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CLOSE THIS BOOKSaline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries (BOSTID, 1990, 130 p.)
Fuel
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntroduction
VIEW THE DOCUMENTFuelwood trees and shrubs
VIEW THE DOCUMENTLiquid fuels
VIEW THE DOCUMENTGaseous fuels
VIEW THE DOCUMENTReferences and selected readings
VIEW THE DOCUMENTResearch contacts

Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries (BOSTID, 1990, 130 p.)

Fuel

Introduction

More than a billion people in developing countries rely on wood for cooking and heating. In most developing areas, the rate of deforestation for fuelwood and for agricultural expansion far exceeds the rate of reforestation. People spend increasing amounts of time and money to acquire fuel. Substitute energy sources such as kerosene or electricity are either unavailable or are too expensive.

The need for agricultural land to feed growing populations makes it unlikely that high-quality land will be used for planting trees. There are several options for increasing the production of fuelwood - for example, improving cultural practices in existing forests, growing trees with other crops (agroforestry), and utilizing marginal lands.

Fuelwood and building materials can be produced from salttolerant trees and shrubs using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops. Fuel crop plantations established on saline soils or irrigated with saline water would allow better land and fresh water to be reserved for food or forage production. Moreover, some salt-tolerant Prosopis, Eucalyptus, and Casuarina can survive prolonged exposure to 40-45°C - temperatures that few food crops can withstand.

With careful planning, trees can help rehabilitate degraded lands by stabilizing the ecosystem and by providing niches and protection for other plants and animals. Criteria for selecting plant species for use as fuelwood in saline environments include:

· Rate of Growth and Regrowth - Although many species may survive in saline habitats, their growth is often too slow to provide any significant production The ability to coppice is of great practical importance. Combustible litter and branches shed from some species is an advantage. High-density wood is preferred, but there is generally a negative correlation between density and growth rate. Species should be chosen that are easy to handle, cut, and split. The wood should burn evenly and slowly without sparks or noxious smoke.
· Establishment - In saline environments, establishment may be difficult. There may only be a brief period suitable for planting. Special preparation such as mulching, furrowing, or ridging may be required to facilitate early growth. Some halophytes can tolerate harsher conditions later in their growth than at germination.
· Adaptability - Some species require specialized habitats or microclimates and will not survive in all elements of the landscape or across an entire climatic zone. Plants with significant plasticity in climatic and site tolerance have greater potential for success.
· Diverse Use Salt-tolerant trees and shrubs can serve other purposes. They can reduce wind erosion, protect row crops, provide shade or forage for livestock, and serve as a first step in land restoration. Spiny salt-tolerant shrubs can be planted as living fences. Trees can also serve to control salinity through their ability to use more water than crops or pasture on an annual basis, and to draw it from deeper in the soil profile. Candidate species that provide such benefits in addition to fuel production would be advantageous.

Since it is unlikely that any species will meet all these requirements, compromise is necessary. Although selection is usually based on performance in a similar environment, some species "travel" poorly, some show extreme variation in regard to source (provenance), and some perform remarkably well far outside their native climate.

In Australia, a consortium of business and academic groups is developing a multitiered approach to provide salt-tolerant trees for use as fuel and for pulp.

The project will screen Australian trees for growth rates and salt and drought tolerance. In addition, root fungi, which help plants to obtain nutrients from the soil, will be screened for salt tolerance and their influence on tree growth. Trees with superior growth on saline soils will be tissue cultured and inoculated with salt-tolerant root fungi. These cloned trees will then be tested for field performance. After the field trials, useful plant material will be made commercially available for use in saline environments in Australia and other countries.

In the United States Eucalyptus and Casuarina trees have been tested for over four years in demonstration plantations in California to reduce agricultural drainage water and lower water tables on saline sites. Superior trees have been cloned to produce seed and biomass for economic exploitation. Another Australian tree, Acacia melanozylon, is also being evaluated in this project.

Fuelwood trees and shrubs

Some of the species that are promising for fuel production in saline environments are found in the genera Prosopis, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Rhizophora, Melaleuca, Tamarix, and Acacia.

Prosopis

Shrubs and trees of the genus prosopis are found throughout arid and semiarid areas of the tropics. Since they fix nitrogen, they improve the soil and so supply part of their own nutrients. In tests by Felker and coworkers (1981), P. articulata, P. pallida, and P. tamarugo all grew and fixed nitrogen when irrigated with water containing 3.6 percent salt.

In more recent tests by Rhodes and Felker (1988), Prosopis seeds from widely divergent saline areas of Africa, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and the United States were germinated and grown in sand culture at NaCl concentrations up to 3.3 percent. Six of the species tested had seedlings that grew in 3.3 percent NaCl. P. juliflora, from West Africa, seemed to have the best potential for rapid growth at high salinity. Other Prosopis surviving at 3.3 percent NaCl were P. chilensis, P. articulata, P. alba, P. nigra/flexuosa, and P. alba/nigra. P. tamarugo, identified earlier as having exceptional salt tolerance, died from stem fungal disease before salt was introduced. P. pubescens seedlings succumbed at 1.2 percent NaCl, possibly from fungal disease as well. P. juliflora has few soil and water constraints. It can be grown in either dry or waterlogged saline areas, and on degraded soils with low fertility. A thorny, deciduous, large-crowned, deep-rooted tree, P. juliflora may grow to 10 m or more, depending on the variety and site. It is native to Central America and northern South America, but it has been widely propagated in Africa and Asia, particularly in India.

In India, P. juliflora has spread throughout the state of Tamil Nadu where it is used for fuel by many of the rural poor, and its availability is credited with a reduction of cutting in natural forests. In one district, where substantial saline patches occur, farmers use P. juliflora as a fallow species for four years. The trees are harvested for fuelwood or, in many cases, converted to charcoal. The land can then be used for food crops for at least two years, after which trees are replanted.

In Pakistan, more than 300 hectares of P. juliflora have been successfully established in sandy plains and dunes along the seacoast. Nursery-grown seedlings were irrigated with underground saline water for two years. After this, irrigation was discontinued, but the plants continued to grow well, using their extensive root systems to absorb rainwater and dew.

Simultaneous plantings of P. juliflora in non-sandy strata with poorer percolation did not fare as well, apparently because of salt buildup in the root system. The wood produced in the sandy environment had a high heat content and low ash, indicating its suitability as fuelwood.

Many other species of Prosopis yield good fuelwood as well. P. chilensis has been planted extensively in arid areas and P. alba has been used for reforesting dry saline areas. P. ruscifolia and P. pallida also have potential for use on saline soils and P. cineraria tolerates soils with a pH of over 9.

About 9,000 hectares of Prosopis have been planted in the Bhavnagar area of India. Half is used by villagers for fuelwood and half belongs to the forestry department.

Eucalyptus

Of the more than 500 species of Eucalyptus, relatively few are salt tolerant. Among those that are salt tolerant, there is a broad range of adverse environments where they occur. For example, a recently described and appropriately named species, E. halophila, occurs on the edges of salt lakes in Australia. E. angulosa grows in white coastal sand in Western and South Australia. It is used as a windbreak in coastal areas and may be grown where salt spray is a problem. E. torquata occurs in South Australia, often on shallow rocky soils and in association with Triplex species.

E. camaldulensis grows widely in arid areas, usually along permanent or seasonal inland streams. An Australian native, it is now planted in many Mediterranean countries and is used for fuelwood, charcoal, poles, and for paper and particleboard manufacture. It is adapted to tropical and temperate climates and will grow well on poor soils and in areas where there are prolonged dry seasons (provided its roots can reach groundwater) or where periodic waterlogging occurs. It is not suitable for planting in humid tropical lowlands, nor in coastal areas where it would be exposed to windblown salt. Of its numerous provenances, a few have been shown to be highly salt-tolerant.

E. occidentalis is drought resistant and tolerates high temperatures, salinity, and waterlogging. In Western Australia, it has been found in clayey soils adjacent to salt lakes.

E. sargentii is also native to Western Australia, where it is frequently found in areas where salt appears on the soil surface. It is reported to be one of the hardiest species and one of the last to die in areas of increasing salinity.

Of several Australian eucalyptus species tested in Israel, the highest growth rate and resistance to salinity (~30 dS/m) were shown by E. occidentalis and E. sargentii; at lower salinity levels (20- 30 dS/m), E. spathulata, E. kondininensis, and E. loxophleba also exhibited rapid growth.

Eucalyptus species reported by Blake (1981) to survive salt concentrations of ~1.8 percent are E. calophylla, E. erythrocorys, E. incrassata, E. largiflorens, E. neglecta, and E. tereticornis. Other species that have been reported to grow well in saline environments are listed in Table 8.

Casuarina

Casuarina equisetifolia is a fast-growing evergreen tree, 15-30 m tall, with a long straight trunk, 60-120 cm in diameter. It is native to southern Asia, Malaysia, coastal Queensland,

Australia, and other Pacific Islands. It is an important fuelwood species in India and serves to stabilize coastal dunes in China. It has been successfully introduced to coastal East and West Africa and to many areas of the Caribbean. It can grow on loose seashore sand within a few meters of high tide.

Its success as an introduced species is due to its ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils and to tolerate windblown salt, high alkalinity levels (pH 9.0-9.5), and moderate groundwater salinity.

In a study of the effect of salinity on growth and nitrogen fixation in C. equisetifolia, it was found that increasing the NaCl level to 200 mM (about 1.2 percent) had little effect on nitrogen fixation. At intermediate levels of salinity (50-100 mM NaCl), nitrogen fixation and growth were greater than for the control.

Not all species of Casuarina are salt tolerant and there is significant variation among those that are. C. cristata, C. glauca, and C. obesa are all reported to be more salt tolerant than C. equisetifolia and more suitable for heavier clay soils and waterlogged conditions. In recent testing for performance in saline-waterlogged conditions, C. obesa grew better than Eucalyptus camaldulensis and five other Eucalyptus species (van der Moezel et al., 1988).

C. obesa is noted for its ability to grow in warm subhumid and semiarid zones. It produces good fuelwood and is useful in shelterbelts.

TABLE 8 Salt-Tolerant Eucalyptus Species.

Eucalyptus Species

Other Site Characteristics

E. astringens

Dry

E. brockwayi

Dry

E. calycogona

Dry

E. campaspe

Dry

E. concinna

Dry

E. diptera

Dry, Coastal

E. flocktoniae

Dry

E. forrestiana

Dry, Coastal

E. gracilis

Dry, Clay

E. griffithsii

Dry

E. Iehmannii

Dry, Coastal

E. (foecunda) leptophylla

Dry

E. lesouefi

Dry

E. longicornis

Dry

E. merrickiae

Dry

E. ovularis

Dry

E. platycorys

Dry

E. platypus

Dry

E. salmonophloia

Dry

E. woodwardii

Dry

SOURCE: Chippendale, 1973.

Rhizophora

Mangrove forests grow on 45 million hectares of tropical coastal and estuarine areas. They are tolerant of waterlogging, high salinity and humidity, and strong coastal winds. Although seawater is tolerated, most species grow best at lower salinity levels, particularly where there is freshwater seepage to moderate seawater salinity. Studies on the mangrove Avicennia marina, indicate that growth is poor in fresh water; maximum biomass production occurs at salinity levels of 25-50 percent of seawater.

Rhizophora species range from small shrubs to tall trees. While R. mangle and R. mucronata are usually about 20-25 m tall, R. apiculata can grow to heights of 60 m.

The principal use for most Rhizophora species is for fuelwood and charcoal. Most species also produce a strong, attractive timber, notably durable in water. Mangroves have the added value of reducing typhoon damage, binding and building sand and soil, serving as spawning and nursery grounds for many species of fish and shellfish, and as nesting and feeding sites for seabirds. Mangroves serve as a special link between the land and sea; inorganic nutrients from the land become organic nutrients and are passed on to the sea.

R. mangle has been planted for coastal protection in Florida and Hawaii. R. mucronata is used for replanting cleared areas in Malaysia. Mangrove swamps have been managed for fuelwood in Malaysia for more than 80 years with harvest on a 30-year cycle. In Indonesia, the rotation is 20 years for firewood and 35 years for charcoal. In Thailand, a 30-year rotation is practiced for producing poles, firewood, and charcoal.

The black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, of the New World tropics and subtropics, as well as the Old World species A. marina and A. officinalis, inhabiting salt marshes, tidal swamps, and muddy coasts, provide fuel, charcoal, and wood for boats, furniture, posts, pilings, and utensils.

Mangroves are generally slow growing and cannot tolerate indiscriminate lopping. Although some species can be established by direct seeding, if strip-felling rather than clear-cutting is used for harvest, natural regeneration will occur. The Mangrove Research Center in the Philippines has a mangrove nursery and a working group on the silviculture of mangroves.

Melaleuca

Melaleuca quinquenervia and M. viridiflora are often found together occupying slightly higher ground next to mangrove swamps. M. quinquenervia is deep rooted and can grow on nutrient-poor coastal soils. It can grow near the beach and survives windblown salt. Although it grows best in fresh water, it can tolerate saline groundwater. It is an excellent fuelwood and regenerates readily after coppicing. It seeds profusely and can become a nuisance in areas where occasional fires create a suitable seedbed.

M. styphelioides is a fast-growing tree, 6-18 m tall, found in swampy coastal sites in eastern Australia. It is more salt tolerant than M. quinquenervia and tolerates a wide variety of conditions including sandy, wet, saline, and heavy clay soils and some coastal exposure.

Six species of Melaleuca from an area of salt lakes in Western Australia were examined for their relative salt tolerance in greenhouse tests. Growth and survival at salinity levels up to 7.2 dS/m were tracked over 15 weeks. M. cymbifolia had the highest survival rate and M. thyoides the best growth in these tests. M. thyoides, a large shrub, also has outstanding tolerance to waterlogging.

M. bracteata, M. calycina, M. cardiophylla, M. glomerata, M. nervosa,M. pauperiflora, and M. subtrigona also occur on the margins of salt lakes in the interior of Australia.

Tamarix

Tamarisks are hardy shrubs or trees of the desert and seashore. There are more than 50 species of tamarisk and most tolerate salty soils, poor-quality water, drought, and high temperatures. Several types can be used to afforest sand dunes and saline wastelands.

They have been used as windbreaks in desert areas and the mature trees can be used for lumber and fuelwood.

One disadvantage of tarnarisks is the high salt content of their litter and the salt drip from their leaves. Vegetation surrounding these trees is killed and, where they are planted as a windbreak for agriculture, an open space must be allowed between the trees and the crop to prevent yield reduction. Leaves and twigs will not burn because of their high salt content.

These drawbacks must be weighed against their useful characteristics when considering their introduction.

Tamarix aphylla is a heavily branched tree, 8-12 m tall at maturity. It has a deep and extensive root system and, like other Tamarix species, it excretes salt. Salty "tears" drip from the glands in its leaves at night, so that the soil under the tree is covered with salt. Field tests in Israel showed that T. aphylla, T. chinensis, and T. nilotica could all be grown with seawater irrigation.

T. stricta is a tree from the Middle East, closely resembling T. aphylla, but T. stricta has straighter stems, a denser canopy, and faster growth. T. articulata and T. gallica are reported to grow well on moderately salty sites in Western Australia. Both can be readily propagated from cuttings.

In a study of biomass production using tamarisks irrigated with saline water, Garrett (1979) found that T. aphylla had a higher growth rate than T. africana or T. hispida. He also projected T. aphylla yields of up to 14 dry tons per acre when irrigated with 0.06-3.5 percent saline water.

Acacia

More than 800 of the known species of Acacia are native to Australia and many have potential for establishment on salt-affected sites. Species such as A. longifolia, A. saligna, and A. sophorae have been used to stabilize dunes in Israel and North Africa. In tropical Australia, A. oraria grows close to the sea and A. crassicarpa, in association with Casuarina equisetifolia, tolerates salt-laden winds on frontal sand dunes.

Some Acacia species tolerate high levels of groundwater salinity. A. stenophylla is widely planted on salt-affected sites and A. redolens, A. ampliceps, A. xiphophylla, and A.- translucens all grow in highly saline areas. Other species with good salt resistance include A. floribunda, A. pendula, A. pycnantha, A. retinodes, and A. cyclops.

A. auriculiformis is suitable for coastal sandy sites subjected to windblown salt and areas with acid or alkaline conditions. In northern Australia, it grows on sand dunes with a soil pH of 9.0. In laboratory tests, it has tolerated highly acid conditions. This nitrogen-fixing species also grows well in seasonally waterlogged areas. It has the disadvantage of brittle branches, which may break in ordinary winds.

Other Species

In India, twenty species of trees and shrubs were planted in a trial using saline water (EC = 4.0-6.1 dS/m) for irrigation. Of these, nine species were growing well after 18 months. The trees included Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbek, Cassia siamea, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Syzygium cumin), and Terminalia arjuna; shrubs were Adhatoda vasica and Cassia auriculata. On the basis of costs for establishing and maintaining these plants, and the selling price for firewood, it was estimated that the required investment would be recovered in five years.

Pongamia pinnata, known as karanja, is found along the banks of streams and rivers and in beach and tidal forests in India. In West Bengal, a rotation of 30 years is used in Pongamia fuelwood plantations. Pongam oil, 27-39 percent of the seed, is used for leather treatment, soap making, lubrication, and medicinal purposes. An active component in the oil, karanjin, is reported to have insecticidal and antibacterial properties.

Butea monosperma is a medium-sized (3-4 m) deciduous tree that grows in waterlogged and saline soils in tropical Asia. Its profuse spring canopy of scarlet flowers earn it the common name "flame of the forest." Its seeds and seed oil have anthelmintic properties.

The Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce) is a hardy evergreen tree that grows to 18 m in the Indian plains and tropical Americas. A legume, it grows in poor and sandy soils and survives in coastal areas even with its roots in salty water. It is also drought resistant and reproduces readily from seeds and cuttings. In addition to its fuel use, the fleshy pulp of its pods is consumed as a fruit and its leaves and pods are used as fodder for cattle, sheep, and goats.

Information on more than 1,500 species of ground cover, vines, grasses, herbs, shrubs, and trees that tolerate seashore conditions has been assembled by Menninger (1964). Most of these are categorized as to their ability to grow (1) right on the shore, (2) with sonic protection, or (3) well back from the beach. Although there are no indications of other desirable characteristics for use as fuelwood, some of the trees suggested for planting where there is direct exposure to salt spray and sand (category 1) are listed in Table 9.

TABLE 9 Seashore Trees.

Species

Common Name

Native Area

Albizia lophantha

Cape Wattle

Australia

Araucaria excelsa

Norfolk Island Pine

Norfolk Island

Banksia integrifolia

Coast Honeysuckle

Australia

Barringtonia acutangula


Sri Lanka

Caesalpinia coriaria

Divi-divi

Venezuela

Carallia integerrima

Dawata

India

Casasia clusiaefolia

Seven Year Apple

Florida

Catesbaea parviflora

Lily Thorn

Florida

Cerbera odollam

Gon-kadura

India

Conocarpus erectus

Buttonwood

Florida

Corynocarpus laevigatus

Karaka

New Zealand

Crataegus pubescens

Mexican Hawthorn

Mexico

Cytissus proliferus

Escabon Canary

Islands

Ficus rubiginosa

Rusty Fig

Florida

Garcinia spicata


India

Grevillea banksii


Australia

Griselinia littoralis

Broadleaf

New Zealand

Guettarda speciosa


South Pacific

Holoptelea integrifolia

Indian Elm

India

Juniperus barbadensis

Barbados Red Cedar

West Indies

Leptospermum laevigatum

Coast Tea Tree

Australia

Messerschmidia argentia

Beach Heliotrope

Hawaii

Metrosideros tomentosa

Christmas Tree

New Zealand

Myoporurn laetum


New Zealand

Olearoa albida

Tree Aster

New Zealand

Pinus halepensis

Aleppo Pine

Mediterranean

Pinosporum crassifoliurn

Karo

New Zealand

Pornaderris apetala

Tainui

New Zealand

Prunus spinosa

Sloe

Australia

Pseudopanax crassifolium

Lancewood

New Zealand

Torrubia longifolia

Blolly

Florida

Vitex lucens

Puriri

New Zealand

Ximenia arnericana

Tallow wood

West Indies

SOURCE: Menninger, 1964.

Liquid fuels

A number of countries are pioneering the large-scale use of alcohol fuels. In Brazil, for instance, a country that imported more than 80 percent of its petroleum in 1979, a combination of factors - including the availability of land and labor, a need for liquid fuels, and a strong base in sugarcane production - has led to an ambitious alcohol fuels program.

TABLE 10 Utilization of Kallar Grass for Biogas Production.

Material

Yield per Hectare per Year

Kallar grass

40 t (green)

Kallar grass

16.8 t (dry)

Methane (0.18 m3/kg dry matter)

3,024 m3

Sludge (0.72 kg/kg dry matter)

12.1 t

Nitrogen in sludge

240 kg

Total Energy

15 x 1000000 kcal

SOURCE: Malik et al., 1986.

Instead of producing granular sugar for the world market, sugarcane juice is fermented to ethanol. This alcohol is used both in combination with gasoline and as a complete substitute for gasoline in Brazil's automobiles. In Costa Rica, Indonesia, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sudan, Thailand, and other countries, alcohol fuel projects are being examined or developed.

The opportunity also exists for the production of liquid fuels from salt-tolerant plants. The sugar beet, Beta vulgar's, can be grown with saline water. The techniques for extracting sugar from this crop and fermenting it to ethanol are well known and widely practiced.

Although less well known, the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) is also a potential source of sugar for conversion to ethanol.

The nipa palm flourishes in the tidal marshes and on the submerged banks of bays and estuaries from West Bengal through Burma, Malaysia to northern Australia. There are extensive stands in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia.

Nipa sap contains about 15 percent sugar, which can be collected from the mature fruit stalk after the fruit head has been cut off. Carefully done, tapping can continue for an extended period and considerable quantities of sap can be harvested. Pratt et al. (1913) report yields of 40 liters per tree per season, which they project as 30,000 liters of juice per hectare each year. Cultivated palms may produce as much as 0.46 liters of sap per tree each day, which is equivalent to nearly 8,000 liters of alcohol per hectare each year.

Because of the presence of wild yeasts, the sap begins to ferment as soon as it is tapped; if it is not used quickly, fermentation will proceed to acetic acid. The principal disadvantages for nipa the inaccessibility of its wild stands and the difficulty of working in the swampy terrain that the plant prefers. Cultivated stands may require land that would otherwise be suitable for rice.

Gaseous fuels

Although grown primarily for use as fodder, kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been shown to have potential as an energy crop by researchers at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology in Pakistan. As shown in Table 10, when kallar grass is used as a substrate for biogas production, the energy yield per hectare per year is estimated to be 15 x 1000000 kcal.

References and selected readings

General

Adappa, B. S. 1986. Waste land development for bioenergy need for forestry grant schemes and incentive policies. MYFOREST 22(4):227-231.
Ahmad, R. 1987. Saline Agriculture at Coastal Sandy Belt. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
Barrett-Lennard, E. G., C. V. Malcolm, W. R. Stern and S. M. Wilkins (eds.). 1986. Forage and Fuel Production from Salt Affected Wasteland. Elsevier, Oxford, England. (Also published as Volume 5, No. 1-3, 1986, of Reclamation and Revegetation Research).
Bangash, S. H. 1977. Salt tolerance of forest tree species as determined by germination of seeds at different salinity levels. Chemistry Branch, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Chaturvedi, A. N. 1984. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water. Indian Forester 110(4):364-366.
Goodin, J. R. 1984. Assessment of the Potential of Halophytes as Energy Crops for the Electric Utility Industry (Final Report). International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Lubbock, Texas, US.
Gupta, G. N., K. G. Prasad, S. Mohan and P. Manivachakam. 1986. Salt tolerance of some tree species at seedling stage. Indian Forester 112(2):101-113.
Jambulingam, R. and E:. C. M. Fernandes. 1986. Multipurpose trees and shrubs on farmlands in Tamil Nadu State (India). Agroforestry Systems 4:17-32.
Le Houerou, H. N. 1986. Salt-tolerant plants of economic value in the Mediterranean basin. Reclamation and Revegetation Research 5:319-341.
Lima, P. C. F. 1986. Tree productivity in the semiarid zone of Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 16:5-13.
Malik, M. N. and M. I. Sheikh. 1983. Planting of trees in saline and waterlogged areas. Part I. Test planting at Azakhel. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 33(1):1-17.
Menninger, E. A. 1964. Seaside of the World Hearthside Press, Great Neck, New York, US.
Midgley, S. J., J. W. Turnbull and V. J. Hartney. 1986. Fuel-wood species for salt affected sites. Reclamation and Revegetation Research 5:285-303.
Morris, J. D. 1983. The role of trees in dryland salinity control. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 95(3):123-131.
Morris, J. D. 1984. Establishment of trees and shrubs on a saline site using drip irrigation. Australian Forestry 47(4):210-217.
Negus, T. R. 1984. Trees for saltland. Farmnote 67/84. Western Australian Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia.
O'Leary J. W. 1979. The yield potential of halophytes and xerophytes. Pp. 574-581 in: J. R.
Goodin and D. K. Northington (eds.) Arid Land Plant Resources. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, US.
Patel, V. J. 1987. Prospects for power generation from waste land in India. Appropriate Technology 13(4):18-20.
Sheikh, M. 1. 1974. Afforestation in waterlogged and saline areas. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 24(2):186-192.
Van Epps, G. A. 1982 Energy biomass from large rangeland shrubs in the Intermountain United States. Journal of Range Management 35(1):22-25.
Yadav, J. S. P. 1980. Potentialities of salt-affected soils for growing trees and forage plants. Indian Journal of Range Management 1:33-44.

Fuelwood Trees

Prosopis

Almanza, S. G. and E. G. Moya. 1986. The uses of mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the highlands of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 16:49-56,
Esbenshade, H. W. 1980. Kiawe (Prosopis pallida): a tree crop in Hawaii. International Tree Crops Journal 1(2/3):125-130.
Felker, P., G. H. Cannell and J. F. Osborn. 1983. Effects of irrigation on biomass production of 32 prosopis (mesquite) accessions. Experimental Agriculture 19(2):187-198.
Felker, P., P. R. Clark, A. E. Laag and P. F. Pratt. 1981. Salinity tolerance of the tree legumes mesquite (prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana, P. velutina and P. articulata), algarrobo (P. chilensis), kiawe (P. pallida) and tamarugo (P. tamarugo) grown in sand culture on nitrogen-free media. Plant and Soil 61(3):311-317.
Khan, D., R. Ahmad and S. Ismail. 1986. Case history of Prosopis juliflora plantation at Makran coast raised through saline water irrigation. Pp. 559-585 in: R. Ahmad and A. San
Pietro (eds.) Prospects for Biosaline Research University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan,.
Marmillon,E. 1986. Management of algarrobo (Prosopis alba, Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa, and Prosopis nigra) in the semiarid regions of Argentina. Forest Ecology and Management 16:33-40.
Muthana, K. D. ant B. L. Jain. 1984. Use of saline water for raising tree seedlings (Pro&opt& juliflora, Leuceana leucocephala). Indian Farming 34(2):37-38.
Rhodes, D. and P. Felker. 1988. Mass screening of Prosopis (Mesquite) seedlings for growth at seawater concentrations. Forest Ecology and Management 24(3):169-176.

Eucalyptus

Biddiscombe, E. F., A. L. Rogers, E. A. N. Greenwood and E. S. DeBoer. 1981. Establishment and early growth of species in farm plantations near saline seeps. Australian Journal of Ecology 6:383-389.
Biddiscombe, E. F., A. L. Rogers, E. A. N. Greenwood and E. S. DeBoer. 1985. Growth of tree species near salt seeps, as estimated by leaf area, crown volume and height. Australian Forest Research 15(2):141-154.
Blake, T. J. 1981. Salt tolerance of eucalypt species grown in saline solution culture. Australian Forest Research 11(2):179-183.
Carr, S. G. M. and D. J. Carr. 1980. A new species of Eucalyptus from the margins of salt lakes in Western Australia. Nuytsia 3:173-178.
Chippendale, G. M. 1973. Eucalypts of the Western Australian Goldfieids. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia.
Darrow, W. K. 1983. Provenance-type trials of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis in South Africa and Southwest Africa: eight-year results. South African Forestry Journal 124(3):13-22.
Grunwald, C. and R. Karshon 1983. Variation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis from North Australia grown in Israel. Division of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel.
Jacobs, M. R. 1981. Eucalypts for Planting. FAO Forestry Series No. 11, Rome, Italy.
Karschon, R. and Y. Zohar. 1975. Effects of flooding and of irrigation water salinity on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. from three seed sources. Leaflet No. 54, Division of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel.
Mathur, N. K. and A. K. Sharma. 1984. Eucalyptus in reclamation saline and alkaline soils in India. Indian Forester 110(1):9-15.
Muthana, K. D., G. V. S. Ramakrishna and G. D. Arora. 1983. Analysis of growth and establishment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in the Indian arid zone. Annals of Arid Zone Research 22(1):151-155.
Sands, R. 1981. Salt resistance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. from three different seed sources. Division of Soils, CSIRO, Glen Osmond, Australia.
Zohar, Y. 1982. Growth of eucalypts on saline soils in the Wadi Arava. La - Yaaran 32(1-4):60-64.

Casuarina

Ng, B. H. 1987. The effects of salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of Casuarina equisetifolia. Plant and Sod 103:123-125.
Turnbull, J. W. 1986. Casuarina obesa Pp. 244-245 in: Multipurpose Australian Trees and Shrub,. Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. van der Moezel, P. G., L. E. Watson, G. V. N. Pearce-Pinto and D. T. Bell. 1988. The response of six Eucalyptus species and (Casuarina obesa to the combined effect of salinity and waterlogging. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 15(3):465-474.

Rhizophora

Bunt, J. S., W. T. Williams ant H. J. Clay. 1982. River water salinity and the distribution of mangrove species along several rivers in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Botany 30(4):401-412.
Chan, H. T. 1987. Mangrove forest management in the ASEAN region. Tropical Coastal Area Management 2(3):6-8.
Chan, H. T. and S. M. Nor. 1987. Traditional Uses of the Mangrove Ecosystem in Malaysia. UNDP/UNESCO Regional Mangrove Project, New Delhi, India. de la Cruz, A. A. 1980. Status of mangrove management in Southeast Asia. BIOTROP 1980:11-17. Bogor, Indonesia.
Gordon, D. M. 1988. Disturbance to mangroves in tropical-arid Western Australia: hypersalinity and restricted tidal exchange as factors leading to mortality. Journal of Arid Environnents 15(2):117-146.
Fortes, M. D. 1988. Mangrove and seagrass beds of East Asia: habitats under stress AMBIO 17(3):207-213.
Khan, Z. H. 1977. Management of the principal littoral tree species of the Sundarbans. Forest Research Institute, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Morton, J. F. 1976. Craft industries from coastal wetland vegetation. Pp. 254-266 in: M. Wiley (ed.) Estuarine Processes Vol.1. Academic Press, New York, New York, US.
Rutzler, K. and C. Feller. 1988. Mangrove swamp communities. Oceanus 30(4):16-34.
Snedaker, S. C. and J. G. Snedaker (eds.). 1984. The Mangrove Ecosystem. Unipub, New York, New York, US.
Teas, H. J. (ed.). 1984. Physiology and Management of Mangroves. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands.
Tomlinson, P. B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New Rochelle, New York, US.

Melaleuca

Cherrier, J. F. 1981. The niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) in New Caledonia. Revue Forestiere Francaise 33(4):297-311. van der Moezel, P.G. and D. T. Bell. 1987. Comparative seedling salt tolerance of several Eucalyptus and Melaleuca species from Western Australia. Australian Forestry Research 17:151-158.
Morton, J. F. 1966. The cajeput tree: a boon and an affliction. Economic Botany 20:31-39.
Wang, S., J. B. Huffman and R. C. Littel. 1981. Characterization of melaleuca biomass as a fuel for direct combustion. Wood Science 13(4):216-219.

Tamarix

Garrett, D. E. 1979. Investigation of Woody Biomass for Fuel Production in Warm Climate, Non-Agricultural Land Irrigated with Brackish or Saline Water. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, US.
Singh, B. and S. D. Khanduja. 1984. Wood properties of some firewood shrubs in northern India (Tamarix dioca, Carissa spinarum, Acacia calycina, Adhatoda vasica, Dedonia viscosa). Biomass 4(3):235-238.

Acacia

Turnbull, J. W. (ed.). 1986. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16, Canberra, Australia.

Adhatoda vasica

Chaturvedi, A. N. 1984. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water. Indian Forester 110(4):364-366.
Singh, A., M. Madan and P. Vasudevan. 1987. Increasing biomass yields of hardy weeds through coppicing studies on Ipomoea fistulosa and Adhatoda vasica with reference to wasteland utilization. Biological Wastes 19:25-33.

Pongamia pinnata

Krishnamurthi, A. (ed.). 1969. Pongamia. Wealth of India VIII:206-211. CSIR, New Delhi, India.
Lakshmikanthan, V. 1978. Tree Borne Oil Seeds Khadi &Village Industry Commission, Pune, India.
Bringi, N. V. and S. K. Mukerjee. 1987. Karanja seed oil. Pp. 143-166 in: N. V. Bringi (ed.) Non-Traditional Oilseeds and Oils of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India.

Butea monosperma

Manjunath, B. L. (ed.). 1948. Butea. Wealth of India 1:251-252. CSIR, New Delhi, India.
Lakshmikanthan, V. 1978. Tree Borne Oil Seeds. Khadi & Village Industry Commission, Pune, India.

Pithecellobium dulce

Krishnamurthi, A. (ed.). 1969. Pithecellobium. Wealth of India VIII:140-142. CSIR, New Delhi, India.

Nipa Palm

Davis, T. A. 1986. Nipa palm in Indonesia, a source of unlimited food and energy. Indonesian Agricultural Research &Development Journal 8(2):38-44.
Hamilton, L. S. and D. H. Murphy. 1988. Use and management of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans, Arecacae): A review. Economic Botany 42:206-213.
Paivoke, A. E. A. 1984. Tapping patterns in the nipa palm. Principes 28:132-137.
Pratt, D. S., L. W. Thurlow, R. R. Williams and H. D. Gibbs. 1913. The nipa palm as a commercial source of sugar. The Philippine Journal of Science 8(6) :377-398.

Kallar Grass

Malik, K. A., Z. Aslam and M. Naqvi. 1986. Kallar Gras, - A Plant for Saline Land Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Research contacts

General

Rafiq Ahmad, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan.
A. N. Chaturvedi, Conservator of Forests, Research and Development Circle, Lucknow, India.
G. N. Gupta, Forest Soil cum Vegetation Survey, Southern Region, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
P. C. F. Lima, EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Cx.P. 23, 56300 Petrolina PE, Brazil.
J. D. Morris, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, GPO Box 4018, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
David N. Sen, Department of Botany, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur 342001, India.
Lex Thomson, Tree Seed Centre, CSIRO, PO Box 4008, Queen Victoria Terrace, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.
M. I. Sheikh, Forestry Research Division, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.
J. S. P. Yadav, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132 001, India.

Prosopis

Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Av. Gen. San Martin 1371, CP 1022, Bonji, Recife, PE, Brazil.
Peter Felker, Center for Semi-Arid Forest Resources, Texas A&I University, Kingsville, TX 78363, US.
F. Squella, Estacion Experimental La Platina, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), PO Box 5427, Santiago, Chile.
Holger Stienen, Center for International Development and Migration, Bettinastri 62, 6000 Frankfurt, FRG.
D. Khan, Shoaib Ismail, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan.

Eucalyptus

E. A. N. Greenwood, Division of Water Resources, CSIRO, Private Bag, Wembley, W. A. 6014, Australia.
N. K. Mathur, Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehra Dun, India.
K. D. Muthana, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodphur 342 003, India.
Paul G. van der Moezel, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia.
Yehiel Zohar, Department of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot 42805, Israel.

Casuarina

M. H. El-Lakany, Desert Development Center, American University in Cairo, 113 Sharia Kasr el Aini) Cairo, Egypt.
S. J. Midsley, Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, PO Box 4008, Queen Victoria Terrace, Canberra, ACT, 2600, Australia.
B. H. Ng, Botany Department, University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4067, Australia.
Paul G. van der Moezel, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia.

Rhizophora

John S. Bunt, Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville M.C., Queensland 4810, Australia.
Chan Hung Tuck, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia.
A. A. de la Cruz, Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, US.
Francis E. Putz, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, US.
Klaus Rutzler, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, US.
UNDP/UNESCO Regional Mangroves Project, 15, Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110003, India.

Melaleuca

J. F. Morton, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, US.
Paul G. van der Moezel, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia.

Tamarix

Chihuahua Desert Research Institute, PO Box 1334, Alpine, TX 79830, US.

Acacia

Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, PO Box 4008, Canberra 2600, Australia. Forestry Division, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel.

Nipa Palm

T. A. Davis, JBS Haldane Research Center, Nagercoil-4, Tamil Nadu, India.
L. S. Hamilton, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848, US.
E. J. Del Rosario, BIOTECH, UPLB, Los Banos, Philippines.

Kallar Grass

K. A. Malik, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, PO Box 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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