Carvalho, J. C. M., and O. H. H. Mielke. 1972. The trade of butterfly wings in Brazil and its effect upon survival of the species. Proceedings 19th International Congress of Entomology (Moscow) 1 :486-488.
Fenner, T. L. 1976. Aspects of butterfly conservation in Papua New Guinea, Pp. 121-127 in Ecology and Conservation in Papua New Guinea, K. P. Lamb and J. L. Gressitt eds. Pamphlet 2. Wau Ecology Institute, Papua New Guinea.
Parsons, M. n.d. Insect Farming and Trading Agency Farming Manual. Insect Farming and Trading Agency, Division of Wildlife, P.O. Box 129, Bulolo, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
Pyle, R. 1981. Butterflies: now you see them.... International Wildlife I I (1):4- 11.
Pyle, R., M. Bentzien, and P. Opler. 1981. Insect conservation. Annual Review of Entomology 26:233-258.
Pyle, R. M. and S. A. Hughes. 1978. Conservation and utilization of the insect resources of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report, copies available from the author, see Research Contacts.
Severinghaus, S. R. 1977. The butterfly industry and butterfly conservation in Taiwan. Atala 5(2):20-23.
Unno, K. 1974. Taiwan's butterfly industry. Wildlife 16: 356-359.
Vietmeyer, N. D. 1979. Butterfly ranching is taking wing in Papua New Guinea. Smithsonian 10(2):119-135.
Wayne Gagne, Bishop Museum, P.O. Box 6037, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96818 USA
Angus Hutton, Garaina Farms, Scrubby Creek Road, Gympie 4570, Queensland, Australia
Insect Farming and Trading Agency, P.O. Box 129, Bulolo, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea (Peter Clark, Manager; Michael Parsons, Ecologist)
Karol Kisokau, Director, Office of Environment and Conservation, Central Government Offices, Waigani, Papua New Guinea
Navu Kwapena, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu, Papua New Guinea
Rudi Mattoni, 9620 Heather Road, Beverly Hills, California 90210, USA
Michael G. Morris, Chairman, Butterfly Specialist Group, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Furzebrook Research Station, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Wareham, Dorset BH20 5AS, England
Ashley C. Morton, Department of Biology, Building 44, The University, Southampton S09 5NH, England
Fred Parker, 717 Ross River Road, Kirwan, Queensland 4814, Australia
Robert M. Pyle, Chairman, Monarch Project, Xerces Society, 369 Loop Road, Gray's River, Washington 98621, USA
Sheldon R. Severinghaus, Representative, The Asia Foundation, 42, Chien Kuo North Road, Taipei 104, Taiwan, Republic of China
Biographical Sketches of Panel Members
EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director of the Office of Biological Conservation, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., is currently the Secretary-General of the International Union of Biological Sciences. He received his B.A. in 1961 from Miami University in Ohio, M.Sc. from The George Washington University in 1963, and his Ph.D. in 1966 from the University of London. His research interests are in comparative anatomy and phylogeny of flowering plants, commercial timbers, histology of monocotyledons, economic botany, and tropical biology. An internationally recognized expert on tropical plants, he has published extensively in these areas and on topics relating to science, technology, and development, especially in developing countries. Dr. Ayensu was co-chairman of the Panel on Under exploited Tropical Plants of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation and chairs and serves as a member of many international bodies.
ARCHIE F. CARR, JR., is Graduate Research Professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville. As Technical Director of the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, he has directed a seasonal research program at the breeding ground of the green turtle at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, since 1952, with continuous grants from the National Science Foundation from 1955 to 1980, and has carried out investigations of marine turtle ecology and navigation in various parts of the world. The author of numerous papers, articles, and books, he received the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal of the National Academy of Sciences for Handbook of Turtles and the John Burroughs Medal for The Windward Road. He is Research Associate of the American Museum of Natural History; Affiliate Curator of Natural Sciences, Florida State Museum; Chairman of the Marine Turtle Specialist Group of the Survival Service Commission, International Union for the Conservation of Nature; Honorary Consultant of the World Wildlife Fund; Fellow of the Linnean Society of London; Fellow of the American Fisheries Society; and a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi.
In 1973 he was awarded a gold medal from the World Wildlife Fund for the application of scientific findings to the conservation of marine turtles. In 1975 he received the Edward W. Browning Award for achievement in biological conservation. In 1978 Dr. Carr was awarded the Gold Medal of the New York Zoological Society for contributions to natural science and conservation; in 1978 he became Officer of the Order of the Golden Ark (The Netherlands).
F. WAYNE KING is the Director of the Florida State Museum, Gainesville. He received a B.S. in 1957 and an M.S. in 1961 from the University of Florida and a Ph.D. from 1966 from the University of Miami. His research interests are in wildlife conservation and habitat preservation, impact of international trade on wildlife populations, and ecology and behavior of reptile populations. He worked at the New York Zoological Society from 1967 to 1975. As an international wildlife consultant, Dr. King has received honors from the Dominican Republic, the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, and from H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of The Netherlands. He has served on committees advising the State Department and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources on policies regarding the trade of crocodile skins, turtle products, and other wildlife materials.
FRANCOlS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry and Professor of Forest Genetics, Yale University, was Dean of the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale from 1965 to 1975. He received a B.A. from Luxembourg College and a B.Sc.F. from the University of New Brunswick in 1950, an M.F. in ecology in 1951, and a Ph.D. in forest genetics from Yale in 1954. He is especially knowledgeable about francophone Africa and was chairman of the Sahel program of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development and a member of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation. From 1960 to 1965 he was research collaborator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1966 he was the recipient of the Award for Outstanding Achievement in Biological Research from the Society of American Foresters and in 1975 was Distinguished Professor (Fulbright-Hays Program) in Yugoslavia. Before joining the Yale faculty, he served as project leader in forest genetics for the U.S. Forest Service in Florida. He has served as a consultant to FAO, various foreign governments, and private forestry companies, and he has traveled extensively in the tropical countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
MICHAEL G. MORRIS is head of the Furzebrook Research Station of the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (National Environment Research Council, U.K.). He received a B.A. in natural sciences (zoology) at the University of Cambridge of 1958, M.A. in 1962, and received his Ph.D. from London University in research on the integrated control of orchard pests. Dr. Morris worked at Monks Wood Experimental Station on the effects of grassland management on populations of invertebrates and developed a strong interest in community and applied ecology, particularly the conservation of insect populations. Recently he has become involved with problems of butterfly conservation and resource utilization. He is Secretary of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Insects, a Vice-Chairman of the Lepidoptera Specialist Group of lUCN'S Survival Commission, and Chairman of the Habitat and Species Protection Committee of SEL (Societal Europaea Lepidoptero-Logica).
HUGH L. POPENOE is Professor of Soils, Agronomy, Botany, and Geography and Director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture and International Programs (Agriculture) at the University of Florida. He received his B.S. from the University of California at Davis in 1951 and his Ph.D. in soils from the University of Florida in 1960. His principal research interest has been in the area of tropical agriculture and land use. His early work on shifting cultivation is one of the major contributions to this sytem. He has traveled and worked in most of the countries in the tropical areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. He is past Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Escuela Agricola Panamericana in Honduras, Visiting Lecturer on Tropical Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Agronomy, the America Geographical Society, and the International Soils Science Society. He is Chairman of the Advisory Committee for Technology Innovation and a member of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development.
ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE, a writer and consulting lepidopterist based
in Gray's River, Washington, has served since 1979 as Co-Compiler of the lUCN
Invertebrate Red Data Book. In this capacity he is consultant to the
Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge, England. After receiving his B.S.
and M.S. at the University of Washington, he took his Ph.D. through the School
of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University in 1976. He worked for
the Government of Papua New Guinea on the conservation and utilization of insect
resources and then with the Nature Conservancy as Northwest Land Steward.
former Fulbright Scholar to the United Kingdom, Dr. Pyle subsequently founded the Xerces Society for conservation of beneficial insects and their habitats. He has been chairman of IUCN'S Lepidoptera Specialist Group (Species Survival Commission) since 1976. His publications include the Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. A comprehensive book on insect conservation in his next project.
SHELDON R. SEVERINGHAUS received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1977 in natural resources management. He has worked on various wildlife research projects in Asia since 1964 and is representative for the Asia Foundation in Taiwan. He has published articles on butterfly conservation and wildlife industries in Taiwan, where he has been studying the butterfly and wildlife farming projects.
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer for this study, is Professional Associate of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with the Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science that are important for developing countries.