavalia ensformis
bean, hyacinth (Egyptian bean), Lablab niger
bean, horse (jack bean), Canavalia ensformis
bean, lima, Phaseolus lunatus
bean, mat (moth bean), Vigna aconitifolia
bean, mung (golden or green gram), Phaseolus aureus
bean, tepary, Phaseolus acutifolius
bean, yard-long (asparagus, black-eyed pea, cowpea), Vigna unguiculata
beet, Beta vulgaris
bird pepper, Capsicum frutescens
black-eyed pea (asparagus bean, cowpea, yard-long bean), Vigna unguiculata
black gram, Phaseolus mungo
bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria
brinjal (aubergine, eggplant, garden egg), Solanum spp.
broad bean (fava bean), Vicia faba
broccoli, Brassica oleracea
cabbage, Brassica oleracea
cactus, Indian fig, Opuntia ficus-indica
cactus, prickly pear, Opuntia spp.
carob, Ceratonia siliqua
carrot, Daucus carota
cashew, Anacardium occidentale
cassava (manioc, tapioca, yuca), Manihot esculenta
cauliflower, Brassica oleracea
cereals, grain crops, e.g., sorghum, millet, maize, wheat, rice, barley
chayote (choyote), Sechium edule
chard. Beta vulgaris
chenopods, Chenopodiaceae family
chickpea (garbanzo), Cicer arietinum
chill, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens
Chinese cabbage, Brassica spp.
choyote (chayote), Sechium edule
cilantro (coriander), Coriandrum sativum
citrus. Citrus spp.
coffee, Coffea spp.
collard, Brassica spp.
common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris
corn (maize), Zea mays
coriander (cilantro), Coriandrum sativum
cowpea (asparagus bean, black-eyed pea, yard-long bean), Vigna unguiculata
cucumber, Cucumis sativus
cucurbits, Cucurbitaceae family
cumin, Cuminum cyminum
crucifers, Cruciferae family
date palm. Phoenix datylifera
doum palm, Hyphaene thebaica
eggplant (aubergine, brinjal, garden egg), Solanum
egusi melon, Cucumeropsis edulis
Egyptian bean (hyacinth bean), Lablab niger
epazote, Chenopodium ambrosiodes
Ethiopian mustard, Brassica carinata
fava bean (broad bean). Vicia faba
fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
fig, Ficus spp.
fluted pumpkin, Telferia occidentalis
garbanzo (chick pea), Cicer arietinum
garden egg (aubergine, brinjal, eggplant), Solanum spp.
garlic, Allium sativum
garlic, great-headed, Allium ampeloprasum
globe artichoke, Cynara scolymus
golden gram (green gram, mung), Phaseolus aureus
goosefoot (lambsquarter), Chenopodium spp.
gourd, bottle, Lagenaria siceraria
gourd, wax (white gourd), Benincasa hispida
gram, black, Phaseolus mungo
gram, golden (green gram, mung), Phaseolus aureus
grape, Vitis spp.
grapefruit. Citrus paradisi
grass pea, Lathyrus sativus
green gram, Phaseolus aureus
groundnut (peanut), Arachis hypogaea
groundnut, Bambara, Voandzeia subterranea
groundnut, Hausa, Kerstingiella geocarpa
guava, Psidium guajava
gumbo (ladys finger, okra, okro), Abelmoschus esculentus
Hausa potato, Solenostemon rotundifolius
Hausa groundnut, Kerstingiella geocarpa
hibiscus (roselle). Hibiscus sabdariffa
horse bean, Canavalia ensiformis
hot pepper (chili). Capsicum frutescens
hyacinth bean (Egyptian bean), Lablab niger
Indian fig cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica
Indian spinach, Basella alba
jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis
jack fruit (jak fruit), Artocarpus heterophyllus
jaltomata, Jaltomata procumbens
Jerusalum artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus
jujube, Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana
jute (mallow), Corchorus olitorius
kale, Brassica spp.
kenaf. Hibiscus cannabinus
ladys finger (gumbo, okra, okro), Abelmoschus
lambsquarter (goosefoot), Chenopodium spp.
legumes, Leguminosae family
lemon. Citrus limon
lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus
lemon verbena, Aloysia triphylla
lentil. Lens esculenta
lettuce, Latuca saliva
lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus
lime. Citrus aurantifolia
loquat, Eriobutrya japonica
luffa, Luffa spp.
maize (corn), Zea mays
mallow (jute), Corchorus olitorius
mango, Mangifera indica
manioc (cassava, tapioca, yuca) Manihot esculenta
marjoram, Oreganum vulgare
marrow, Cucurbita pepo
mat bean (moth bean), Phaseolus aconitifolia
melon, Cucumis melo
mesquite, Prosopis spp.
millet, common, Panicum spp.
millet, bulrush, Pennisetum typhoideum
millet, finger, Eleusine coracana
millet, foxtail, Setaria italica
mint, Mentha spp.
moth bean (mat bean), Phaseolus aconitifolia
mulberry. Mora spp.
mung bean (golden or green gram), Phaseolus aureus
mustards, Brassica spp.
Natal plum, Carissa grandiflora
nectarine, Prunus dulcis
Niger seed, Guizota abyssinica
okra (gumbo, ladys finger, okro), Abelmoschus
olive, Olea europaea
onion, Allium spp.
orange. Citrus sinensis
oregano, Oreganum vulgare
palm, African fan, Borassus aethiopum
palm, date. Phoenix datylifera
palm, doum, Hyphaene thebaica
palm, palmyra, Borassus flabellifer
papaya (pawpaw), Carica papaya
parsley, Petroselinum crispum
passion fruit, Passiflora edulis
pawpaw (papaya), Carica papaya
pea, Pisium sativum
pea, black-eyed (asparagus bean, cowpea, yard-long bean), Vigna unguiculata
pea, grass. Lathyrus sativus
pea, pigeon, Cajanus cajan
peach, Prunus persia
peanut (groundnut), Arachis hypogaea
pear, Pyrus communis
pepper, sweet. Capsicum annum
pepper, bird. Capsicum frutescens
pepper, hot (bird, chili). Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annuum
pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan
pineapple. Ananas comosus
pistachio, Pistacia vera
plantain, Musa spp.
plum. Natal, Carissa grandiflora
pomegranate, Punica granatum
potato (white potato), Solanum tuberosum
potato, Hausa, Solenostemon rotundifolius
potato, sweet, Ipomoea batatas
prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.
pulses, legumes grown for their seeds which are often dried before cooking and eating
pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo
purslane, Portulaca oleracea
pyrethrum, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium
quince, Cydonia oblonga
quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa
radish, Raphanus sativus
rocket salad (arugola), Eruca sativa
Rose family, Rosaceae
roselle (hibiscus). Hibiscus sabdariffa
rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
sage, Salvia officinalis
sapote, Casimiroa edulis
sesame, Sesamum indicum
shea butter tree, Butryospermum paradoxum
sorghum, Sorghum spp.
sour orange. Citrus spp.
spinach, Spinacia oleracea
spinach, Indian, Basella alba
squash, Cucurbita spp.
stone fruit, Prunus spp.
sugarcane, Saccharum spp.
sunflower, Helianthus annus
sweet pepper. Capsicum annuum
sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas
tamarind, Tamarindus indica
tangerine, Citrus reticulata
tapioca (cassava, manioc, yuca), Manihot esculenta
teosinte, Zea spp.
tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius
thyme, Thymus vulgaris
tiger nut, Cyperus esculentus
tomatillo, Physalis spp.
tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum
tree tomato, Cyphomandra betaceae
turnip, Brassica rapa
umbellifers, Umbelliferae family
urd, Phaseolus mungo
wax gourd (white gourd), Benincasa hispida
watermelon, Citrullis lanatus
white gourd (wax gourd), Benincasa hispida
white potato. Sonalum tuberosum
wheat, Triticum spp.
winter squash, Cucurbita spp.
yam, Dioscorea spp.
yard-long bean (asparagus bean, black-eyed pea, cowpea), Vigna unguiculata yuca (cassava, manioc, tapioca), Manihot esculenta
Because of characteristics common to their members, it is sometimes more useful to refer to plant families rather than individual plants.
Onion family (Alliaceae)
Allium ampeloprasum, great-headed garlic
Allium sativum, garlic
Allium spp., onion
Chenopod family (Chenopodiaceae)
Beta vulgaris, beet root, chard
Chenopodium quinoa, quinoa
Chenopodium spp., goosefoot (lambsquarter), and many wild greens
Spinacia oleracea, spinach
Citrus family (Rutacea)
Citrus aurantifolia, lime
Citrus limon, lemon
Citrus paradisi, grapefruit
Citrus reticulata, tangerine
Citrus sinensis, orange
Composite family (Compositae)
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, pyrethrum
Cynara scolymus, globe artichoke
Guizotia abyssinia, Niger seed
Helianthus annus, sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem artichoke
Latuca sativa, lettuce
Crucifer family (Cruciferae)
Brassica oleracea, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower,
Brassica rapa, turnip
Brassica spp., Chinese cabbage, Indian mustard, rape
Eruca sativa, rocket salad
Raphanus sativus, radish
Cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae)
Benincasa hispida, wax gourd
Citrullus lanatus, watermelon
Cucumeropsis edulis, egusi melon
Cucumis melo, melon
Cucumis sativus, cucumber
Cucurbita spp., pumpkin, squash, marrow
Lagenaria siceraria, bottle gourd
Luffa spp., luffa
Sechium edule, chayote (choyote)
Mint family (Labiatae)
Mentha spp., mint
Ocimum basillicum, basil
Origanum vulgare, oregano and marjoram
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary
Salvia officinalis, sage
Thymus vulgaris, thyme
Legume family (Leguminosae)
Arachis hypogaea, peanut or groundnut
Cajanus cajan, pigeon pea
Canavalia ensiformis, horse or jack bean
Ceratona siliqua, carob
Cicer avietinum, chickpea or garbanzo
Kerstingiella geocarpa, Hausa groundnut
Lablab niger, hyacinth or Egyptian bean
Lathyrus sativus, grass pea
Lens esculenta, lentils
Parkia biglobosa, African locust bean
Phaseolus acutifolius, tepary beans
Phaseolus aureus, mung bean or green or golden gram
Phaseolus lunatus, lima bean
Phaseolus mungo, black gram
Phaseolus vulgaris, common bean
Pisum sativum, pea
Vicia faba, fava bean or broad bean
Vigna aconitifolia, mat or moth bean
Vigna unguiculata, asparagus bean, black-eyed pea, cowpea, yard-long bean
Voandzeia subterannea, Bambara groundnut
Malva family (Malvacea)
Abelmoschus esculentus, okra, ladys finger,
Hibiscus cannabinus, kenaf
Hibiscus sabdariffa, roselle or hibiscus
Palm family (Palmae)
Borassus aethiopicum, African fan palm
Borassus flabellifer, palmyra palm
Hyphaene thebaica, doum palm
Phoenix datylifera, date palm
Rose family (Rosaceae)
Eriobutrya japonica, loquat
Malus spp., apple
Prunus americana, apricot
Prunus dulcis, almond
Prunus persica, peach, nectarine
Prunus spp., stone fruits
Pyrus communis, pear
Solanum family (Solanaceae)
Capsicum annuum, sweet pepper
Capsicum annuum, chili, hot pepper
Capsicum frutescens, bird pepper, hot pepper, chili
Cyphomandra betaceae, tree tomato
Lycopersicon esculentum, tomato
Physalis spp., tomatillo
Solanum spp., eggplant, aubergine, brinjal, garden egg
Solanum tuberosum, potato
Umbellifer family (Umbelliferae)
Coriandrum sativum, coriander, cilantro
Cuminum cyminum, cumin
Daucus carota, carrot
Foeniculum vulgare, fennel
Petroselinum crispum, parsley
The following is a list of resource organizations that may be of use to those working with gardens in drylands. This is not a complete list, there are many more groups, both local and international, whose work is relevant. We include here brief descriptions; some written by us, some from the organizations themselves, and some taken from the list of organizations in AGRECOL and ILEIAs Towards Sustainable Agriculture (AGRECOL/ILEIA 1988).
AGRECOL DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION c/o Oekozentrum, CH-4438 Langenbruck, Switzerland, telephone 062-60 14 20 or 062-60 14 60
AGRECOL Development Information was founded in 1983 and is an information center within the network for sustainable agriculture in Third World countries. It promotes balanced ecological systems, independence from external inputs, local self-reliance, and socially and economically sound agriculture through a documentation center providing answers to questions and contacts with consultants. A good source for unusual documents such as reports on small PVO projects. They encourage contributions to the center.
AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE (AFSC) 1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102-1479, USA, telephone (215)241-7000, telex 247559 AFSC UR
AFSC has numerous small projects in the Third World, and in the United States, aimed at helping improve food production, empower the poor and reduce military tension.
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL (ATI) c/o Volunteers in Asia, PO Box 4543, Stanford, California 94305, USA, telephone (415)326-8581
ATI produces the Appropriate Technology Sourcebook (Darrow and Saxenian 1986), and a microfiche library of AT publications for Third World development projects.
ASIAN VEGETABLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER (AVRDC) PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan, 741, Taiwan, telephone 06-5837801, fax 06-5830009
Most of AVRDCs work appears to be devoted to large-scale commercial aspects of vegetable production and industrial-style gardens. A source for technical publications on some Asian crops. AVRDC has supported model garden research and garden extension in Asia (Llemit and Pura 1988).
BIO-INTEGRAL RESOURCE CENTER (BIRC) PO Box 7414, Berkeley, California 94707, USA, telephone (415)524-2567
The BIRC is a source for books and other educational materials on integrated pest management and biological control of agricultural and household pests.
BOARD ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (BOSTID) National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, District of Columbia 20418, USA
BOSTID examines ways to apply science and technology to problems of economic and social development through overseas programs, research grants, studies, advisory committees, workshops, and other mechanisms. It is the source for several of the NAS publications listed in Chapter 20; many of these publications are available free of charge to Third World organizations.
CENTER FOR INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE FOR AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (CIKARD), Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University, 324 Curds, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA, telephone (515)294-0938
CIKARD focuses its activities on preserving and using the local knowledge of farmers and other people around the world. CIKARD has a library and publishes a quarterly newsletter.
CENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE AGRICULTURA TROPICAL (CIAT) Apartado Aereo 6713, Cali, Colombia, telephone 57 3-675050
CIAT is a member of the CGIAR. It conducts research on Phaseolus spp. beans, cassava, rice, and tropical pastures.
CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH (CGIAR) 1818 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20433 USA, telephone (202)334-8028, telex 440098
CGIAR supports a system of international agricultural research centers (IARCs). It is dominated by Western countries, is housed in the World Bank, and focuses on industrial-style agriculture and development. The IARCs all distribute publications on their research which are listed, along with those of a number of other international agricultural research organizations, in IRRI (1989).
CULTURAL SURVIVAL 53A Church Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA, telephone (617)495-2562
Cultural Survival was founded in 1972 to help small societies survive the rapid changes that are destroying them. It provides funds and expertise for projects around the world. Publishes papers, books, special reports and the Cultural Survival Quarterly.
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FARM RADIO NETWORK (DCFRN) 595 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G2C3 Canada, telephone (416)593-3752, fax (416)593-3820
DCFRN produces well-written radio scripts on a wide range of topics oriented toward small-scale producers and promoting the use of low-cost local resources. The scripts contain many ideas for extension and production techniques, and are backed up with references. Radio scripts available in English, French and Spanish. Member radio stations worldwide receive resource materials.
ENVIRONMENT LIASON CENTER INTERNATIONAL (ELCI) PO Box 72461, Nairobi, Kenya, telephone (254-2)562015, 562022, 562172, fax 562175
ELCI is an NGO established in 1974 in Kenya to promote communication and cooperation among NGOs worldwide and to serve as a link between them and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). It promotes environmentally sustainable development and agriculture, organizes workshops and conferences, and publishes the bimonthly Ecoforum.
ENVIRONNEMENT ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU TIERS MONDE (ENDA) BP 3370, Dakar, Senegal, telephone 221-21 60 27
ENDAs activities are research, workshops, publications, and inquiry service on environment, development, and sustainable food production.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO) Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, telephone 57971, fax 5782610, 57973152
The Distribution and Sales Section at this address will send free copies of FAO Books in Print and List of Documents. These publications contain lists of FAO documents available to the general public and local addresses in about 80 countries where they can be purchased. Technical publications on agriculture tend to be oriented toward large-scale, capital-intensive production, but provide good data. FAO publications on traditional crops, agroforestry, and nutrition are more appropriate for gardens, and contain good references.
FOOD FIRST (see Institute for Food and Development Policy)
DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FUR TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT (GTZ) GmbH Postfach 5180 Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1+2, D 6236 Eschborn/Ts. 1, Germany, telephone (06196)79-0, fax (06196)79-1115
GTZ is the overseas development organization of the German government. GTZ has published workshop proceedings and research reports on postharvest storage and pest control for Third World agriculture, and on a number of other topics relevant for gardens.
HESPERIAN FOUNDATION PO Box 1692, Palo Alto, California 94302, USA, telephone (415) 325-9017
Hesperian Foundation promotes grassroots community health care through consulting, projects in Mexico, arid excellent training and reference materials including Where There is No Doctor (Werner 1977) and Helping Health Workers Learn (Werner and Bower 1982).
INFORMATION CENTRE FOR LOW-EXTERNAL INPUT AGRICULTURE (ILEIA) PO Box 64, Kastanjelaan 5, 3830 AB Leusden, the Netherlands, telephone 033-94-30-86, fax 033-94-07-91
ILEIA collects and disseminates information on low-external input agriculture for Third World countries, publishes the ILEIA Newsletter and bibliographies on sustainable agriculture (AGRECOL/ILEIA 1988; Carlier 1987), organizes workshops, and has an inquiry service.
INSTITUTE FOR FOOD AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY/FOOD FIRST (IFDP) 1885 Mission Street, San Francisco, California 94103, USA, telephone (415)864-8555
Through public education programs, research, and publications Food First emphasizes world hunger as a result of economic and political systems, not food scarcity or natural disasters. A source of publications and other educational materials. Diet for a Small Planet (Lapp 1982) and Food First (Lapp and Collins 1978) are standard references.
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP (ITDG) Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HT, United Kingdom
ITDG helps people in rural areas of the Third World to aquire the appropriate tools and technologies to work themselves out of poverty. ITDG publishes a newsletter, and provides consultants.
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY PUBLICATIONS 9 King St., London
WC2E 8HW, United Kingdom
The outlet for many appropriate technology publications.
INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE DRY AREAS (ICARDA) PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria, telephone 55 0465, telex 331206 SY
A member of CGIAR, ICARDA conducts research on farming systems (dry areas of north Africa, Middle East), barley, lentils, fava beans, wheat, and chick pea.
INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AGROFORESTRY (ICRAF) PO Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya, telephone 29867, telex 22048
ICRAF is an independent organization supporting research and publications on agroforestry, including a quarterly magazine, Agroforestry Today. Some of their publications, as well as the magazine, are available free to Third World organizations.
INTERNATIONAL CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS (ICRISAT) Patancheru PO, Andrha Pradesh 502 324, India, telephone 262251, telex 42203 ICRI IN
ICRISAT is a member of CGIAR. Though ICRISAT is mostly oriented toward sorghum and millet, it also conducts research on a variety of production topics of interest to gardeners.
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE (IDRC) Communications Division PO Box 8500 Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9, Canada
Financed by the government of Canada, IDRCs publications including those on agriculture, food, nutrition, and health, are sometimes available free of charge to Third World organizations.
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE MOVEMENTS (IFOAM) IFOAM General Secretariat, Okozentrum Imsbach, D-6695 Tholey-Theley, Germany, telephone 49(0)6853-5190
IFOAM publishes a quarterly bulletin and sponsors regular international scientific conferences supporting organic, sustainable agriculture.
INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES (IFDA) Case Postale 1260 Nyon, Switzerland, telephone 41(22) 618282, telex 28840 IFDA CH
IFDA publishes a biannual journal, the IFDA Dossier with contributions on diverse topics from many people and regions. IFDA promotes dialogue and discussion between individuals and organizations interested in alternative approaches to development.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (IITA) PO Box 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, telephone 413440, telex 31417 TROPIB NG
IITA is a member of CGIAR; it conducts research on farming systems (Africa), rice, maize, cassava, cocoyam, cowpea, yam, sweet potato, and soybean.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF CONSUMERS UNIONS (IOCU) PO Box 1045, Penang, Malaysia, telephone (04)20391, telex MA40164 APIOUC
IOUC promotes international cooperation in the testing of goods and services and in all other aspects of consumer information, education, and protection. It has a membership of over 100 consumers groups from 50 countries and has been an active participant in efforts to protect consumers rights and health on issues concerning the use of infant formulas and pesticides. IOCU published the Pesticide Handbook (1984), and is the coordinator for the international Pesticides Action Network (PAN).
NATIVE SEEDS/SEARCH (NS/S) 2509 N. Campbell Ave., #325, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA, telephone (602)327-9123
An example of a regional seed conservation organization, NS/S focuses on folk varieties of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
OXFAM UK274 Banbury Rd, Oxford 0X27DZ, United Kingdom, telephone (0865)56777, fax (0865)57612
OXFAM UK has projects in the Third World, and produces publications useful for project workers, as well as educational materials.
POSTHARVEST INSTITUTE FOR PERISHABLES (PIP) 314 University of Idaho Library, Moscow, Idaho 83843, USA
PIP is a documentation center for publications and unpublished documents on food storage and processing. Copies of documents are available free of charge on request.
RURAL ADVANCEMENT FUND INTERNATIONAL (RAFI) PO Box 655, Pittsboro, North Carolina 27312 USA, telephone (919)542-1396
RAFI works for the conservation of genetic resources within the broader framework of rural development, and does research, public education, lobbying, and consulting on both policy and technical matters.
ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW (KEW GARDENS) Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, United Kingdom
KEW has a Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics (SEPASAT) project that collates information about plants from the dry tropics that have been reported to be useful (in any way) but that have not been commercially exploited on a large scale. Write for more information on inquiries that can be made of the data base; presently supplied free of charge for nonprofit institutions.
TERRES ET VIE Rue Laurent Delvaux, 13, 1400 Nivelles, Belgique
Terres et Vie publishes and distributes the books by Chleq and Dupriez (1984), Dupriez (1982), and Dupriez and De Leener (1983, 1987). These handbooks for extension workers and secondary school students have lots of excellent photographs, and frequently include descriptions of indigenous methods.
UNITED NATIONS CHILDRENS FUND (UNICEF) 3 UN Plaza, New York, New York 10017 USA, telephone (212)326-7000, telex 175989 TRT
UNICEF works on international policy as well as having field programs that promote improved child survival and well-being. They have published several booklets on household gardens for nutrition; Sommers (1984), UNICEF (1985).
WINROCK INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Petit Jean Mountain, Route 3, Morrilton, Arkansas 72110, USA, telephone (501)727-5435, telex 910-720-6616 WI HQ UD
A Winrock project of interest to gardeners is the On Farm Seed Project which publishes the newsletter Seed Sowers/Les Semeurs (section 14.6).
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
WHO publishes many documents on nutrition and public health. Contact the Nutrition Unit or Distribution and Sales Service.
All references cited in the text are included in this chapter. Following the publication information in each citation, the chapter in the text that cites the reference appears in brackets. We have annotated some of the references that we feel would be of most use to readers. Those publishers marked with an asterisk (*) are listed in Chapter 19, Resource Organizations.
ABRAHAMSE, Tanya and Angela M. BRUNT (1984) An investigation into pesticide imports, distribution and use in Zambia with special emphasis on the role of multinational companies. Insect Science Application 5(3):157-173. [Ch.13]
ACLAND, J.D. (1971) East African Crops. Longman, London, UK (by arrangement with FAO). 252pp. [Ch.7, 18]
ACHINEWHU, S.C. (1986) Some biochemical and nutritional changes during the fermentation of fluted pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis). Plant Foods and Human Nutrition 36:97-106. [Ch.2]
ACPP (Alternative Crop Protection Project) (n.d.) Watery compost extract as fungicide. ACPP, c/o McKean Rehabilitation Centre, PO. Box 53, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand, mss., 3pp. [Ch.13]
ADAMS, William M. (1986) Traditional agriculture and water use in the Sokoto Valley, Nigeria. The Geographical Journal 152:30-43. [Ch.11, 12]
ADENIJI, M.O. (1977) Studies on some aspects of control of the yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys. Acta Horticulturae, No. 53:249-255. [Ch.13]
AFRICAN DIVERSITY (1990) Diversity News. African Diversity 2-3:1-4. [Ch. 14]
AGAB, Muna Ahmed (1985) Fermented food products hulu mur drink made from Sorghum bicolor. Food Microbiology 2:147-155. [Ch.15]
AGRECOL/ILEIA (1988) Towards Sustainable Agriculture. AGRECOL, Langenbruk, Switzerland, and ILEIA*, Leusden, The Netherlands. Part One (24pp) lists documents, periodicals, and organizations. Part Two (24pp) is a bibliography. [Part 11, Ch.19].
AGRIOS, George N. (1988) Plant Pathology. 3rd ed. Academic Press, New York, USA. xvi+803pp. [Ch.9, 13] A standard textbook with good descriptions of life cycles and mostly high-tech identification techniques; emphasizes chemicals, very little on nonchemical control or ecology.
AHMED, Saleem, and Michael GRAINGE (1986) Potential of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) for pest control and rural development. Economic Botany 40:201-209. [Ch.14]
AHN, Peter M. (1970) West African Soils. Oxford University Press, London, UK. xii+332pp. [Ch.9, 10] Semipopular. An excellent introduction to practical soil science, with basics applicable anywhere. Emphasizes the changes that occur moving north and south, between arid and humid regions of West Africa. Discusses soil changes and plant nutrition in traditional agriculture.
AKPAPUNAM, Maurice A. (1984) Effects of wilting, blanching and storage temperatures on ascorbic acid and total carotenoids content of some Nigerian fresh vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 34:177-180. [Ch.15]
AKPAPUNAM, Maurice A., and S.C. ACHINEWU (1985) Effects of cooking, germination and fermentation on the chemical compostion of Nigerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 35:353-358. [Ch.2, 15]
ALI, H.M., and I.A. SAKR (1981) Drying of vegetables in Egypt. In Food Drying. Gordon Yaciuk, ed. Pp. 15-19. IDRC*, Ottawa, Canada. [Ch.15]
ALTIERI, Miguel A., and Matt LIEBMAN (1986) Insect, weed and plant disease management in multiple cropping systems. In Francis 1986:183-218. [Ch.8]
AMES, Bruce N. (1983) Dietary carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Science 221:1256-1264. [Ch.2]
ANDREWS, David J. (1989) Cereal breeding in Africa. Paper based on a seminar given at Summer Institute for African Agricultural Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. 21pp. [Ch.14]
ARLOSOROFF, S., G. TSHANNELRL, D. GREY, W. JOURNEY, A. KARP, O. LANGENEFFER, and R. ROCHE (1987) Community Water Supply: The Handpump Option. World Bank. [Ch.12] Summarizes findings of a 5-year project on the testing and technical and managerial development of hand-pump-based water supply systems. [Reviewed by F. Carroll]
ARNON, I. (1975) Physiological Principles of Dryland Crop Production. In Gupta 1975:3-145. [Ch.8]
ATLIN, Gary N., and Kenneth J. FREY (1989) Breeding crop varieties for low-input agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 4(2):53-58. [Ch.14]
ATKINSON, D., D. NAYLOR, and G.A. COLDRICKA (1976) The effect of tree spacing on the apple root system. Horticultural Research 16:89-105. [Ch.6]
ATTEH, Oluwayomi D. (1987) Pesticide flow and government attitude to pests and pesticides in Kwara State, Nigeria. In Tait and Napompeth 1987:86-91. [Ch.13]
AUMEERUDDY, Y., and F. PINGLO (1989) Phytopractices in Tropical Regions. UNESCO/Laboratoire de Botanique Tropicale, Montpellier, France. 71pp. [Ch.7] Many extremely interesting but very brief descriptions about traditional manipulation of individual plants.
AYERS, R.S., and D.W. WESCOT (1985) Water Quality for Agriculture. Revision 1. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 29. (First published, 1976) FAO, Rome. xii+174pp. [Ch.5, 11, 12] Covers salinity, infiltration, toxicity and other problems with examples of using water of various qualities from around the world.
AYKROYD, W.R., and Joyce DOUGHTY (1982) Legumes in Human Nutrition. (Revised by Joyce Doughty and Ann Walker, first published 1964) FAO*, Rome. viii+152pp [Ch.15, 16]
AYRES, John C., J. Orvin MUNDT, and William E. SANDINE (1980) Microbiology of Foods. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA. [Ch.15]
BAKER, Kenneth F. (1987) Evolving concepts of biological control of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25:67-85. [Ch.13]
BARKOW, J.H. (1972) Hausa women and Islam. Canadian Journal of African Studies 6:317-328. [Ch.3]
BARRETT, Robert P. (1987) Integrating leaf and seed production strategies for cowpea. Pulse Beat [Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA] [Ch.15]
BASSUK, Nina L. (1986) Reducing lead intake in lettuce. Hortscience 21:993-995. [Ch.9, 15]
BELL, Morag, Richard FAULKNER, Patricia HOTCHKISS, Robert LAMBERT, Neil ROBERTS, and Alan WINDRAM (1987) The Use of Dambos in Rural Development, with Reference to Zimbabwe. Loughborough University, UK and University of Zimbabwe. Final Report of ODA Project R3869. xii+151pp. + appendices. [Ch.9, 10, 11, 12, 13] A survey and case study of gardens in valley areas usually watered by shallow wells. Focuses on soils and water, and emphasizes the importance of dambo gardens to households.
BENESON, Abram S. (1985) Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. 14th ed. The American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA. [Ch.11]
BENZ, B.F., L.R. SANCHEZ-VELASQUES, and F.J. SANTANA MICHEL (1990) Ecology and ethnobotany of Zea Diploperennis: Preliminary investigations. Maydica 35:85-98. [Ch.8]
BERKES, F., D. FEENY, B.J. MCCAY, and J.M. ACHESON (1989) The Benefit of the Commons. Nature 340:91-93. [Ch.3]
BERNARD, H. Russel (1988) Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, USA. 520pp. [Ch.4] A handbook of field methods emphasizing quantitative measurements.
BETTOLO, G.B. Marini, ed. (1988) Towards a Second Green Revolution: From Chemical to New Biological Technologies in Agriculture in the Tropics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xi+530pp. (Source of Pimentel 1988)
BHOWMIK, P.C., and J.C. DOLL (1984) Allelopathic effects of annual weed residues on growth and nutrient uptake of corn and soybeans. Agronomy Journal 76(3):383-388. [Ch.8]
BIRKELAND, Peter W. (1984) Soils and Geomorphology. Oxford University Press, London. xiv+372pp. [Ch.9]
BITTENBENDER, H. C. (1984) Handbook of Tropical Fruits and Spices. Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. v+127pp. [Ch.14]
BITTENBENDER, H. C. (1985) Home gardens in less developed countries. HortScience 20:645-649. [Part I]
BLAKIE, Piers (1985) The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries. Longman, London, UK. [Ch.9]
BLALOCK, Hubert M., Jr. (1972) Social Statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. xiv+583pp. [Ch.4]
BLAYLOCK, J.R., and A.E. GALLO (1983) Modeling the decision to produce vegetables at home. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 65:722-729. [Ch. 3]
BLEIBERG, Fanny M., Thierry A. BRUN, Samuel GOIHMAN, and Emile GOUBA (1980) Duration of activities and energy expenditure of female farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. British Journal of Nutrition 43:71-82. [Ch.2]
BODLEY, John H. (1990) Victims of Progress. 3rd ed. Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View, California, USA. ix, 261pp. [Part I] A well-written history of the physical and cultural destruction of indigenous peoples around the world as a result of colonialism and the industrial revolution. Current movements for self-determination are also covered.
BOULOS, Loutfy and M. Nabil EL-HADIDI (1984) The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, Egypt. iv, 178pp. [Ch.8]
BRADFIELD, Maitland (1971) The Changing Pattern of Hopi Agriculture. Royal Anthropological Institute Occasional Paper No. 30. Royal Anthropological Institute, London, UK. 65pp. [Ch.6]
BRIDGE, John (1987) Control strategies in subsistence agriculture. In Brown and Kerry 1987:389-420. [Ch.13]
BRIERLEY, J.S. (1976) Kitchen gardens in the West Indies, with a contemporary study from Grenada. The Journal of Tropical Geography 43:30-40. [Ch. 3]
BROWN, Lester R., Alan DURNING, Christopher FLAVIN, Hilary FRENCH, Jodi JACOBSON, Marcia LOWE, Sandra POSTEL, Michael RENNER, Linda STARK, and John YOUNG (1990) State of the World 1990: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. W.W. Norton and Company, New York and London. xii+253pp. [Part I] (Source of Durning 1990) This report is published yearly and is a widely cited source of information on the destruction of natural resources and efforts to halt it.
BROWN, R.H. and B.R. KERRY, eds. (1987) Principles and Practice of Nematode Control in Crops. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia. (Source of Bridge 1987; Maas 1987)
BROWNRIGG, Leslie (1985) Home Gardening in International Development: What the Literature Shows. League for International Food Education, Washington, DC, USA. ca. 341pp. [Part I, Ch.2, 3] This is the most comprehensive review of household garden projects to date and has much valuable information for anyone involved in garden programs. It is out of print and the publisher is defunct, but it was widely distributed around the world, for example, to USAID missions.
BRUN, Thierry, Fanny BLEIBERG, and Samuel GOIHMAN (1981) Energy expenditure of male farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. British Journal of Nutrition 45:67-75. [Ch. 2]
BRUN, Thierry, Jaqueline REYNAUD, and Simon CHEVASSUS-AGNES (1989) Food and nutritional impact of one home garden project in Senegal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:91-108. [Ch.2, 3] A rare attempt at garden project evaluation. Findings included: gardens had no direct nutritional impact after nearly 20 years; wild foods are important nutritionally; garden income is socially important.
BRUN, Thierry, and Michael C. LATHAM, eds. (1990) Maldevelopment and Malnutrition. World Food Issues, Volume 2. Center for the Analysis of World Food Issues, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. (Source of Campbell , et al. 1990; Latham 1990)
BRUSH, Stephen B. (1986) Genetic diversity and conservation in traditional farming systems. Journal of Ethnobiology 6(1):151-167. [Ch.14]
BRUSH, Stephen B., Mauricio BELLON CORRALES, and Ella SCHMIDT (1988) Agricultural development and maize diversity in Mexico. Human Ecology 16(3):307-328. [Ch.13]
BRYSON, Reid A., and F. Kenneth HARE (1974) Climates of North America. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch.II] Includes Mexico.
BULL, David (1982) A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. OXFAM*, Oxford, UK [Ch.13] A general overview promoting IPM. Documents problems in late 1970s and early 1980s.
BUNCH, Roland (1982) Two Ears of Corn: A Guide to People-Centered Agricultural Improvement. World Neighbors, 5116 N. Portland Ave., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 73112 USA. vii+251pp. [Ch.4] Based on World Neighbors many years of experience, the book gives some practical pointers useful for anyone involved in development and is valuable because of its emphasis on villager participation. The chapter on assessment, however, does not give much in the way of specific ideas about assessment techniques.
BURN, A.J., T.H. COAKER, and P.C. JEPSON (1987) Integrated Pest Management. Academic Press, London, UK. xi, 474pp. (Source of Cammel and Way 1987)
BUTTEL, Fredderick, Martin KENNEY, and Jack KLOPPENBURG, Jr. (1985) From green revolution to biorevolution: Some observations on the changing technological bases of economic transformation in the Third World. Economic Development and Cultural Change 33:31-55. [Ch.14]
BYE, Robert A. (1981)Quelites: Ethnoecology of edible greens - past, present and future. Journal of Ethnobiology 1(1):109-123. [Ch.8]
CAMERON, Margaret and Yngve HOFVANDER (1983) Manual on Feeding Infants and Young Children. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. [Ch. 2, 15, 16] A good resource with much practical advice including recipes for weaning foods.
CAMMELL, M.E., and M.J. WAY (1987) Forecasting and monitoring. In Burn et al. 1987:1-26. [Ch.13]
CAMPBELL, T. Colin, Chen JUNSHI, Thierry BRUN, Banoo PARPIA, Qu YINSHENG, Chen CHUNMING, and Catherine GEISSLER (1990) Can developing nations avoid the diseases of affluence? The case of China. In Brun and Latham 1990:56-63. [Ch. 2]
CAMPBELL, T. Colin, Thierry BRUN, Chen JUNSHI, Feng ZULIN, and Banoo PARPIA (n.d.) Erythrocyte glutathione reductase and riboflavin intakes in China, mss. [Ch.2]
CARLIER, Hans (1987) Understanding Traditional Agriculture: Bibliography for Development Workers. ILEIA*, Leusden, The Netherlands. 114 pp. [Ch.19]
CARLONI, Alice S. (1981) Sex disparities in the distribution of food within rural households. Food and Nutrition 7(1):3-12. [Ch. 2]
CARROLL, C. Ronald, John H. VANDERMEER, and Peter ROSSET (1990) Agroecology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. 641 pp. [Part II]
CFA (California Fertilizer Association, Soil Improvement Committee) (1980) Western Fertilizer Handbook. 6th ed. Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois, USA. [Ch. 9, 11]
CHACON, J.C., and S.R. GLIESSMAN (1982) The use of the non-weed in traditional agroecosystems of southeastern Mexico. Agro-Ecosystems 8:1-11. [Ch.8]
CHAMBERS, Robert (1983) Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Longman, London, UK. [Ch.4, 9] A good discussion of why and how most development projects overlook those most in need, and suggestions for change.
CHAMBERS, Robert (1988) Managing Canal Irrigation: Practical Analysis from South Asia. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. [Ch.12]
CHAROENKIATKUL, Somsri, Aree VALYASEVI, and Kraisid TONTISIRIN (1985) Dietary approaches to the prevention of vitamin A deficiency. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 7(3):72-76. [Ch. 2]
CHATELIN, Yvon (1979) Une Epistemologie des Sciences Du Sol. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Memoire No. 88. [Ch.9] [Reviewed by L. Busch, Agriculture and Human Values 2(4):66-67.]
CHEN, T.S., and S. SAAD (1981) Folic acid in Egyptian vegetables: The effect of drying method and storage on the folicin content of mulukhiyah (Corchorus olitorius). Ecology of Food and Nutrition 10:249-255. [Ch.15]
CHLEQ, Jean-Louis, and Hugues DUPRIEZ (1984) Eau et Terres en Fuite, Mtier de lEau du Sahel. Terres et Vie*, Nivelles, Begium. (In French) [Ch. 9, 11, 12]
CLAWSON, David L. (1985) Harvest security and intraspecific diversity in traditional tropical agriculture. Economic Botany 39(1):56-67. [Ch.14]
CLEVELAND, David A. (1980) The Population Dynamics of Subsistence Agriculture in the West African Savanna: A Village in Northeast Ghana. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. xviii+363pp. [Ch. 11]
CLEVELAND, David A. (1982) Economic and dietary contributions of urban gardening in Tucson. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 2]
CLEVELAND, David A. (1986) Culture and horticulture in Mexico. Culture and Agriculture No. 29:1-5. [Part 1, Ch. 4, 14]
CLEVELAND, David A. (1990) Development alternatives and the African food crisis. In Confronting Change. Stress and Coping in African Food Systems, Vol. 2. R. Huss-Ashmore and S. Katz, eds. Pp. 181-206. Gordon and Breach, New York, USA. [Ch. 3]
CLEVELAND, David A. (1991) New crop varieties in a green revolution for Africa: Implications for sustainability and equity. In The Political Economy of Famine. The Class and Gender Basis of Hunger. Stress and Coping in African Food Systems, Vol. 3. R.E. Downs, D.O. Kerner and S.P. Reyna eds. Gordon and Breach, New York, USA. [Part II]
CLEVELAND, David A., Thomas V. ORUM, and Nancy FERGUSON (1985) Economic value of home vegetable gardens in an urban desert environment. Hort Science 20(4):694-696. [Ch.3, 10]
CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (1987) Household gardens as a development strategy. Human Organization 46(3):259-270 [Part I, Ch. 3, 9, 14]
CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (1989) Diversity and the new green revolution. Diversity 5(2&3):24-25. [Ch. 14]
CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.a) Unpublished data on seasonal water use in mixed crop desert gardens. [Ch. 10]
CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.b) Household gardens in an irrigated district of northern Pakistan, mss. [Ch. 14]
CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.c) The quest for environmentally and socially sustain-able agriculture: Production, diversity, and stability. mss. [Part II, Ch. 14]
COLLINS, G.N. (1914) A drought-resisting adaptation in seedlings of Hopi maize. Journal of Agricultural Research 1(4):293-392. [Ch. 6]
CORNIA, Giovanni A. (1985) Farm size, land yields and the agricultural production function: An analysis of fifteen developing countries. World Development 13:513-534. [Ch. 3]
COX, George W., and Michael D. ATKINS (1979) Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis of World Food Production Systems. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA. 721pp. [Part II, Ch. 5, 11, 14] An excellent introduction to the field.
CRISP, P., and D. ASTLEY (1985) Genetic resources in vegetables. Progress in Plant Breeding 1:281-310. Butterworths & Co., Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK [Ch. 14] A good review of the topic, categorizing vegetables into four groups based on the nature of their genetic diversity.
CROUCH, D., and C. WARD (1988) The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture. Faber and Faber, London. [Part I, Ch. 3] Historical and social analysis of allotment (community) gardens in Great Britain.
DADA, L.O., and D.A.V. DENDY (1987) Preliminary study of the effect of various processing techniques on the cyanide content of germinated sorghum. Tropical Science 27:101-104. [Ch. 2]
DALY, Herman (1989) Sustainable development: Some basic principles. Manuscript of keynote address to the Hoover Institutions conference on Population and Resources, February 1, 1989, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. 15pp. [Ch.3]
DALY, Herman, and John COBB (1989) For the Common Good. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. vii+482pp. [Ch.3] Convincingly demonstrates that the dominant world economic policy of economic growth destroys society and the environment. Gives suggestions for alternatives.
DANCETTE, C., and A.E. HALL (1979) Agroclimatology applied to water management in Sudanian and Sahelian zones of Africa. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:98-118. [Ch.11]
DAVIS, Litton, and Robert A. BYE (1982) Ethnobotany and progressive domestication of jaltomata (Solanaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Economic Botany 36(2):225-241. [Ch.8]
DARROW, Ken, and Mike SAXENIAN (1986) Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. Volunteers in Asia, Stanford, California, USA. (Available from Appropriate Technology International- [ATI]), ca 800pp. [Ch.19]. A review of 1, 150 of the most useful appropriate technology books from around the world. A complete library of all the books reviewed in this sourcebook is available on microfiche, also from ATI.
DCFRN (Developing Countries Farm Radio Network) (1979-1987) Developing Countries Farm Radio Packages, Numbers 1 to 12. DCFRN*, Toronto, Canada. [Ch. 6, 8, 9, 13, 14] An excellent series of extension packets written for radio programs in the Third World.
DELGADO, Christopher L. (1979) The Southern Fulani Farming System in Upper Volta: A Model for the Integration of Crop and Livestock Production in the West African Savannah. African Rural Economy Paper No. 20. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. [Ch.9]
DELGADO DURAN, Francisco Oscar (1984) Mulching as a Means of Producing Vegetable Crops Under a Limited Water Supply. M.S. Thesis, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 10, 14]
DENEVEN, William M. (1980) Latin America. In Klee 1980:217-244. [Ch. 9, 12]
DeWALT, Billie (1985) Mexicos second green revolution: Food for feed. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 1(1):29-60. [Part I, Ch. 2, 3, 14]
DEWEY, Kathryn G.(1981) Nutritional consequences of the transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture in Tabasco, Mexico. Human Ecology 9(2):151-187. [Ch. 2, 3, 14]
DIXON-MUELLER, Ruth (1985) Womens Work in Third World Agriculture. International Labor Office, Geneva. xi+151pp. [Ch. 3]
DONAHUE, Roy L., Raymond W. MILLER, and John C. SHICKLUNA (1983) Soils: An Introduction to Soils and Plant Growth. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. xv+667pp. [Ch. 9, 10, 11, 12] Beginning college text with generally good explanations of soil science basics, though sometimes unclear. Methodology and field application are based on expensive equipment and large-scale commercial production largely inappropriate for the Third World and for household gardens.
DONEEN, L.D., and D.W. WESCOT (1984) Irrigation Practice and Water Management. Revision 1. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 1. (First published 1971). FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 10, 12]
DOORENBOS, J., and A.H. KASSAM, with others (1979) Yield Response to Water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33. FAO, Rome. ix+193pp. [Ch. 10] Contains brief guidelines for calculating maximum yield and crop water requirements with application to optimizing yields and total production under conditions of limited water supply; detail ed data on crop water requirements and yield for 26 major commercial crops.
DOORENBOS, J., and W.O. PRUITT, in consultation with others (1977) Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. (Revised ed.) FAO*, Rome. 144pp. [Ch. 10, 12] Gives detailed calculation methods for estimating water requirements, pan evaporation, crop coefficients, crop evapotranspiration and their application to design of irrigation systems. Oriented toward large-scale monoculture.
DOYLE, Jack (1985) Altered Harvest: Agriculture, Genetics, and the Fate of the Worlds Food Supply. Penguin Books, New York. xix+502pp. [Ch. 14]
DREGNE, H. E. (1976) Soils of Arid Regions. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch. 9]
DUFFIELD, Mary Rose, and Warren D. JONES (1981) Plants for Dry Climates: How to Select, Grow and Enjoy. H.P.Books, Tucson, Arizona, USA. 176pp. [Ch. 8] Mostly ornamentals, but a number of fruit and nut trees. Focuses on southwestern United States, but applicable to northern Mexico.
DUGGAN, William (1985) Irrigated gardens, Molepolole, Botswana. In ILO 1985:7-20. [Ch. 3]
DUPRIEZ, Hugues (1982) Paysan dAfrique noire. (In French) Torres et Vie*, Nivelles, Belgium. 256pp. [Ch. 19]
DUPRIEZ, Hugues and Philippe DE LEENER (1983) Agriculture Tropicale en Milieu Paysan African. (In French) Torres et Vie*, Nivelles, Belgium. 280pp. [Ch. 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14] Clearly written with numerous illustrative photographs and drawings. Emphasizes wisdom and adaptability of traditional systems. Covers semiarid to humid Africa with most examples from West Africa, including many from drylands.
DUPRIEZ, Hugues, and Philippe DE LEENER (1987) Jardins et Vergers DAfrique. (In French) Terres et Vie, Nivelles, Belgium. 354pp. [Part I, Ch. 8, 14, 18] The best extension handbook we have seen for people working with household gardens in sub-Saharan Africa. Incorporates some traditional gardening techniques; discussions are illustrated with numerous excellent photographs of gardens and plants. The first section of the book discusses techniques and the second is a listing of 86 domesticated and nondomesticated plants used in the region, including their names in a number of local languages, and a brief description of how the plants are used and how they are propagated.
DURNING, Alan B. (1990) Ending poverty. In Brown, et al. 1990:135-153. [Part I]
DUTT, Gordon R. (1981) Establishment of NaCl-treated catchments. In Dutt, et al. 1981:17-21. [Ch. 11]
DUTT, Gordon R., C.F. HUTCHINSON, and M. ANAYA Garduo (1981) Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semiarid Regions. Proceedings of a Workshop, 1980. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK. (Source of Dutt 1981)
EARLY, Daniel K. (1977) Cultivation and uses of amaranth in contemporary Mexico. In Rodale Press 1977:39-60. [Ch. 8]
EASTMAN, Susan J. (1988) Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia. Reprint of Assignment Children 1987-3. UNICEF*, New York and Geneva. 84pp. [Ch. 2]
EL AMAMI, Sleheddine (1979) Utilization of runoff waters: The meskats and other techniques in Tunisia. African Environment 3(3-4):107-120 (Available from ENDA*). Poorly translated from French, but some idea of the techniques do come through. [Ch. 8, 11]
ESKELINEN, Riitta K. (1977) Dogon Agricultural Systems: Sociological Aspects Relating to Development Interventions. Report to The Research Foundation of State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, USA. mss. iii+93pp. [Ch. 3, 15]
EVENARI, Michael, Leslie SHANAN, and Naphtali TADMOR (1982) The Negev: The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. ix+437pp. [Ch. 6, 7, 11]
EVETT, Steven R. (1983) Erosion and Runoff from Sodium Dispersed, Compacted Earth Water Harvesting Catchments. M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [Ch. 11]
EVETT, Steven R. (1985a) Advisory report on small-scale irrigation and the African Food Systems Initiative in Lesotho. Prepared for Peace Corps/OTAPS. Unpublished report. [Ch. 12]
EVETT, Steven R. (1985b) Personal communication. [Ch. 11]
FAIRBOURN, Merle L, and H.R. GARDNER (1972) Vertical mulch effects on soil water storage. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 36:823-827. [Ch. 10]
FAIRBOURN, Merle L., and H.R. GARDNER (1974) Field use of microwatersheds with vertical mulch. Agronomy Journal 66(6):740-744. [Ch. 10, 11]
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations) (1961) Agricultural and Horticultural Seeds. FAO*, Rome. 531pp. [Ch. 6]
FAO (1970) Handling and Storage of Food Grains. FAO*, Rome. 350pp [Ch. 14]
FAO (1976-77) Better Farming Series. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 3. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 5]
FAO (1982a) Food Composition Tables for the Near East. FAO*, Rome. x+265pp. [Ch. 2] Has three tables with: 1) energy, protein, vitamin and mineral, 2) amino acid, and 3) fatty acid content. Also very brief descriptions of about 110 prepared foods listed in the tables.
FAO (1982b) Date Production and Protection. With Special Reference to North Africa and the Near East. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 35. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 7, 8, 13, 15]
FAO (1983) Food and Fruit-Bearing Forest Species 1: Examples from Eastern Africa. FAO Foresty Paper 44/1. FAO*, Rome. xiii+172pp. [Ch.8] This is a good example of the wealth of local tree resources that can be used instead of imported exotics for dryland gardens. Oriented toward commercial applications but gives basic data helpful for garden planting.
FAO (1988) Traditional Food Plants. A Resource Book for Promoting the Exploitation and Consumption of Food Plants in Arid, Semi-Arid and Sub-Humid Lands of Eastern Africa. FAO*, Rome. x+593 pp. [Ch. 8, 18]
FAO (1989) Forestry and Food Security. FAO Forestry Paper 90. FAO*, Rome. viii+128. [Ch. 3]
FAO/WHO (1973) Energy and Protein Requirements. FAO Nutrition Meeting Report Series No. 52. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 2]
FELDMAN, Lewis J. (1988) The habits of roots. Bioscience 38(9):612-618. [Ch. 5]
FERGUSON, Anne E., and Susan SPRECHER (1987) Women and plant genetic diversity: The case of beans in the Central Region of Malawi. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago, Illinois, USA. [Ch. 14]
FERRANDO, R. (1981) Traditional and Non-Traditional Foods. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 2]
FISCHER, R.A. and Neil C. TURNER (1978) Plant productivity in the arid and semiarid zones. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 29:277-317. [Ch. 10]
FLEURET, Patrick (1985) The social organization of water control in the Taita Hills, Kenya. American Ethnologist 12:103-118. [Ch.12] Brief nonquantitative description of a small-scale irrigation system contructed and maintained by hand labor, and its social organization.
FLINN, J.C., and D.P. GARRITY (1986) Yield Stability and Modern Rice Technology. IRRI Research Paper Series No. 122. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Manila, Philippines. [Ch. 10, 14]
FOLBRE, Nancy (1984) Household production in the Philippines: A non-neoclassical approach. Economic Development and Cultural Change 32:303-330. [Ch. 2, 3]
FOWLER, Cary, and Pat MOONEY (1990) Shattering: Food, Politics and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, USA. xvi+278pp. [Ch. 14]
FRAENKEL, Peter (1987) Water-Pumping Devices: A Handbook for Users and Choosers. IT Publications*. 196pp. [Ch. 12] A detailed, comprehensive, and practical review of the options available for pumping and lifting water on a small scale, especially for irrigation. Demonstrates costs and general suitability of different technical options including human, animal, renewable, and fossil fuel powered devices. [Reviewed by F. Carroll]
FRANCIS, Charles, ed. (1986) Multiple Cropping Systems. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA. (Source of Altieri and Liebman 1986; Gliessman 1986)
FRAISER, Gary W., and Lloyd E. MEYERS (1983) Handbook of Water Harvesting. Handbook No. 600. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington, DC, USA. 45pp. [Ch. 11]
GALT, A.H., and J.W. GALT (1978) Peasant use of some wild plants on the island of Pantelleria, Sicily. Economic Botany 32:20-26. [Ch. 10]
GARCIA, R., L.E. CALTAGIRONE, and A.P. GUTIERREZ (1988) Comments on a redefinition of biological control. Bioscience 38:692-694. [Ch. 13]
GARDNER, Walter H. (1979) How water moves in the soil. Crops and Soils Magazine, November 1979:13-18. [Reprints available from American Society of Agronomy, Inc., 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA] [Ch. 10] Clear, simple explanation with many photographs from the laboratory demonstrating the principles.
GARNER, R.J., Saeed Ahmed CHAUDHRI, and the staff of Commonwealth Bureaux of Horticulture and Plantation Crops (1976) The Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, UK. xv+556pp. [Ch. 7, 8, 14]
GERSHON, Jack, Yen-ching CHEN, and Jen-fong KUO (1985) The AVRDC Garden Program 1983-84. AVRDC*, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan. [Ch. 2]
GIBBON, David, and Adam PAIN (1985) Crops of the Drier Regions of the Tropics. Longman, London. x+157pp. [Ch. 5]
GIBBONS, Gayle, and Marcia GRIFFITHS (1984) Program Activities for Improving Weaning Practice. World Association of Public Health Associates (for UNICEF*), Geneva, Switzerland. 54pp. [Ch. 16]
GLADWIN, Christina H., and John BUTLER (1984) Is gardening an adaptive strategy for Florida family farmers? Human Organization 43:208-215. [Part I, Ch. 3]
GLIESSMAN, Stephen R. (1986) Plant interactions in multiple cropping systems. In Francis 1986:83-95. [Ch. 8]
GLIESSMAN, Stephen R., ed. (1990) Agroecology: Researching the Ecological Basis for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer-Verlag, New York. xiv+380pp. [Part II] (Source of Lumsden 1990)
GOLDBURG, Rebecca, Jane RISSLER, Hope SHAND, and Chuck HASSEBROOK (1990) Biotechnologys Bitter Harvest: Herbicide Tolerant Crops and the Threat to Sustainable Agriculture. A Report of the Biotechnology Working Group (available from RAFI*). 73pp. [Ch. 14]
GORDON, Gillian (1969) The evaluation of nutrition programs. Paper read at the Institute of Social and Statistical Research, Legon, Ghana, mss. [Ch. 16]
GORDON, Gillian (1973) An Evaluation of Nutrition Education Given to Pregnant and Nursing Women in Six Communities in the Upper Region of Ghana. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. 435pp. [Ch. 16]
GOULD, Fred (1988) Evolutionary biology and genetically engineered crops. BioScience 38(1):26-33. [Ch. 13, 14]
GRAY, Robert F. (1963) The Sonjo of Tanganyika: An Anthropological Study of an Irrigation Based Society. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London. xii+181pp. [Ch. 12]
GREENOUGH, William B. (1987) Status of cereal-based oral rehydration therapy. In Symposium Proceedings. Cereal-Based Oral Rehydradon Therapy: Theory and Practice. Pp.29-32. International Child Health Foundation, PO Box 1205, Columbia, Maryland 21044, USA. [Ch. 16]
GRIFFITHS, J.F., ed. (1972) Climates of Africa. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xv+604pp. [Ch. 11] Contains chapters explaining climates of different regions of the continent. Many tables including one giving monthly and yearly mean maximum, and mean minimum temperature, and mean, mean maximum and mean minimum precipitation for many locations in Africa.
GRIVETTI, Louis E. (1978) Nutritional success in a semi-arid land: Examination of Tswana agro-pastoralists of the eastern Kalahari, Botswana. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31:1204-1220. [Ch. 2, 14]
GRN, Ingolf, Michel BECK, John S. CALDWELL, and Marilyn S. PREHM (1989) Development and testing of integrative methods to assess relationships between garden production and nutrient consumption by low-income families. Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. mss. 26pp. [Ch. 4]
GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammernarbeit) (1980) Post Harvest Problems. GTZ*, Germany. 258pp+33pp annex. [Ch. 14] (Source of Zehrer 1980; Zehrer, et al. 1980)
GUPTA, J.P., and G.N. GUPTA (1983) Effects of grass mulching on growth and yields of legumes. Agricultural Water Management 6:375-383. [Ch. 10] Reports results of 2 seasons experiments in semiarid India on mulching of legume grains. Does not state whether grass mulch applied was fresh or dry.
GUPTA, U.S., ed. (1975) Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming. Allanheld, Osmun & Co., Montclair, New Jersey, USA. xv+391pp. (Source of Arnon 1975; Larson 1975)
GUTMAN, Pablo (1987) Urban agriculture: The potential and limitations of an urban self-reliance strategy. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 9:37-42. [Ch. 3]
HALDERMAN, Alan D. (1977) Irrigation: When? How Much? How? (Revised) Bulletin A20. College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. 10pp. [Ch. 10]
HALL, A.E., G.H. CANNELL, and H.W. LAWTON, eds. (1979) Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. xvi+340pp. (Source of Dancette and Hall 1979; Hall, Foster, and Waines 1979; Henderson 1979; Lawton and Wilke 1979)
HALL, A.E., K.W. FOSTER, and J.G. WAINES (1979) Crop adaptation to semi-arid environments. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:148-179. [Ch. 5]
HAMMOND, Peter (1966) Yatenga: Technology in the Culture of a West African Kingdom. The Free Press, New York. xi+231pp. [Ch. 3, 9] Offers a brief description of wet- and dry-season gardens, though confusing in places.
HARLAN, Jack R. (1976) Genetic resources in wild relatives of crops. Crop Science 16:329-333. [Ch. 14]
HARTMANN, Hudson T., and Dale E. KESTER (1983) Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, USA. 727pp. [Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8, 14] A standard reference in the field.
HASWELL, M.J. (1975) The Nature of Poverty. Macmillan, London. [Ch. 3]
HENDERSON, D.W. (1979) Soil management in semi-arid environments. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:224-237. [Ch. 10]
HILL, Dennis S. (1983) Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. xii+746pp. [Ch. 13] Extensive coverage of insect pests with good line drawings. Emphasizes synthetic chemical pesticides and improved crop varieties as the best approach.
HILL, Dennis S. and J.M. WALLER (1982) Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops. Volume 1. Principles and Methods of Control. Longman, London. xvi+175pp. [Ch. 13] An easy-to-read handbook with same emphases as Hill (1983).
HOFKES, E.H. (1983) Water Pumping for Rural Water Supply. ENDA Third World Documents Series No. 21-81. ENDA*, Dakar, Senegal. 52pp. [Ch. 12]
HORTICULTURAL ABSTRACTS (1984) 55(5):283. [Ch. 8]
IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources) (1987) IBPGR Annual Report 1986. IBPGR Headquarters, Crop Genetic Resources Center, Plant Production and Protection Division, FAO*, Rome. vi+89pp. [Ch. 14]
ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) (1986) ICRISAT in Africa. ICRISAT*, Andhra Pradesh, India. 60pp. [Ch. 14]
IDRC (International Development Research Centre) (1980) Nutritional Status of the Rural Population of the Sahel. Report of a working group, Paris, France, April 28-29 1980. IDRC*, Ottawa, Canada. [Ch. 2]
IGBOANUGO, A.B.I. (1986) Phytotoxic effects of some Eucalypts on food crops, particularly on germination and radicle extension. Tropical Science 26:19-24. [Ch. 8]
IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) (1986) Annual Report and Research Highlights 1985. IITA*, Ibadan, Nigeria. 145pp. [Ch. 14]
ILO (International Labor Organization) (1985) Rural Development and Women: Lessons From the Field. Vol. 1: Women in Production and Marketing and Their Access to Credit. ILO/DANIDA/80/INT/35. International Labor Office, Geneva, Switzerland. (Source of Duggan 1985; Milimo 1985)
IMMINK, M.D.C./D. SANJUR and M. COLON (1981) Home gardens and the energy and nutrient intakes of women and preschoolers in rural Puerto Rico. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 11:191-199. [Ch. 2]
IOCU (International Organization of Consumers Unions) (1984) The Pesticide Handbook. Profiles for Action. IOCU*, Penang, Malaysia. 165pp. [Ch. 13] Lists major pesticides and their hazards. Some background papers on global issues and brief case studies of 3 Third World countries.
IREMIREN, G.O. (1987) Effects of artificial defoliation on the growth and yield of okra (A. esculentus) Experimental Agriculture 23(1):1-7. [Ch. 15]
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) (1989) Publications of the International Agricultural Research and Development Centers. IRRI*, Los Banos, Philippines. 547pp. [Ch. 19]
IRVINE, F.R. (1969) West African Crops. Oxford University Press, London. ix+272pp. [Ch. 2,7,18] General introduction to specific crops in humid to semi-arid areas with emphasis on commercial crops. Appears to be based mostly on authors experience in Nigeria and Ghana.
ISENALUMHE, Anthony E. (1986) Modified adult meals: A plausible alternative to orthodox weaning foods in a Nigerian community. Hygie 5(4): 14-19. [Ch. 16]
JELLIFE, D.B. (1972) Commerciogenic malnutrition? Nutrition Reviews 30(9):199-205. [Ch. 3]
JELLIFE, D.B. and E.F.P. JELLIFE (1978) Human Milk in the Modern World. Oxford University Press, London. [Ch. 16]
JENSEN, M.E., ed. (1980) Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, USA. xi+829pp. [Ch. 12] (Source of Merriam, et al. 1980; Stegman, et al. 1980)
JETT, Stephen C. (1979) Peach cultivation and use among the Canyon de Chelly Navajo. Economic Botany 33(3):298-310. [Ch. 14]
JOHNSON, Allen (1974) Ethnoecology and planting practices in a swidden agricultural system. American Ethnologist 1:87-101. [Ch. 9]
KASSAM, A.H. (1976) Crops of the West African Semi-Arid Tropics. ICRISAT*, Andrha Pradesh, India. vii+154pp. [Ch. 5,7,18] Covers 23 important crops in depth: ecology, cultivation, diseases, and pests. Garden crops include cowpea, groundnut, soybean, cassava, yam, sweet potato, cocoyam, potato, tomato, onion, pepper, okra, roselle, sesame, and sugarcane.
KENNEDY, E. (1983) Determinants of family and preschool food consumption. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 5(4):22-29. [Ch. 3]
KENNEDY, W.K., and T.A. ROGERS (1985) Human and Animal Powered Water-Lifting Devices. IT Publications*, London, 111pp. [Ch. 12]
KEYSTONE CENTER (1990) Madras Plenary Session: Final Consensus Report of the Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources. Genetic Resources Communication Systems, Washington, DC, USA. 38pp. [Ch. 14]
KHOKHAR, Santosh, and B.M. CHAUHAW (1986) Antinutritional factors in moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia): Varietal differences and effects of methods of domestic processing and cooking. Journal of Food Science 51 (3):591-594. [Ch. 2,15]
KING, J., D.O. NNANYELUGO, H. ENE-OBONG, and P.O. NGODDY (1985) Household consumption profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) among low-income families in Nigeria. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16:209-221. [Ch. 14]
KING, Maurice H., Felicity KING, and Soebagyo MARTODIPOERO (1980) Primary Child Care. Book One. A Manual for Health Workers. Corrected ed. Oxford University Press, (available from IT Publications*) xi+315pp. [Ch. 16]
KING, Maurice H., Felicity M.A. KING, David C. MORLEY, H.J. Leslie BURGESS, and Ann P. BURGESS (1972) Nutrition for Developing Countries. With Special Reference to the Maize, Cassava and Millet areas of Africa. Oxford University Press, Nairobi, vars. pp. [Ch. 16] A book for schoolteachers and literate field workers involved with family health and nutrition in East Africa. The simple style, East African examples, and numerous illustrations make it an accessible book for those with no previous formal training in nutrition. Each chapter concludes with a section of Things to do, activities to demonstrate or reinforce the topics covered in the chapter.
KIRKBY, Anne V.T. (1973) The Uses of Land and Water Resources in the Past and Present Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 5. Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Vol. 1. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [Ch. 11]
KLEE, Gary A., ed. (1980) World Systems of Traditional Resource Management. John Wiley and Son, New York, USA. (Source of Denevan 1980; Manners 1980)
KLEER, Jerzy, and Augustyn WOS, eds. (1988) Small-Scale Food Production in Polish Urban Agglomerations. Food-Energy Nexus Report No. 26, Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 63pp. [Part I, Ch. 3]
KLOPPENBURG, Jack Jr. (1988) First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000. Cambridge University Press, New York. [Ch. 14] An account of how seeds have come increasingly under the control of private enterprise in the USA. Chap. 8, Heterosis and the Social Division of Labor is a good social history of hybrid maize seed.
KLOPPENBURG, Jack Jr., and Daniel Lee KLEIN-MAN (1987) The plant germplasm controversy. Bioscience 37(3):190-198. [Ch. 14]
KOEGEL, R.G. (1977) (reprinted 1985) Self-Help Wells. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 30. FAO*, Rome. 77pp. [Ch. 11] A brief review of several techniques for both small- and large-diameter wells. Not a practical manual, but a guide to provide ideas, with many pictures and diagrams.
KOGAN, Marcos (1986) Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. (Source of Levins 1986)
KOLARKAR, A.S., K.N.K. MURTHY, and N. SINGH (1983) Khadin: A method of harvesting water for agriculture in the Thar Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 6:59-66. [Ch. 11]
KOLARKAR, A.S., Y.V. SINGH, and A.N. LAHIRI (1983) Use of discarded plastic infusion sets from hospitals in irrigation on small farms in arid regions. Journal of Arid Environments 6:385-389. [Ch. 12]
KOURIK, Robert (1986) Designing and Maintaining Your Edible Landscape Naturally. The Edible Landscape Book Project, Santa Rosa, California, USA. xxi+370pp. [Ch. 8]
KUMAR, S.K. (1978) Role of the Household Economy in Child Nutrition at Low-Incomes: Case Study in Kerala. Occasional Paper No. 95. Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. 78pp. [Ch. 2,3]
LADD, Edmund J. (1979) Zuni Economy. In Ortiz: 1979:492-497. Includes a brief description of Zuni sunken bed gardens of southwestern North America. [Ch. 9,11]
LAGEMANN, Johannes (1977) Traditional African Farming Systems in Eastern Nigeria: An Analysis of Reaction to Increasing Population Pressure. Weltform-Verlag, Munich, Germany. [Part II, Ch. 3,9]
LAL, Rattan (1987) Managing the soils of sub-Saharan Africa. Science 236:1069-1076. [Ch. 9].
LAPPE, Frances Moore (1982) Diet for a Small Planet. revised ed. (First published 1971) Ballantine Books, New York, USA. 432pp. From Food First*. [Ch. 2,19] An excellent discussion of how the food system in the developed world is related to hunger in the rest of the world. Good explanation of protein complementarity for meatless diets.
LAPPE, Frances Moore, and Joseph COLLINS, with Cary FOWLER (1978) Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. Revised ed. Ballantine Books, New York, USA. From Food First*. xvii+619pp. [Ch. 19] A powerfully-written argument that it is not scarcity or over-population that causes hunger, but inequality of control over productive resources. Concludes with suggestions for change and personal involvement.
LARSON, K.L. (1975) Drought injury and resistance of crop plants. In Gupta 1975:147-165. [Ch. 8]
LA ROVERE, Emilio Lebre (1985) Food and Energy in Rio de Janeiro: Provisioning the Poor. Food-Energy Nexus Research Report No. 13, Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 59pp. [Ch. 3]
LATHAM, Michael C. (1979) Human Nutrition in Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 11. FAO*, Rome. xi+286pp. [Ch. 2,16] Written with special reference to community health problems in East Africa. An extremely useful reference and textbook for health care workers, especially in east Africa. It includes many photographs and thorough explanations of basic nutrition and nutrition related diseases, recommendations for policy planners and recipe suggestions for household and institutional preparation of foods. Infant and child health is discussed throughout with section 35 giving recipes for infants and young children. Overall it emphasizes practical, locally appropriate responses to nutritional need, although only mentions gardens briefly (pp. 183,184).
LATHAM, Michael C. (1984) Strategies for the control of malnutrition and the influence of the nutritional sciences. Food and Nutrition 10(1):5-35. [Ch. 2]
LATHAM, Michael C. (1990) Innapropriate modernization and Westernization as causes of malnutrition and health disorders in non-industrialized countries. In Brun and Latham 1990:86-93. [Part I, Ch. 2]
LAWTON, H.W. and P.J. WILKE (1979) Ancient agricultural systems in dry regions. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:1-44. [Ch. 12]
LEACH, Edmund (1961) Pul Eliya: A Village in Ceylon. A Study of Land Tenure and Kinship. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. [Ch. 12]
LEON, Jorge, and Lyndsey A. WITHERS, eds. (1986) Guidelines for Seed Exchange and Plant Introduction in the Tropics. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 14]
LEONARD, David (1980) Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use: A What, How and Why Guide. 3rd ed. (First published 1967) Reprint R-8. Peace Corps, Washington, DC. iii+162pp. [Ch. 9,11] Includes some useful information on soils and practical tests for gardeners, though one-half of this book is on commercial fertilizers. Written for Peace Corps Volunteers, with much United States English slang.
LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, with Marina FLORES (1961) Food Composition Table for use in Latin America. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City, Guatemala, and National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. xi+145pp. [Ch. 2]
LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, with Felix BUSSON and Claude JARDIN (1968) Food Composition Table for use in Africa. FAO*, Rome; Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. ix+306pp. [Ch. 2,16]
LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, Ritva Rauaheimo BUTRUM, Flora Huang CHANG, M. Narayana RAO, and W. POLACCHI (1972) Food Composition Table for use in East Asia. FAO, Rome; National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. xiii+334pp. [Ch. 2]
LEVI, John, and Michael HAVINDEN (1982) Economics of African Agriculture. Longman*, London. vii+175pp. [Ch. 2,3] A good introduction to economics from the viewpoint of the small-scale farmer. Does not require any previous economics or math.
LEVINS, Richard (1986) Perspectives in integrated pest management: From an industrial to ecological model of pest management. In Kogan 1986:1-18. [Ch. 13]
LONGHURST, Richard (1983) Agricultural production and food consumption: Some neglected linkages. Food and Nutrition 9(2):2-6. [Ch. 2,16]
LUMSDEN, R.D., R. GARCIA-E., J.A. LEWIS, and G.A. FRIAS-T. (1990) Reduction of damping-off disease in soils from indigenous Mexican agroecosytems. In Gliessman 1990:83-103. [Ch. 13]
MAAS, P.W. (1987) Physical methods and quarantine. In Brown and Kerry 1987:265-291. [Ch. 13]
MACNAB, A.A., A.F. SHERF, and J.K. SPRINGER (1983) Identifying Diseases of Vegetables. Pennsylvania State University, College of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. 62pp. [Ch. 13]
MAEDA, E.E., and D.K. SALUNKHE (1981) Retention of ascorbic acid and total carotene in solar dried vegetables. Journal of Food Science 46:1288-1290. [Ch. 15]
MANNERS, Ian R. (1980) The Middle East. In Klee 1980:39-65. [Ch. 12]
MARTEN, Gerald G., and Oekan S. ABDOELLAH (1988) Crop diversity and nutrition in West Java. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 21:17-43. [Ch. 14]
MAYER, A.M. and A. POLJAKOFF-MAYBER (1975) The Germination of Seeds. 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. [Ch. 6]
MERRIAM. J.L., M.N. SHEARER, and C.M. BURT (1980) Evaluating irrigation systems and practices. In Jensen 1980:721-760. [Ch. 10]
MILIMO, Mabel C. (1985) Chikuni fruit and vegetable producers co-operative society, Zambia - A case study. In ILO 1985:21-35. [Ch. 3]
MING, Wang and Sun YUN-WEl (1986) Fruit trees and vegetables for arid and semi-arid areas in northwest China. Journal of Arid Environments 11:3-16. [Ch. 10]
MNZAVA, Namens (1986) Compensatory leaf and seed yield increase in vegetable rape (Brassica carinata). [Abstract] Hortscience 21(3) [Ch. 15]
MONDAL, R.C. (1974) Farming with a pitcher: A technique of water conservation. World Crops March/April:94-97. [Ch. 12]
MORGAN, W.T.W. (1974) The South Turkana expedition. Scientific Papers X. Sorghum gardens in south Turkana. The Geographical Journal 140:80-93. [Ch. 9,11] Description of sorghum gardens cultivated by Turkana pastoralists in arid northern Kenya. Details of hydrology and soils but comparatively little on cultivation or socioeconomic aspects.
NABHAN, Gary P. (1979) The ecology of floodwater farming in arid southwestern North America. Agro-Ecosystems 5:245-255. [Ch. 11] Brief, general description of some of the techniques used traditionally by the Tohono OOdham and other groups.
NABHAN, Gary P. (1983) Papago Fields: Arid Lands Ethnobotany and Agricultural Ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 8]
NABHAN, Gary P., Cynthia ANSON, and Mahina DREES (1981) Kaicka: Seed Saving the Papago-Pima Way. Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 14]
NABHAN, Gary P., and Amadeo REA (1988) Plant domestication and folk-biological change: The upper Piman/devils claw example. American Anthropologist 89:57-73. [Ch. 14]
NABHAN, Gary P., and Thomas SHERIDAN (1977) Living fence rows of the Rio San Miguel, Sonora, Mexico: Traditional technology for floodplain management. Human Ecology 5:97-111. [Ch. 9,13]
NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (1972) Genetic Vulnerability in Major Crops. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 14]
NAS (1973) Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. 2nd ed. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 2] (Source of Oberlas 1973; Singleton and Kratzer 1973)
NAS (1975) Underexploited Plants with Promising Economic Value. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. ix+188pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]
NAS (1978) Post Harvest Food Losses in Developing Countries. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. 200pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 14]
NAS (1979) Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. x+331pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]
NAS (1980) Firewood Crops. NAS, Washington, DC. xi+233pp. (Available from BOSTID-) [Ch. 13,14]
NAS (1986) Common Property Resource Management. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. xi+631pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 3]
NAS (1989a) Alternative Agriculture. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. xiv+448pp. [Ch. 3]
NAS (1989b) Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. xii+407pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]
NAS (1990) Saline Agriculture: Salt Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. viii+133pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 5] Part one, Food (pp. 17-49), lists salt tolerant conventional crops as well as many lesser known grains and tree fruits and seeds, along with references and research contacts.
NIEZ Vera (1987) Household Gardens: Theoretical and Policy Considerations. Agricultural Systems 23(1987):167-186. [Part I]
NISSEN-PETERSEN, Erik (1982) Rain Catchment and Water Supply in Rural Africa: A Manual. Hodder & Stoughton, London, UK. Available from IT Publications*, London. x+83pp. [Ch. 11] Based on authors 4 years experience in Makindu, Kenya, annual average rainfall = 1,000 mm in 2 seasons. Concentrates almost entirely on ferocement storage sytems, probably most appropriate for school or community gardens because of cost in time, skill, and resources. No data on cost or availability of materials.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (1987) Local Climatological Data. 1986 Annual summary of comparative data. Tucson, Arizona-NOAA, Washington, DC, USA. 8pp. [Ch. 11]
NOKES, Jill (1986) How to Grow Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest. Texas Monthly Press, Austin, Texas, USA. [Ch. 7]
NRC (National Research Council) (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances. 9th ed. Office of Publications, NAS, Washington, DC. x+284pp. + foldout table of RDAs. [Ch. 2] This is revised about every 5 years. However, due to disagreement, there were 9 years between the 9th and 10th editions. The RDAs are designed for the maintenance of good nutrition of practically all healthy people in the USA, and in many ways are not entirely appropriate for most developing countries where there is a much lower intake of protein and fat, higher activity levels, much higher levels of infectious diseases, and greater heat stress. They do, however, provide a widely recognized reference point for those areas where no local RDAs have been developed. See FAO/WHO (1973) and UNU (1979) for more appropriate standards for energy and protein.
OBERLEAS, Donald (1973) Phytates. In NAS 1973:363-371. [Ch. 2]
OBRIEN-PLACE, Patricia M. (1987) Evaluating Home Garden Projects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of International Cooperation and Development, Nutrition Economics Group, in cooperation with U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Science and Technology, Office of Nutrition, Washington, DC, USA. 31pp. [Ch. 4] One of the only efforts to systematically address the problem of evaluating garden projects. It is preliminary and meant to stimulate further revision in the field, but this has not yet occurred. It has a rather narrow economic focus and requires a large number of quantitative measurements.
ODUNFA, S.A. (1985) African fermented foods. In Microbiology of Fermented Foods, Vol. 2. Brian J.B. Wood, ed. Elsevier Applied Science Publisher, London, UK. Pp.155-191. [Ch. 2,15]
OFUYA, T.I. (1986) Use of wood ash, dry chili pepper fruits and onion scale leaves for reducing Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) damage in cow-pea seeds during storage. Journal of Agricultural Science 107:467-468. [Ch. 14]
OGUNTOYINBO, Julius and Paul RICHARDS (1978) Drought and the Nigerian farmer. Journal of Arid Environments 1:165-194. [Ch. 11]
OLDFIELD, Margery L. (1984) The Value of Conserving Genetic Resources. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA. (Reprinted in 1989 by Sinauer Associates, Sunder-land, Massachusetts, USA.) xxii+360pp. [Ch. 14]
OLDFIELD, Margery L., and Janice B. ALCORN (1987) Conservation of traditional agroecosystems. Bioscience 37(3):199-208. [Ch. 14]
OMOHUNDRO, John T. (1985) Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture. Human Ecology 13(3):291-308. [Part I]
ONWUEME, I.C. (1978) The Tropical Tuber Crops: Yams, Cassava, Sweet Potato, and Cocoyams. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. [Ch. 13] Detailed information on botany, life cycle, common pests and diseases, propagation, and cultivation of each plant; methods of harvest, storage, and food preparation are also discussed. Traditional techniques suitable for household gardens are discussed throughout, in addition to other techniques. Well documented with reference to research findings.
OOMEN, H.A.P.C., and G.J.H. GRUBBEN (1978) Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition. Communication 69. Department of Agricultural Research, Koninklijk Institut voor de Tropen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 140pp. [Ch. 2,15,16]
ORR, David (1988) Food alchemy and sustainable agriculture. Bioscience 38:801-802. [Part II]
ORTIZ, Alfonso, ed. (1979) Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 9. Southwest. The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. xvi+701pp. A survey of native peoples in this dryland region including some information on gardens. (Source of Ladd 1979; Kennard 1979)
OUANGRAOUA, Hamado (1988) Protecting the garden. The IDRC* Reports 17(4):18-19. [Ch. 13]
PACEY, Arnold (1978) Gardening for Better Nutrition. IT Publications*, London, UK. 64pp. [Part I] This booklet is still in print. It is based on a review of PVO garden projects, and shows that many fail because of not understanding the local situation. The discussion of production techniques in the second half of the book is not very useful.
PACEY, Arnold, with Adrian CULLIS (1986) Rain Water Harvesting: The Collection of Rainfall and Runoff in Rural Areas. IT Publications*, London, UK. vih+216pp. [Ch. 9,11] This is a good general introduction to the topic, primarily at a scale appropriate for household gardens. However, the organization and descriptions are sometimes a bit confusing. It is not a field guide or technical manual, although much factual information is presented. The authors emphasize throughout that spending a great deal of time and resources gathering data and making detailed design calculations, although theoretically desirable, may in practice be inappropriate to the needs of the poor. Rather, they emphasize the value of traditional water harvesting techniques, the importance of the socioeconomic setting, and the need for experimentation involving both development professionals and local people.
PACEY, Arnold, and Philip PAYNE, eds. (1985) Agricultural Development and Nutrition. Hutchinson and Company, London, and Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. 255pp. [Ch. 4]
PAGE, W. W., and Paul RICHARDS (1977) Agricultural pest control by community action: The case of the variegated grasshopper in southern Nigeria. African Environment 2(4) and 3(1):127-141. (Available from ENDA*) [Ch. 13] Reports investigations near Ibadan of indigenous knowledge of this serious pest and how to control it.
PANASIUK, Oksana, and Donald D. BILLS (1984) Cyanide content of sorghum sprouts. Journal of Food Science 49:791-793. [Ch. 15]
PASSMORE, R., B.M. NICOL, and M. Narayana RAO (1974) Handbook on Human Nutritional Requirements. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 66pp. (Reprinted 1981) [Ch. 2]
PENNINGTON, Campbell W. (1979) The Pima Bajo of Central Sonora, Mexico. Vol. I. The Material Culture. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. [Ch. 15]
PIMENTEL, David (1988) Pesticides: Energy use in chemical agriculture. In Bettolo 1988:157-175. [Ch. 13]
PIMENTEL, David, and Marcia PIMENTEL (1979) Food, Energy and Society. Edward Arnold, London, UK. viii+165pp. [Ch. 3] Discusses energy efficiencies for different types of agriculture with many tables showing data for specific case studies. Makes the point that industrial food production is much less energy efficient than small-scale, low-input production.
PIWOZ Ellen G., and Fernando E. VITERI (1985) Studying health and nutrition behavior by examining household decision-making, intra-household resource distribution, and the role of women in these processes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 7(4):1-31. [Ch. 3]
PLUCKNETT, Donald L., Nigel J.H. SMITH, J.T. WILLIAMS, and N. Murthi ANISHETTY (1987) Gene Banks and the Worlds Food. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. xv+247pp. [Ch. 14] Enthusiastic promotion of gene banks as the only way of conserving crop genetic diversity.
POPENOE, Paul (1973) The Date Palm. Field Research Projects, Coconut Grove, Miami, Florida, USA. [Ch. 7]
PRATT, Brian, and Jo BOYDEN, eds. (1985) The Field Directors Handbook: An OXFAM Manual for Development Workers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. (Available from OXFAM UK*) 512pp. [Ch. 4]
PURSEGLOVE, J.W. (1974) Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. Corrected ed. Longman*, London, UK. 719pp. (First published in 1968 in 2 volumes) [Ch. 6,9,14,18] A standard reference. Covers origin and distribution, cultivars, ecology, plant structure, pollination and fruit set, germination, chemical composition, propagation, husbandry, major diseases, major pests, improvement, and production; gives major references for each plant considered. Excellent line drawings.
PURSEGLOVE, J.W. (1983) Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Revised ed. Longman, London, UK. 607pp. (first published in 1972 in 2 volumes). [Ch. 6,18] Same format as Purseglove 1974.
PURSEGOLVE, J.W., E.G. BROWN, C.L. GREEN and S.R.J. ROBBINS (1981) Spices, vols. 1 and 2. Longman, London, UK. xi+813pp. [Ch. 18] A standard reference. Covers pepper, cinnamon, cassia, nutmeg, mace, clove, pimento, and chilis in vol. 1, and ginger, tumeric, cardamon, vanilla, and coriander in vol. 2. Also discusses related crops in less detail.
QUEROL, Daniel (1988) Recursos Genticos, Nuestro Tesoro Olivadado: Aproximacin Tcnica y Socio-econmica. Industrial Grafica S.A., Lima, Peru. xviii+218pp. [Ch. 14]
RADEWALD, John D. (1977) Nematode Diseases of Food and Fiber Crops of the Southwestern United States. Priced Publication 4083. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. 64pp. [Ch. 13] Oriented to large-scale growers. Simply written introduction and very good drawings and colored photographs for identifying nematode damage. Most of the discussion of control, however, advocates dangerous synthetic chemicals.
RADWANSKI, S.A., and G.E. WICKENS (1981) Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics. Economic Botany 35:398-414. [Ch. 13]
RAMA MOHAN RAO, M.S., V. RANGA RAO, M. RAMA CHANDRAM, and R.C. AGNIHOTRI (1977) Effect of vertical mulch on moisture conservation and yield of sorghum in Vertisols. Agricultural Water Management 1:333-342. [Ch. 10] Report of experiments carried out between 1971-76 in semiarid India showing positive effects of vertical mulch on production.
RANKINS, Jenice, Sampson HOPKINSON, and Mouhamadou DIOP (1989) Palatability and nutritional significance of solar dried mangoes for Senegal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:131-140. [Ch. 15]
RAO, P. Udayasekhara, and Yeshwant G. DEOSTHALE (1982) Tannin content of pulses: Varietal differences and effects of germination and cooking. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33:1013-1016. [Ch. 2,15]
RAVEN, Peter H., Ray F. EVERT, and Helena CURTIS (1981) Biology of Plants. 3rd ed. Worth Publishers, New York, USA. [Ch. 9,14]
RICE, Elroy L. (1983) Pest Control with Natures Chemicals: Allelochemics and Pheromones in Gardening and Agriculture. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, USA. xiii+224pp. [Ch. 8,13]
RICE, Elroy L. (1984) Allelopathy. 2nd edition. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA. xi+422pp. [Ch. 8]
RICHARDS, Paul (1985) Indigenous Agricultural Revolution: Ecology and Pood Production in West Africa. Hutchinson & Co., London, UK. [Ch. 14]
RICHARDS, Paul (1986) Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice-Farming System. Allen and Unwin, London, UK. [Ch. 14] A case study documenting indigenous agricultural techniques for managing ecological variables and crop genetic resources a stable production.
ROBERTS, Daniel A. and Carl W. BOOTHROYD (1984) Fundamentals of Plant Pathology. 2nd ed. W.H. Freemman, New York, USA. xvi+432pp. [Ch. 13]
RODALE PRESS, ed. (1977) Proceedings of the First Annual Amaranth Seminar, July 29, 1977. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 132pp. (Source of Early 1977)
RUTHENBERG, Hans (1980) Farming Systems in the Tropics. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. xxii+424pp. [Ch. 8] An often-cited reference on agricultural systems in the tropics, including drylands. Very little on gardens per se, see pp. 73,76-77,127.
SAMSON, Jules A. (1986) Tropical Fruits. 2nd ed. Tropical Agriculture Series, Longman, New York, USA. ix+335pp. [Ch. 6]
SANYAL, Bishwapriya (1986) Urban Cultivation in East Africa. Food-Energy Nexus Research Report No. 14. Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 75pp. [Ch. 3]
SAUL, Mahir (1981) Beer, sorghum and women: Production for the market in rural Upper Volta. Africa 51(3):746-764. [Ch. 4]
SCHMUTTERER, Heinz and K.R.S. ASCHER, eds. (1984) Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and other Tropical Plants. GTZ*, Eschborn, Germany. 587pp. (Source of Zehrer 1984)
SCHUMACHER, E.F. (1973) Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. Harper and Row, New York. viii+305pp. [Ch. 3]
SCHWERDTFEGER, Werner, ed. (1976) Climates of Central and South America. xii+532pp. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch. 11]
SCOTT, Earl Price (1976) Indigenous Systems of Exchange and Decision Making Among Smallholders in Rural Hausaland. Michigan Geographical Publication No. 16, Department of Geography, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. xxiv+303pp. [Ch. 3]
SCUDDER, Thayer (1962) The Ecology of the Gwembe Tonga. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK. [Ch. 11]
SCUDDER, Thayer (1982) Regional Planning for People, Parks and Wildlife in the Northern Portion of the Sebungwe Region. Working Paper 3/1982. Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. [Ch. 11]
SHANAN, L., and N.H. TADMOR (1979) Micro-Catchment Systems for Arid Zone Development: A Handbook for Design and Construction. 2nd ed. Centre of International Agricultural Cooperation, Hebrew University, and Ministry of Agriculture, Jeruselem and Rehovot, Israel. vii+73pp. [Ch. 11] Summarizes existing practices and proposes design criteria with figures and illustrations. Based on projects in Israel, but takes into account work done elsewhere.
SHARMA, K.D., O.P. PAREEK, and H.P. SINGH (1982) Effect of runoff concentration on growth and yield of jujube. Agricultural Water Management 5:73-84. [Ch. 11] Reports 5 years of experiments in semiarid India. Effect of catchment slope, length, and CGAR on fruit production. No statistical analysis, no data on catchment treatment or erosion.
SHRIMPTON, Roger (1989) Vitamin A deficiency in Brazil: Perspectives for food production oriented interventions. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:261-271. [Ch. 2]
SIMPSON, Kenneth L. (1983) Relative value of carote-noids as precursors of vitamin A. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 42:7-17. [Ch. 15]
SINGLETON, V.L., and F.H. KRATZER (1973) Plant phenolics. In NAS 1973:309-345. [Ch. 2]
SMALE, M. (1980) Women in Mauritania: The effect of drought and migration on their economic status and implications for development problems. Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 3]
SMITH, P.D., and W.R.S. CRITCHLEY (1985) The potential of runoff harvesting for crop production and range rehabilitation in semiarid Baringo. In Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proceedings of a Second National Workshop. Pp. 305-322. Institute for Development Studies and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. [Ch. 11]
SMITH, R.J., and N.H. HANCOCK (1986) Leaching requirements of irrigated soils. Agricultural Water Management 11:13-22. [Ch. 12] An alternative method of calculating LR is developed based only on salinity of irrigation water and acceptable salinity of soil. This method is compared with other widely used methods, from which it differs significantly.
SOLERI, Daniela (1989) Hopi gardens. Arid Lands Newsletter 29:11-14. [Ch. 6,9]
SOLERI, Daniela and David A. CLEVELAND (1989) Hopi Crop Diversity and Change: A Report on a Preliminary Survey of Hopi Crop Genetic Resources. Project Report of Sources of Seed in a Native American Farming Tradition: Hopi Crops After A Half Century of Culture Change. 59pp. Native Seeds/SEARCH*, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 12,14]
SOLON, Florentine, Tomas L. FERNANDEZ, Michael C. LATHAM, and Barry M. POPKIN. (1979) An Evaluation of strategies to control vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32:1445-1453. [Ch. 2]
SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, Gusti HUSSAINI, and Djoko SUSANTO (1983) Increased mortality in children with mild vitamin A deficiency. The Lancet 1983 2:585-588. [Ch. 2]
SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, Edi DJUNAEDI, Keith P. WEST, A.A. LOEDEN, and Robert TILDEN (1986) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. The Lancet 19861:1169-1173. [Ch. 2]
SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, and Joanne KATZ (1987) Increased risk of xerophthalmia following diarrhea and respiratory disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45:977-980. [Ch. 2]
SOMMERS, Paul (1984) Dry Season Gardening for Improving Child Nutrition. UNICEF*, New York, New York, USA. 48pp. [Part I]
SPRADLEY, James P. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA. vi+247pp. [Ch. 4,9]
SPRADLEY, James P. (1980) Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA. xi+195 pp. [Ch. 4]
STEGMAN, E.G., J.T. MUSICK, and J.I. STEWART (1980) Irrigation water management. In Jensen 1980:763-816. [Ch. 10,12]
STERN, Peter (1979) Small Scale Irrigation: A Manual of Low-Cost Water Technology. Intermediate Technology and International Irrigation Information Center, London, UK, and Bet Dagan, Israel. (Available from IT Publications) 152pp. [Ch. 10,11,12] A brief general introduction covering some basic information, but mostly for applications larger than household gardens; not enough detail for field use; few references given. Little consideration of traditional systems of irrigation or of how Western techniques presented in more detail could be integrated with existing techniques, e.g. planting in rows is usually assumed (pp. 43-44).
STOLER, Ann (1979) Garden use and household economy in Java. In Agriculture and Rural Development in Indonesia. G.E. Hansen, ed. Pp. 242-254. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. [Ch. 2,3]
STOLL, Gaby (1987) Natural Crop Protection: Based on Local Farm Resources in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. 2nd ed. Verlag Josef Margraf. 187pp. [Ch. 13] Order from TRIOPS, Tropical Scientific Books, Raif-feisenstr. 24, D-6070 Langen, FR Germany. Available in English, German and Spanish. An annotated bibliography emphasizing the use of local resources. Has sections for specific crops and for field and storage methods.
STONE, M. Priscilla, Barbara PERQUIN and Sarr HAMIDOU (1987) Vegetable Production Along the Senegal River. A Reconnaissance Survey of Gardens in the Brakna and Gorgol Regions. Mauritania Agricultural Research Project II, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 3]
TAIT, Joyce and Banpot NAPOMPETH, eds. (1987) Management of Pests and Pesticides: Farmers Perceptions and Practice. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. (Source of Atteh 1987)
TAKAHASHI, K., and H. ARAKAWA (1981) Climates of Southern and Western Asia. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xiii+333pp. [Ch. 11]
TAMANG, Jyoti P., Prabirk SARKAR, and Clifford W. HESSELTINE (1988) Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Darjeeling and Sikkim: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 44(4):375-385. [Ch. 15]
TARWOTJO, Ignatius, Alfred SOMMER, Tito SOEGIHARTO, Djoko SUSANTO, and MUHILAL (1982) Dietary practices and xerophthalmia among Indonesian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35:574-581. [Ch. 2]
THOMSON, James T. (1980) Preliminary evaluation: OXFAM Micro-Catchment Project, Ouahigouya, Upper Volta. mss. submitted to OXFAM UK*. [Ch. 11]
TITILOYE, E.O., E.O. LUCAS and A.A. AGBOOLA (1985) Evaluation of fertilizer value of organic waste materials in south western Nigeria. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 3:25-37. [Ch. 9]
TODARO, Michael (1985) Economic Development in the Third World. 3rd ed. Longman, New York, USA. [Part I, Ch. 3] A popular textbook; makes the standard assumptions about the necessity of economic growth and industrial agriculture.
TRICAUD, Pierre-Marie (1987) Urban Agriculture in Ibadan and Freetown. Food Energy Nexus Research Report No. 23, Food Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris, France. 45pp. [Ch. 3]
TROEH, Frederick R., J. Arthur HOBBS and Roy L. DONAHUE (1980) Soil and Water Conservation for Productivity and Environmental Protection. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. xv+718pp. [Ch. 9,10] Beginning textbook, with basics in easy-to-read style, although oriented toward large-scale production in the United States. Chapter 14, Water Conservation (pp. 454-489), is on drylands.
TUCK, Brian (1985) personal communication and draft mss., Le SaheLAn Agricultural Production Manual. [Ch. 14]
TULLY, Dennis (1988) Culture and Context in Sudan: The Process of Market Incorporation in Dar Masalit. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, USA. xiii+306pp. [Ch. 8,12]
UDS (Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Science, University of Dar es Salaam) (1983) Proceedings of a Workshop on Resource-Efficient Farming Methods for Tanzania, May 16-20,1983. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 128pp. [Ch. 9]
UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (1983) Rain and Stormwater Harvesting in Rural Areas. Published for UNEP by Tycooly International, Dublin, Ireland. vii+238pp. [Ch. 11] Based on limited review of the literature and personal observations, from a discussion by UNEP consultants in 1979. Provides a general review of a great variety of water harvesting and floodwater farming methods with many photographs and drawings but few technical details.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (1977) Map of the World Distribution of Arid Regions. MAB Technical Notes 7. UNESCO, Paris. 54pp+world map 1:25,000,000 scale, 100 × 65 cm, in color. [Ch. l] This is the best map of world drylands we have seen. Accompanying booklet gives brief summaries of climate, vegetation, and land use for dryland countries or regions and diagrams showing the relationship between rainfall and potential ETm for 93 representative sites.
UNICEF (1985) Gardening for Food in the Semi-Arid Tropics. A Handbook for Programme Planners. A WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutrition Support Programme Publication. UNICEF*, New York, New York, USA. [Part I]
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (1975) Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Mapping and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Agriculture Handbook No. 436. Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 9]
USDA (1982) Composition of Foods: Fruits and Fruit Juices. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-9. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. vi+283pp. [Ch. 2]
USDA (1984a) Composition of Foods: Vegetables and Vegetable Products. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-11. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. vi+502pp. [Ch. 2]
USDA (1984b) Composition of Foods: Nut and Seed Products. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-12. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. v+137pp. [Ch. 2]
USDA (1989) Composition of Foods: Cereal Grains and Pasta. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-20. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. iv+137pp. [Ch. 2]
VAN DEN BOSCH, Robert, P.S. MESSENGER, and A.P. GUTIERREZ (1982) An Introduction to Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York, USA. xiv+247pp. [Ch. 13] Written as a beginning college text. Clear explanations with many examples.
VAN DOORNE, J.H. (1985) A review of small-scale irrigation schemes in Kenya. AGL/MISC/2/85. FAO*, Rome. 90pp. [Ch. 11]
VAN EPENHUIJSEN, C.W. (1978) La Culture des Lgumes Indignes au Nigria. FAO*, Rome. (Also in English) xiv+108pp. [Ch. 8,18] Promotes the production of local vegetables, but industrial growing methods. Includes descriptions of local Nigerian vegetables. See Brownrigg (1985) for description of the FAO project out of which this publication came.
VARISCO, Daniel Martin (1983) Irrigation in an Arabian valley. Expedition 25(2):26-34 [Ch. 10]
WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel (1974) The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press, New York. xiv+410pp. [Ch. 3]
WARREN, D.M., L.J. SLIKKERVEER and S.O. TITILOLA, eds. (1989) Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. CIKARD*, Ames, Iowa, USA. 186pp. [Part I]
WATERLOW, J.C. (1982) Nutrient needs for man in different environments. In Food, Nutrition and Climate. Kenneth Blaxter and Leslie Fowder, eds. Pp. 271-283. Applied Science Publishers, London. [Ch. 2]
WATSON, J.D. (1976) Ascorbic acid content of plant foods in Ghana and the effects of cooking and storage on vitamin content. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 4:207-213. [Ch. 15]
WATT, S.B. (1978) Ferrocement Water Tanks and Their Construction. IT Publications*, London, UK. [Ch. 11]
WATT, S.B. and W.E. WOOD (1979) Hand Dug Wells and Their Construction. 2nd ed. IT Publications*, London, UK. 253pp. (First published 1977) [Ch. 11,12]
Based on field experience and clearly written with many useful diagrams and photographs. The 8 middle chapters describe in detail the construction of one type of well: a reinforced concrete lined circular shaft well of 1.3 m internal diameter, excavated through sedimentary soils to an open aquifer having a water table some 20-30 m below ground surface. The wellhead is open, extraction of water will be by buckets and ropes, and construction is by self-help methods employing local labour (53). Details for making tools and equipment and for estimating labor, costs, and materials needed are given. The orientation is toward programs that will be building a number of wells and can therefore justify some fairly costly equipment. The authors give some alternative methods appropriate for building one or two wells using more local and less expensive materials; the principals remain the same.
WELTZIEN, H.C. and N. KETTERER (1986) Control of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola (de Bary) Berlese et de Toni, on grapevine leaves through water extracts from composted organic wastes. Journal of Phytopathology 116:186-188. [Ch. 13]
WERNER, David (1977) Where There is No Doctor. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. [Ch. 2,11,13,16] An excellent manual for field use emphasizing prevention and inexpensive medical care. Available in Arabic, French, Spanish, and many other languages.
WERNER, David (1986) Report Concerning Diarrhea Control in Mozambique. Based on a 1986 visit by David Werner to Mozambique as a consultant to the Ministry of Health. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. 32pp. [Ch. 16]
WERNER, David, and Bill BOWER (1982) Helping Health Workers Learn: A Book of Methods, Aids and Ideas for Instructors at the Village Level. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. [Ch. 4,16] See the Resources section of Chapter 4 for a description of this valuable book.
WESTPHAL, E., et al. (1981) LAgriculture Autochtone au Cameroun. Miscellaneous Papers 20 (1981), Lanbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, The Netherlands. H. Veenman & Zonen B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands. (In French) 175pp. [Part II]
WESTPHAL, E., et al. (1985) Cultures Vivrires Tropicales avec Rfrence Spciale au Cameroun. Pudoc, P.O. Box 4,6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. (In French) 514pp. [Part II]
WHO (World Health Organization) (1982) Control of Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia. WHO Technical Report Series 672. WHO*, Geneva, Switzerland. 70pp. [Ch. 2] Popular to semipopular review of current knowledge on vitamin A deficiency, its assesment, distribution, treatment and control. Advocates gardens as a good source of vitamin A while warning that vitamin A content of foods given in food composition tables is unreliable and that more research is needed on how to improve consumption of indigenous DGLVs.
WHO (1986) Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. (Revised ed.; First ed., 1981). Prepared by K. Bagchi. WHO*, Geneva, Switzerland. [Ch. 16] A good resource for training in maternal and child health and nutrition. A series of brief, accessible training modules provide a framework for addressing nutritional needs of mothers and children. These modules could easily be integrated with garden activities.
WILKEN, Gene C. (1977) Manual irrigation in Middle America. Agricultural Water Management 1:155-165. [Ch. 12] Describes manual irrigation from shallow wells; common for high-value vegetable crops in semiarid highlands.
WILKEN, Gene C. (1987) Good Farmers: Traditional Agricultural Resource Management in Mexico and Central America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA. [Ch. 8,9]
WMO (World Meteorological Organization) (1983) Guide to Climatological Practices. 2nd ed. Secretariat of the WMO, Geneva, Switzerland. [Ch. 11]
WOLF, Eric R. (1982) Europe and the People Without History. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA. xi+503pp. [Ch. 3]
WORLD NEIGHBORS (1985) Introduction to Soil and Water Conservation Practices. World Neighbors, 5116 N. Portland Ave., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73112, USA. 33pp. [Ch. 9]
WORSLEY (1984) Three Worlds: Culture and World Development. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. xiv+409pp. [Ch. 3]
WRIGHT, Peter (1984) Report on runoff farming and soil conservation in Yatenga, Upper Volta. Report to OXFAM, Oxford, UK. (Cited in Pacey and Cullis 1986) [Ch. 9]
YOON, Soon Young (1983) Womens garden groups in Casamance, Senegal. Assignment Children 63/64:133-153. [Ch. 3,15]
YOUTOPOULOS, Pan A. (1985) Middle-income classes and food crises: The new food-feed competition. Economic Development and Cultural Change 33:463-483. [Ch. 2]
ZEHRER, W. (1980) Traditional methods of insect pest control in stored grain. In GTZ 1980:98-129. [Ch. 14]
ZEHRER, W., E. WEGMANN and D. AKOU-EDI (1980) The effect of traditional pest control substances on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus in stored beans. In GTZ 1980:148-157. [Ch. 14]
ZEHRER, W. (1984) The effect of the traditional preservatives used in northern Togo and of neem oil for control of storage pests. In Schmutterer and Ascher 1984:453-460. [Ch. 14]
ZIMMERMAN, Sonia D. (1982) The Women of Kafr al Bahr: A Research Into the Working Conditions of Women in an Egyptian Village. (English translation by Rosemary Risseeuw) Research Centre, Women and Development, State University of Leiden, Institute for Social and Cultural Studies, Stationsplein 10, 2312 AK Leiden, The Netherlands. [Ch. 3]
FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS encourages gardens that serve local needs, that are based on local knowledge, and that conserve natural resources and the biological diversity of traditional crops. It was written for field workers, extension agents, students, project workers, and program planners. Both a beginner's guide and a reference for those with more experience, this book helps the reader observe and work with local people to ask appropriate questions about the community, the environment, and the potential for gardens to improve nutritional, economic, and social well-being.
Food from Dryland Gardens draws on painstaking and wide-ranging research and repeatedly makes wise judgements.
- Joe Collins, Institute for Food and Development Policy; co-author of Food First
Food from Dryland Gardens is the best book I have seen for a small-scale, people-centered approach to agriculture. This book is not only ecologically sound, but shows a remarkable understanding of, and sensitivity to, local traditions, culture and politics. Most important of all, perhaps, it clearly "puts the last first" and will provide an extremely useful tool in the process of empowering marginalized peoples to take greater charge of their health and their lives.
- David Werner, Hesperian Foundation; author of Where There is No Doctor
Simply put, Food from Dryland Gardens should be required reading for development educators, extension workers, rural organizers and others working with community-based agriculture, especially in the Third World. Above all, it is a people-oriented approach that values local knowledge and traditional methods, and emphasizes local participation and self-reliance as the key to sustainable food production. It is a timely, critical resource for the 1990s and beyond.
- Hope Shand, Research Director, Rural Advancement Fund International
Food from Dryland Gardens is an impressively comprehensive and clear book that stands out from the gathering stampede of literature on "sustainable agriculture." It is both an analysis of gardening strategies and a practical guide for those working in the Third World. Its emphasis on "social sustainability" - local self-determination and a just distribution of resources - adds a needed dimension to the measure of "environmental sustainability" now being stressed in much of the ecodevelopment literature. Food from Dryland Gardens is a smooth blend of indigenous and Western scientific knowledge, mixing the strategies of gardeners and farmers throughout the world with an understanding of the sciences of nutrition, soils, and plant growth.
- Mac Chapin, Program Director Cultural Survival
CENTER FOR PEOPLE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT