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CLOSE THIS BOOKLost Crops of Africa: Volume 1 - Grains (BOSTID, 1996, 372 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTNotice
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPanel
VIEW THE DOCUMENTStaff
VIEW THE DOCUMENTContributors
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPreface
VIEW THE DOCUMENTForeword
VIEW THE DOCUMENTIntroduction
VIEW THE DOCUMENT1. African Rice
VIEW THE DOCUMENT2. Finger Millet
VIEW THE DOCUMENT3. Fonio (Acha)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT4. Pearl Millet
VIEW THE DOCUMENT5. Pearl Millet: Subsistence Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT6. Pearl Millet: Commercial Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT7. Sorghum
VIEW THE DOCUMENT8. Sorghum: Subsistence Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT9. Sorghum: Commercial Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT10. Sorghum: Specialty Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT11. Sorghum: Fuel and Utility Types
VIEW THE DOCUMENT12. Tef
VIEW THE DOCUMENT13. Other Cultivated Grains
VIEW THE DOCUMENT14. Wild Grains
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix A
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix B
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix C
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix D
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix E
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix F
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix G
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix H
VIEW THE DOCUMENTAppendix I
VIEW THE DOCUMENTThe BOSTID Innovation Program

Appendix F

References and Selected Readings

AFRICAN RICE

Buddenhagen, I.W. and G.J.Persley, eds. 1978. Rice in Africa: Proceedings of a Conference Held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, 7-11 March 1977. Academic Press, New York. 356 pp.
Carney, J.A. 1993. From hands to tutors: African expertise in the South Carolina rice economy. Agricultural History 67(3):1-30.
Clayton, W.D. 1968. West African wild rice. Kew, Bulletin 21:487-488.
Clement, G. and K. Goli. 1987. Yield capacity of Oryza glaberrima as an upland crop. L'Agronomie Tropicale 42(4):275-279.
Fatokun, C.A., A.F. Attere, and H.R. Chheda. 1986. Variation in inflorescence characteristics of African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Beitraefe zur Tropischen Lundwirtschaft und Veterinaermedizin 24(2):153-159.
Ghesquiere, A. 1985. Evolution of Oryza longistaminata. Pp. 15-25 in Rice Genetics. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos.
Jusu, M.S. and S.S. Monde. 1990. Panicle and grain characters of some glaberrima cultivars in Sierra Leone. International Rice Research Newsletter 15(3):5-6.
Leung, Woot-tseun, W., F. Busson, and C. Jardin. 1968. Food Composition Table for Use in Africa. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Bethesda Maryland.
Miezan, K. M.A. Choudhury, A. Ghesquiere, and G. Koffi. 1986. The use of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima in West African farming systems. Pp. 213-218 in Progress in Upland Rice Research. Second International Upland Rice Conference, Jakarta, Indonesia, March 4-8, 1985, IRRI, Manila.
Morishima, H. and H.l. Oka. 1979. Genetic diversity in rice populations of Nigeria: influence of community structure. Agro-Ecosystems 5:263-269.
Netting, R. McC., D. Cleveland, and F. Stier. 1980. The conditions of agricultural intensification in the West African Savannah. Pages 187-505 in S.P. Reyna, ea., Sahelian Social Development. USAID, Abidjan. (especially the section entitled "Interior Niger Delta of Mali")
Ogbe, F.M.D. 1993. Lost crops of Nigeria: West African rice. Pp. 71-94 in J.A. Okojie and D.U.U. Okali, eds., Lost Crops of Nigeria: Implications for Food Security. Conference Proceedings Series No. 3. University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Ogbe, F.M.D. and J.T. Williams. 1978. Evolution in indigenous West African rice. Economic Botany 32( 1):59-64.
Oka, H.I. 1975. Mortality and adaptive mechanisms of Oryza perennis strains. Evolution 30:380392.
Oka H.I. 1977. Genetic variations of Oryza glaberrima: their survey and evaluation. Pp. 77-86 in I RAT [lnstitut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des cultures vivrieres] - ORSTOM [Institute Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation de Montpellier] Meeting on Africa Rice Species. Paris, 25-26 January 1977. IRAT-ORSTOM, Paris.
Oka, H.I. 1988. Origin of cultivated rice. In Developments in Crop Science 14. Japan Scientific Societies Press. Tokyo Elsevier, Amsterdam. 254 pages.
Pernes, J. 1984. Les riz. In Gestion des Ressources Genetiques des Plantes. Volume I, Monographies (212 pp.). Volume 2, Manuel (346 pp.). Technique et documentation. Available from Lavoisier, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris cedex 08, France.
Porteres, R. 1956. Taxonomie agrobotanique des riz cultives O. sativa Linne et O. glaberrima Steudel. Compilations d'articles du JATBA. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Porteres, R. 1956. Journal d'Agriculture Tropical et de Botanique Appliques 3:341, 541, 627, 821. Richards, P. 1986. Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in a West African Rice-Farming System. Allen and Unwin, London.
Sano, Y., T. Fujii, S. Iyama, Y. Hirota, and K. Komagata. 1981. Nitrogen fixation bacteria in the rhizosphere of cultivated and wild rice strains Oryza glaberrima, Oryza perennis, Oryza punctata. Crop Science 21(5):758-761.
Sano, Y.. R. Sano, and H. Morishima. 1984. Neighbour effects between two co-occurring rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Journal of Applied Ecology 21:245-254.
Schreurs, W. 1988. Les experiences en riz flottant dur project FENU a Tombouctou. FENU MLI/ 83/006, FAO. PNUD MLI/84/009, Tombouctou. (Copies available from author, see Appendix G.)
Thom, D.J. and J.C. Wells. 1987. Farming systems in the Niger inland delta, Mali. The Geographic Review 77(3):328-342.
Toure, A.l., M.A. Choudhury, M. Goita. S. Koli, and G.A. Paku. 1982. Grain yield and yield components of deep water rice in West Africa. Pp. 103-112 in Proceedings of the /98/ International Deepwater Rice Worlkshop, Bangkhen, Thailand. IRRI, Laguna, Philippines.
Treca, B. 1987. Bird damage in floating rice in Mali. Journal d'Agriculture Traditionnelle et de Botanique Appliques 34: 153-170.
Vallee, G. and H.H. Vuong. 1978. Floating rice in Mali. In l.W. Buddenhagen and G.J. Persley, eds., Rice in Africa. Academic Press, London.
Yabuno, T. 1981. The transfer of a gene for glutinous endosperm to Oryza glaberrima Steud. from a japonica variety of Oryza sativa L. Euphytica 30(3):867-873.

FINGER MILLET

Appa Rao, S., L.R. House. and S.C. Gupta. 1989. Review of Sorghum, Pearl Millet, and Finger Millet Improvement in SADCC/Souther nAfrica Development Coordination Council] Countries. SACCAR/International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. 170 pp.
Barbeau, W.E. and K.W. Hilu. 1993. Protein, calcium, iron, and amino acid content of selected wild and domesticated cultivars of finger millet. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 43(2):97104.
Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes, and M. Worede, eds. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 383 pp.
Flack, E.N., W. Quak, and A. von Diest. 1987. A comparison of the rock phosphate mobilizing capacities of various crop species. Tropical Agriculture (UK) 64(4):347-352.
Gupta, S.C. and J.N. Mushonga. 1994. Registration of' 'SDEY 87001' finger millet. Crop Science 34(2):536.
Hiremath, S.C. and S.S. Salimath. 1992. The 'A' genome donor of Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn. (Gramineae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 84(5/6):747-754.
Kono, Y., A. Yamauchi, T. Nonoyama, and J. Tatsumi. 1988. Comparison of growth responses of summer cereals with special reference to waterlogging and rooting ability. Japanese Joarnal of Crop Science 57(2):321-331.
Marathee, J.P. Structure & characteristics of world millet economy. 1993. Pp. 159-178 in K.W. Riley, S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, and J.N. Mushonga, eds., Advances in Small Millets. Proceedings of an International Development Research Centre/lCRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House New Delhi.
Mtebe, K., B.K. Ndabikunze N.T.A. Bangu, and E. Mwemezi. 1993. Effect of cereal germination on the energy density of togwa. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 44(3):175180.
Pius, J., L. George, S. Eapen. and P.S. Rao. 1994. Evaluation of somaclonal and mutagen induced variation in finger millet. Plant Breeding 112(3):239-243.
Purseglove, J.W. 1972. Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Volumes I and 11. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, Essex UK John Wiley, New York. 607 pp.
Rachie , K.O. and L. V. Peters. 1977. The Eleusines: A Review of the World Literature. ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. 179 pp.
Rai, R. 1991. Isolation, characterization and associative N-fixation of acid-tolerant Azospirillum brasilense strains associated with Eleusine coracana in low pH-Al-rich acid soil. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences 45:663-671.
Riley, K.W., S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, and J.N. Mushonga, eds. 1993. Advances in Small Millets. Proceedings of an International Development Research Centre (IDRC)/ICRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House, New Delhi.
Seetharam, A., K.W. Riley, and G. Harinarayana, eds. 1989. Small Millets Global Agriculture: Proceedings of the First International Small Millets Workshop, Bangalore, India, October 29-November 2, 1986. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi. 392 pp.
Serna-Saldivar, S.O., C.M. McDonough, and L.W. Rooney. 1990. The millets. Pp. 271-300 in K.J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds., Handbook of Cereal Science and TechnologY. Dekker, New York.
Shankara, R., N.G. Malleshi, H. Krishnamurthy, M.N. Narayana, and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1985. Development of mini grain mill for dehusking and grinding of cereals. Journal of Food Science Technology 22:91.
Somasekhara, Y.M., S. Viswanath, T.B. Anilkumar. 1991. Evaluation of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] cultivars for their reactions to blast (Pyricudaria Elisha Sacc.). Tropical Agriculture 68(3):231-234.
Somasekhara, Y.M., S. Viswanath, and T.B. Anilkumar. 1992. Screening of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) cultivars for multiple disease resistance. Tmpical Agriculture 69(3):293-295.
Tewari, L., B.N. Johri, and S.M. Tandon. 1993. Host genotype dependency and growth enhancing ability of VA-mycorrhizal fungi for Eleusine coracana (finger millet).[World] Jurnal of Microbial Biotechnoloqy 9(2):191-195.
Vittal, K.P.R., K. Vijayalakshmi, and U.M. Bhaskara Rao. 1991. Effects of topsoil, rainfall, and fertilizer on finger millet on an alfisol in India. Soil Science 152(1):3-6.

FONIO (Ache)

Baptist, N.G. and B.P.M. Perera. 1956. Essential amino-acids of some tropical cereal millets. British Journal of Nutrition )0:334-337.
Busson, F. 1965. Plantes Alimentaires de l'Ouest Africain: Etude Botanique, Biologique et Chimique Les Presses de l'lmprimerie Leconte, Marseilles.
Carbiener, R., P. Jaeger, and F. Busson. 1960. Study of the protein fraction of fonio grain. Digitaria exilis (Kippist), Stapf., a protein exceptionally rich in methionine. Ann. Natrit. Alimentation Mem. 14:165-169.
De Lumen, B.O., R. Becker, and P.S. Reyes. 1986. Legumes and a cereal with high methionine/ cysteine contents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 34(2):361-364.
De Lumen, B.O., S. Thompson, and W.J. Odegard. 1993. Sulfur amino acid-rich proteins in ache (Digitaria exilis), a promising underutilized African cereal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41(7):1045-1047.
Gbodi, T.A., N. Nwude, Y.O. Aliu, and C.O. Ikediobi. 1986. The mycoflora and some mycotoxins found in ache (Digitaria exilis Stapf.) in Plateau State, Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24(4):339-342.
Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, and A.B.L. Stemler. 1976. Origins of African Plant Domestication. Mouton Publishers, The Hague. 498 pp.
Jideani, I.A. 1990. Acha, Digitaria exilis, the neglected cereal. Agriculture International 42(5):132134.
Jideani, I.A. and J.O. Akingbala. 1993. Some physicochemical properties of ache (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (Digitaria iburua Stapf) grains. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 63(3):369-374.
Oyenuga, V.A. 1968. Nigeria's Foods and Feeding Stuffs (Their Chemistry and Nutritive Value (third ea., rev.). Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. 99 pp.
Oyewole O.B. and J.O. Akingbala. 1993. "Ache" (Digitaria exilis): a little known cereal with high potential. Pp. 323-326 in J.A. Okojie and D.U.U. Okali, eds., Lost Crops of Nigeria:Implications for Food Security. Conference Proceedings Series No. 3. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Porteres, R. 1955. Les cereales mineures du genre Digitaria en Afrique et en Europe.
Journal d'Agriculture Tropical et de Botanique Applique 2:349-386, 477-510, 620-675.
Riley, K.W., S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, J.N. Mushonga, eds. 1993. Advances in Small Millets. Proceedings of an IDRC/ICRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House, New Delhi.
Temple, V.J. and J.D. Bassa. 1991. Proximate chemical composition of Acha (Digitaria exilis) grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 56(4):561-563.
PEARL MILLET Andrews, D.J. 1974. Responses of sorghum varieties to intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 1 0:57-63.
Andrews, D.J. and P.J. Bramel-Cox. In press. Breeding varieties for sustainable crop production in low input dryland agriculture in the tropics. Pages 211-223 in D.R. Buxton et al., eds. International Crop Science 1. Proceedings of a Conference, Ames, Iowa, July 1993. CSSA, Madison, Wisconsin.
Andrews, D.J. and K.A. Kumar. 1992. Pearl millet for food, feed and forage. Advances in Agronomy 48:90-139.
Andrews, D.J., J.F. Rajewski, and K.A. Kumar. 1993. Pearl millet: a new feed grain crop. Pp. 198208 in J. Janick and J.E. Simon, eds.. New Crops. Purdue University Press, Lafayette, Indiana.
Annegers, J.F. 1973. Ecology of dietary patterns and nutritional status in West Africa 1: distribution of starchy staples. Ecology of Food Nutrition 2(2):107-119.
Annegers, J.F. 1973. The protein-calorie ratio of West African diets and their relationship to protein calorie malnutrition. Ecology of Food Nutrition 2(3):22S-235.
Annegers, J.F. 1973. Seasonal foods shortages in West Africa. Ecology of Food Nutrition 2(4):251257.
Annegers, J.F. 1974. Protein quality of West African foods. Ecology of Food Nutrition 3(2):125130.
Appa Rao, S. 1987. Traditional food preparations of pearl millet in Asia and Africa. In J.R. Witcombe and S.R. Beckerman, eds., Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop, 7-11 April, 1986. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Appa Rao, S., M.H. Mengesha, and V. Subramanian. 1982. Collection and preliminary evaluation of sweet-stalk pearl millet (Pennisetum). Economic Botany 36:286-290.
Badi, S., B. Pedersen, L. Manowar, and B.O. Eggum. 1990. The nutritive value of new and traditional sorghum and millet foods from Sudan. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 40:5-19.
Bationo, A., C.B. Christianson. and W.E. Baethgen. 1990. Plant density and nitrogen fertilizer effects on pearl millet production in Niger. Agronomy Journal 82(2):290-295.
Bationo, A., C.B. Christianson, and M.C. Klaij. 1993. The effect of crop residue and fertilizer use on pearl millet yields on Niger. Fertilizer Research 34(3):251-258.
Brunken, J.N., J.M.J. de Wet, and J.R. Harlan. 1977. The morphology and domestication of pearl millet. Economic Botany 31:163-174.
Bunting, A.H. 1984. Advancing agricultural production in Africa: a personal review. Pages 435-445 in D.L. Hawksworth, ea., Advancing Agricultural Production in Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK.
Burton, C.W. and J.B. Powell. 1968. Pearl millet breeding and cytogenetics. Advances in Agronomy 20:49-89.
Burton, G.W., W.W. Hanna, J.C. Johnson, Jr., D.B. Lenck, W.G. Monson, J.B. Powell, H.D.
Wells, and N.W. Widstrom. 1977. Pleiotropic effects of the tr trichomology gene in pearl millet on transpiration, forage quality and pest resistance. Crop Science 17:613-616.
Burton, G.W. and B.K. Werner. 1991. Genetic markers to locate and transfer heterotic chromosome blocks for increased pearl millet yields. Crop Science 31(3):576-579.
Buxton, D.R. et al., eds. In press. International Crop Science 1. Proceedings of a Conference, Ames, Iowa, July 1993. CSSA, Madison, Wisconsin. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). 1966. The Wealth of India (volume 8). Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR. New Delhi.
Curtis, D.L., G.W. Burton, and O.J. Webster. 1966. Carotenoids in pearl millet seed. Crop Science 6:300-301. (vitamin-A millets) Geiger, S.C., A. Manu, and A. Bationo. 1992. Changes in a sandy Sahelian soil following crop residue and fertilizer additions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56(1):172-177.
Hamon, S. 1993. Le mil en Afrique. Proceedings of a meeting on millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), Montpellier, France, 24-26 November, 1992. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpe en Cooperation (ORSTOM), Montpellier. 283 pp.
Hanna, W.W. 1987. Utilization of wild relatives of pearl millet. In J.R. Witcombe and S.R. Beckerman, eds., Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop, 7-11 April, 1986. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Hanna W.W. 1990. Transfer of germ plasm from the secondary to the primary gene pool in Pennisetum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 80(2):200-204.
Hill, G.M. and W.W. Hanna. 1990. Nutritive characteristics of pearl millet grain in beef cattle diets. Journal of Animal Science 68:2061-2066.
Hoseney, R.C. and E. Varriano-Marston. 1979. Pearl millet: its chemistry and utilization. Pages 461-494 in Cereals for Food and Beverages, G.E. Inglett and L. Munck, eds. Academic Press, New York.
Hoseney, R.C., D.l. Andrews, and H. Clark. 1987. Sorghum and pearl millet. Pages 397-456 in Nutritional Quality of Cereal Grains: Genetic and Agronomic Improvement. Agronomy Monograph No. 28. CSSA, 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711.
Hoseney, R.C., E. Varriano-Marston, and D.A.V. Dendy. 1981. Sorghum and millets: anatomy, composition, milling. Pp. 71-144 in Y. Pomeranz, ea., Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Volume IV. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), St. Paul, Minnesota.
Howarth, C.J. 1990. Heat shock proteins in sorghum and pearl millet; ethanol, sodium arsenite, sodium malonate and the development of thermotolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 41(228):877-883.
Hulse, J.H., E.M. Laing, and O.K. Pearson. 1980. Sorghum and Millets: Their Composition and Nutritive Value. Academic Press, New York. 997 pp. International Sorghum/Millet (INTSORMIL) Collaborative Research Support
Program/ICRISAT. 1987. Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop. ICRISAT, Patancheru. 278 pp.
INTSORMIL. 1990. Annual Report 1990. INTSORMIL, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 246 pp.
INTSORMIL. 1991. Annual Report 1991. INTSORMIL, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 256 pp.
Kumar, K.A. 1989. Pearl millet: current status and future potential. Outlook on Agriculture 18(2): 46-53.
Lambert, C. 1982. IRAT[Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des cultures vivrieres] et l'amelioration de milt Agronomie Tropical. 38:78-88.
Mahalakshmi, V., F.R. Bidinger, K.P. Rao, and D.S. Raju. 1992. Performance and stability of pearl millet topcross hybrids and their variety pollinators. Crop Science 32(4):928-932.
Marathee, J.P. Structure & characteristics of world millet economy. 1993. Pp. 159-178 in K.W. Riley, S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, and J.N. Mushonga, eds., Advances in Small Millets. Proceedings of an IDRC/ICRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House, New Delhi.
Matlon, P.J. 1990. Improving productivity in sorghum and pearl millet in semi-arid Africa. Food Research Institute Studies 22(1):1-43.
Mohammed, M.S. and M.D. Clegg. 1993. Pearl millet-soybean rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on millet productivity. Agronomy Journal 85(5):1009-1013.
Niangodo, O. and B. Ouendeba. 1987. Varietal improvement of pearl millet in West Africa. Pp. 95105 in J.R. Witcombe and S.R. Beckerman, eds., Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop, 7-11 April, 1986. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Obizoba, I.C. and J.V. Atii. 1994. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient contents of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 45(1):23-34.
Oendeba, B., G. Ejeta, W.E. Nyquist, W.W. Hanna, and A. Kumar. 1993. Heterosis and combining ability among African pearl millet landraces. Crop Science 33(4):735-739.
Pantulu, J.V. and M. Krishna Rao. 1982. Cytogenetics of pearl millet. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 61: 1-17.
Rachie, K.O. and J.V. Majmudar. 1980. Pearl Millet. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. 307 pp.
Read, J.C. and E.C. Bashaw. 1974. Intergeneric hybrid between pearl millet and buffelgrass. Crop Science 14:401-403.
Serna-Saldivar, S.O., C.M. McDonough, and L.W. Rooney. 1990. The millets. Pp. 271-300 in K.J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds., Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Dekker, New York.
Singh, P., Y. Singh, B.O. Eggum, K.A. Kumar, and D.J. Andrews. 1987. Nutritional evaluation of high protein genotypes in pearl millet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 38:4148.
Smith, R.L., L.S. Jensen, C.S. Hoveland, and W.W. Hanna. 1989. Use of pearl millet, sorghum, and triticale grain in broiler diets. Journal of Production Agriculture 2:78-82.
Tostain, S. 1992. Enzyme diversity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). 3. Wild millet. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 83(617):733-742.
PEARL MILLET, Subsistence Types International Development Research Centre (IDRC). 1979. Sorghum and Millet: Food Production and Use. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, July 4-7, 1978. S. Vogel and M. Graham, eds. Report No. IDRC-123e. IDRC, Ottawa, Canada Wendt, J.W., A. Berrada, M.G. Gaoh, and D.G. Schulze. 1993. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of productive and unproductive Niger soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57(3):766-773.
Zaongo, C.G.L., L.R. Hossner, and C.W. Wendt. 1994. Root distribution, water use, and nutrient uptake of millet and grain sorghum on West Africa soils. Sod Science 157(6):379-388.
PEARL MILLET, Commercial Types Bramel-Cox, P.J., K. Anandkumar, J.H. Hancock, and D.J. Andrews. In press. Sorghum and millets for forage and feed. In D.A.V. Dendy. ea., Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry and Technology. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
D.A.V. Dendy, ea., In press. Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry and Technology. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Hoseney, R.C. and E. Varriano-Marston. 1980. Pearl millet: its chemistry and utilization. Pp. 462494 in G.E. Inglett and L. Munck, eds. Cereals for Food and Beverages: Recent Progress in Cereal Chemistry and Technology. Proceedings of an international conference, August 13-17' 1979, Copenhagen, Denmark. Academic Press, New York.
Hoseney, R.C., E. Varriano-Marston, and D.A.V. Dendy. 1981. Sorghum and millets: anatomy composition, milling. Pp. 71-144 in Y. Pomeranz, ea., Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Volume IV. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Hulse, J.H., E.M. Laing, and O.K. Pearson. 1980. Sorghum and Millers: Their Composirion ahd Nutritive Value. Academic Press, New York. 997 pp.
Kumar, K.A., S.C. Gupta, and D.J. Andrews. 1983. Relationship between nutritional quality characters and grain yield in pearl millet. Crop Science 23:232-235.
Rachie, K.O. and J.C. Majmudar. 1980. Pearl Millet. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. 307 pp.

SORGHUM

A sorghum newsletter is sponsored by the Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America. For information on ordering, contact Ronny R. Duncan, Editor, Sorghum Newsletter, Department of Agron omy, University of Georgia, Georgia Station, Griffin, Georgia 30223 1797, USA.
Andrews, D.J. 1972. Intercropping with sorghum in Nigeria. Experimental Agriculture 8:139-150.
Andrews, D.J. 1974. Responses of sorghum varieties to intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 10:57-63.
Andrews, D.J. and P.J. Bramel-Cox. 1993. Breeding varieties for sustainable crop production in low input dryland agriculture in the tropics. Pages 211-223 in D.R. Buxton et al., eds. International Crop Science 1. Proceedings of a Conference, Ames, Iowa, July 1993. CSSA, Madison, Wisconsin.
Bramel-Cox, P.J., K. Anandkumar, J.H. Hancock, and D.J. Andrews. In press. Sorghum and millets for forage and feed. In D.A.V. Dendy, ea., Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry and Technology. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Brand, T.S., H.A. Badenhorst, and F.K. Siebrits. 1990. The use of pigs both intact and with ileorectal anastomosis to estimate the apparent and true digestibility of amino acids in untreated, heat-treated and thermal-ammoniated high-tannin grain sorghum. South African Journal of Animals Science 20(4):223-228.
Bunting, A.H. 1984. Advancing agricultural production in Africa: a personal review. Pages 435-445 in D.L. Hawksworth, ea., Advancing Agricultural Production, in Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal UK.
Buxton, D.R. et al., eds. In press. International Crop Science 1. Proceedings of a Conference, Ames, Iowa, July 1993. CSSA, Madison, Wisconsin. de Milliano, W.A.J., R.A. Frederiksen, and G.D. Bengston, eds. 1992. Sorghum and Millet Diseases: A Second World Review. ICRISAT, Patancheru. 370 pp.
Dendy, D.A.V., ed. In press. Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry and Technology AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
DeWalt, B.R. 1985. Mexico's second Green Revolution: food for feed. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 1(1):29-60.
Doggett, H. 1988. Sorghum. Longmans, London. 515 pp.
Doumbia, M.D., L.R. Hossner, and A.B. Onken. 1993. Variable sorghum growth in acid soils of subhumid West Africa. A/id Soil Research and Rehabilitation 7(4):335-346.
Eggum, B.O. 1990. Importance of sorghum as a food in Africa. Pp. 222-228 in G. Ejeta, E.T.
Mertz L. Rooney, R. Schaffert, and J. Yohe, eds., Sorghum Nutritional Quality: proceedings of a,; international conference held February 26-March 1, 1990. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Einhellig, F.A. and l.F. Souza. 1992. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain sorghum root exudates. Journal of Chemical Ecology 18(1):1-11.
Ejeta, G. 1983. Hybrid Sorghum Seed forSudan: Proceedings of a Workshop, November 5-8 1993 Gezira Research Station, Sudan. Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan.
Ejeta, G., E.T. Mertz, L. Rooney, R. Schaffert, and J. Yohe, eds. 1990. Sorghum Nutritional Quality: proceedings of an international conference held February 26-March 1, 1990. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes, and M. Worede, eds. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 383 pp.
House, L.R. 1985. A Guide to Sorghum Breeding. 2nd edition. ICRISAT, India. 238 pp.
Howarth, CJ. 1990. Heat shock proteins in sorghum and pearl millet; ethanol. sodium arsenite, sodium malonate and the development of thermotolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 41(228):877-883.
Hulse, J.H., E.M. Laing, and O.K. Pearson. 1980. Sorghum and the Millets: Their Composition and Nutritive Value. Academic Press, New York. 997 pp.
ICRISAT. 1982. Sorghum in the Eighties: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum. November 2-7 1981. Patancheru, A.P. India. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). 1976. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Sorghum and Millets Germplasm. Rome. Mimeo.
IDRC. 1979. Sorghum and Millet: Food Production and Use. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 4-7 July 1978. S. Vogel and M. Graham, eds. IDRC, Ontario, Canada.
IRAT. 1978. L'IRAT et l'amelioration due sorgho. Agronomic Tropicale 32:279-318.
INTSORMIL/ICRISAT. 1987. Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop.
ICRISAT, Patancheru. 278 pp.
Leng, E.R. 1982. Status of sorghum production as compared to other cereals. Pages 25-32 in Sorghum in the Eighties: Proceedings of the International Symposium On Sorghum.
November 2-7 1981. Patancheru, A.P. India. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Lopez-Pereira, M.A., et al. 1990. New agricultural technologies in Honduras: an economic evaluation of new sorghum cultivars in southern Honduras. Journal for Farming System Research and Extension 1(2):81-103.
Matlon, P.J. 1990. Improving productivity in sorghum and pearl millet in semi-arid Africa. Food Research Institute Studies 22(1):1-43.
Quinby, J.R. 1971. A Triumph of Research . . . Sorghum in Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 28 pp.
Quinby, J.R. 1974. Sorghum Improvement and the Genetics of Growth Texas A&M University Press. College Station Texas. 108 pp.
Rooney L.W., A.W. Kirleis, and D.S. Murty. 1986. Traditional foods from sorghum: their production, evaluation, and nutritional value. Pages 317-353 in Advances in Cereal Science and Technology volume 3. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Serna-Saldivar, S.O., C.M. McDonough, and L.W. Rooney. 1990. The millets. Pp. 271-300 in K.J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds., Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology . Dekker, New York.
Van de Venter, H.A. and W.H. Lock. 1992. An investigation of heat-shock and thermotolerance induction responses as indices of seed vigour in grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Plant Varieties and Seeds 5(1):13-18.
Wenzel, W.G. 1991. The inheritance of drought resistance characteristics in grain sorghum seedlings. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 8(4):169-171.
Zaongo, C.G.L., L.R. Hossner, and C.W. Wendt. 1994. Root distribution, water use, and nutrient uptake of millet and grain sorghum on West Africa soils. Soil Science 157(6):379-388.

SORGHUM, Subsistence Types

Carr S.J. 1989. Technology for Small-scale Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Technical Paper No. 109, World Bank, Washington, D.C. 106 pp.
DeWalt, B.R. 1985. Microcosmic and macrocosmic processes of agrarian change in southern Honduras: the cattle are eating the forests. Pages 165-185 in Micro and Macro Levels of Analysis in Anthropology: Issues in Theory and Research. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado and London. International Sorghum/Millet (INTSORMIL) Collaborative Research Support Program. 1990. Annual Report 1990. INTSORMIL, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 246 pp.
INTSORMIL. 1991. Annual Report 1991. INTSORMIL, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 256 pp.
Mukuru, S.Z. 1990. Traditional food grain processing methods in Africa. Pp. 216-221 in G.
Ejeta, E.T. Mertz, L. Rooney, R. Schaffert, and J. Yohe, eds., Sorghum Nutritional Quality: proceedings of an international conference held February 26-March 1, 1990. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Rao, N. G P. 1982. Transforming traditional sorghums in India. Pages 39-59 in sorghum in the Eighties: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum. November 2-7 1981. ICRISAT, Patancheru.

SORGHUM, Commercial Types

Bennett, W.F., B.B. Tucker. and A.B. Maunder. 1990. Modern Crain Sorghum Production. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 169 pp.
DeWalt, B.R. and D. Barkin. 1987. Seeds of change: the effects of hybrid sorghum and agricultural modernization in Mexico. Pages 138-161 in H.R. Bernard and P.J. Pelto, eds., Technology and Social Change, 2nd ed. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois. 393 pp.
Faure, J. 1988. Sorghum utilization in pasta production. Paper presented in the International Workshop on Policy and Potential Relating to Uses of Sorghum and Millets. June 8-12, 1988. SADCC/ICRISAT. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
ICRISAT. 1990. Industrial Utilization of Sorghum: Summary of a Symposium on the Current Status and Potential of Industrial Uses of Sorghum in Nigeria. December 4-6, 1989, Kano Nigeria. ICRISAT, Patancheru, andhra Pradesh, India. 59 pp.

SORGHUM, Specialty Types

Gupta, S.C., J.M.J. dewet, and J.R. Harlan. 1978. Morphology of Saccharam -Sorghum hybrid derivatives. American Journal of Botany 65:936-942. (sorghum relatives)
Gupta, S.C., J.R. Harlan, and J.M.J. dewet. 1978. Cytology and morphology of a tetraploid Sorghum population recovered from a Saccharum = Sorghum hybrid. Crop Science 18:879-883. (sorghum relatives)
Haggblade, S. and W.H. Holzapfel. 1989. Industrialization of Africa's indigenous beer brewing. Pages 191-283 in K.H. Steinkraus, ea., Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods, Dekker, New York. (beer sorghums)
Hahn, D.H., L.W. Rooney, and C.F. Earp. 1984. Tannins and phenols of sorghum. Cereal Foods World 29(12):776-779. (tannin-free sorghums)
Jabri. A., R. Chaussat. M. Jullien, and Y. le Deunff. 1989. Callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in leaf portions of three varieties of sorghum with and without tannins. Agronomie (France) 9(1):101-107. (tannin-free sorghums) Novellie, L. 1982. Fermented beverages. In L.W. Rooney and D.S. Murty, eds., Proceedings, International Grain Sorghum Qua/ity Workshop. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Novellie, L. and P. De Schaepdrijver. 1986. Modern developments in traditional African beers. Pages 73-157 in M.R. Adams, ea., Progress in Industrial Microbiology, Vol. 23, Elsevier, Amsterdam. (beer sorghums)
Thorat, S.S., P.N. Satwadhar, D.N. Kulkarni, S.D. Choudhari, and U.M. Ingle. 1990. Varietal differences in popping quality of sorghum grains. Journal of Maharashtra AgriculturalUniversities 15(2):173-175. (popping sorghums)

SORGHUM, Fuel and Utility Types

Clegg, M.D, H.J. Gorz, J. W. Maranville, and F.A. Haskins. 1986. Evaluation of agronomic and energy traits of Wray sweet sorghum and the N39x Wray hybrid. Energy Agriculture 6:49-54.
Coleman, O.H. 1970. Syrup and sugar from sweet sorghum. Page 438 in J.S. Wall and
W.M. Ross, eds., Sorghum Production and Utilization. Avi Publishing Company, Westport,,Connecticut.
Cundiff, J.S. and D.H. Vaughan 1986. Sweet sorghum for ethanol industry for the Piedmont. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 0096-6088, 86-9. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Gascho. G.J., R.L. Nichols, and T.P. Gaines. 1984. Growing sweet sorghum as a source of fermentable sugars for energy. Research Bulletin 315. University of Georgia Experiment Station, Athens, Georgia.
Gas Research Institute. 1982. SNC [synthetic natural gas] from land-based biomass: 1981 program final report. Gas Research Institute, 8600 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL 60631, USA. 111 pp.
Gibbons, W.R., C.A. Westby, and T.L. Dobbs. 1986. Intermediate-scale. semicontinuous solid phase fermentation process for production of fuel ethanol from sweet sorghum. Applied Environmental Microbiology 51 ( 1 ) :115-1 22.
Hills, F.J., R.T. Lewellen, and l.O. Skoyen. 1990. Sweet sorghum cultivars for alcohol production. Calfornia Agriculture 44(1):14-16.
Kapocsi, I., J. Lezanyi, and B. Kevacs. 1983. Utilization of sweet sorghum for alcohol production. Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Landwirtschaften 5:441-443.
Kresovich, S., R.E. McGee, L. Panella, A.A. Reilley,andF.R.Miller. 1987. Application of cell and tissue culture techniques for the genetic improvement of sorghum, Sorghum birolor (L.) Moench: progress and potential. Advances in Agronomy 41:147-170.
Kresovich, S. and D.M. Broadhead. 1988. Registration of 'Smith' sweet sorghum. Crop Science 28(1): 195.
Kresovich, S., F.R. Miller, R.L. Monk, R.E. Dominy, and D.M. Broadhead. 1988. Registration of' 'Grassl' sweet sorghum. Crop Science 28(1):194-195.
Lipinsky, E.S., D.R. Jackson, S. Kresovich, M.F. Arthur, and W.T. Lawhon. 1979. Carbohydrate Crops as a Renewable Resource for Fuels Production, Vol. 1: Agricultural research, Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio 43201, USA
Lueschen, W.E., D.H. Putnam, B.K. Kanne. and T.R. Hoverstad. 1991. Agronomic practices for production of ethanol from sweet sorghum. Journal of Production Agriculture 4(4):619-625.
McClure, T.A., M.F. Arthur, S. Kresovich, and D.A. Scantland. 1980. Sorghums - viable biomass candidates for fuel alcohol production. Volume 1, pp. 123-130 in Proceedings of the IV Internatlonal Symposium on Alcohol Fuels Technology, Guaruja, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 5-8 Oct. 1980 Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo .
Miller, F.R. and G.G. McBee. 1993. Genetics and management of physiologic systems of sorghum for biomass production. Pages 41-49 in Methane from Biomass: Science and Technology. Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 5, No.l. Pergamon Press, Ltd., Oxford.
Morris, D.J. and 1. Ahmed. 1992. The carbohydrate economy: making chemicals and industrial malerials from plant matter. Institute for Local Self Reliance, Washington, DC.
Rajvanshi A.K., R.M. Jorapur, and N. Nimbkar. 1989. VITA News, October. Pp. 7-8.
Ricaud, R. and A. Arceneaux. 1990. Sweet sorghum research on biomass and sugar production in 1990. Pp. 136-139 in Report of Projects, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Agronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Schaffert, R.E. 1988. Sweet sorghum substrate for industrial alcohol. Paper presented in the International Workshop on Policy and Potential Relating to Uses of Sorghum and Millets. June 8-12, 1988. SADCC/ICRISAT. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
Schaffert, R.E. and L.M. Gourley. 1982. Sorghum as an energy source. Pages 605-623 in Sorghum in the Eighties: Proceedings of the Intemational Symposium on Sorghum. November 2-7 1981. ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Smith, B.A. 1982. Sweet sorghum. Page 611 in l.A. Wolf, ea., CRC Handbook of Processing and Utilization in Agriculture. Volume 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Weitzel, T.T., J.S. Cundiff, and D.H. Vaughan. 1986. Improvement of juice expression after separation of sweet sorghum pith from rind leaf. American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Microfiche Collection No. 86-6579. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.

TEF

Ashenafi, M. 1994. Microbial fore and some chemical properties of ersho, a starter for teff (Eragrostis tef) fermentation. [World] Journal of Microbial Biotechnology 10(1):69-73.
Berhe, T., L.A. Nelson, M.R. Morris, and J.W. Schmidt. 1989. Inheritance of phenotypic traits in tef: I - lemma color, II - seed color, III -panicle form. Journal of Heredity 80:62-70.
Besrat, A., A. Admasu, and M. Ogbai. 1980. Critical study of the iron content of tef (Eragrostis tef). Ethiopian Medical Journal 18:45-52.
Cheverton, M.R. and N.W. Galwey. 1989. Ethiopian t'ef: a cereal confined to its centre of variability. Pages 235-238 in G.E. Wickens, N. Haq, and P. Day, eds., New Crops for Food and Industry. Chapman and Hall, London and New York.
FAO. 1988. Traditional Food Plants. Food and Nutrition Paper 42. FAO, Rome.
Huffragel, H.P. 1961. Agriculture in Ethiopia FAO, Rome. 484 pp.
Jones, G. 1988. Endemic crops plants of Ethiopia I: t'ef (Eragrostis tef). Walia 11:37-43.
Ketema, S. 1988. Status of small millets in Ethiopia and Africa. Pp. 6-15 in Small Millets:
Recommendations for a Network. Proceedings of the Small Millets Steering Committee
Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 7-9 October 1987. International Development Research
Centre, Ottawa.
Ketema, S. 1991. Germplasm evaluation and breeding work on teff (Eragrostis tef) in
Ethiopia. Pp. 323-328 in Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes, and M. Worede, eds. 1991. Plant
Cenetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 383 pp.
Lester, R.N. and E. Bekele. 1981. Amino acid composition of the cereal tef and related species of Eragrostis (Gramineae). Cereal Chemistry 58:113-115.
Mamo, T. and K.S. Kiliham. 1987. Effect of soil liming and vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal inoculation on the growth and micronutrient content of the teff plant. Plant and Soil 102:257259.
Mamo, T. and J.W. Parsons. 1987. Phosphorus~micronutrient interactions in teff(Eragrostis tef). Tropical Agriculture 64:309-312.
Mamo, T. and J.W. Parsons. 1987. Iron nutrition of Eragrostis tef (teff). Tropical Agriculture 64:313-317.
Marathee, J.P. Structure & characteristics of world millet economy. 1993. Pp. 159-178 in
K.W. Riley, S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, and J.N. Mushonga, eds., Advances in Small Millets.
Proceedings of an IDRC/ICRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House, New Delhi.
Osuji, P.O. and B. Capper. 1992. Effect of age on fattening and body condition of draught oxen fed teff straw (Eragrostis teff) based diets. Tropical Animal Health and Productlion 24(2):103-108.
Parker, M.L., M. Umeta, and R.M. Faulks. 1989. The contribution of flour components to the structure of injera, an Ethiopian fermented bread made from tef (Eragrostis tef). Journal of Cereal Science 10(2):93-104.
Riley, K.W., S.C. Gupta, A. Seetharam, J.N. Mushonga, eds. 1993. Advances in Small Millets. Proceedings of an IDRC/ICRISAT conference. Oxford International Book House, New Delhi.
Seetharam, A., K.W. Riley, and G. Harinarayana. 1989. Small Millets in Global Agriculture. IDRC, Ottawa. Canada. 392 pp.
Tadesse, E. 1969. T'ef (Eragrostis tef): cultivation, usage, and some of the known disease and insect pests, Part 1. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 60. College of Agriculture, Haile Sellasie I University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 56 pp.
Tadesse, E. 1975. T'ef (Eragrostis tef) cultivars: morphology and classification Part 11.Experiment Station Bulletin No. 66. College of Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 73 pp.
Tadesse, D. 1993. Study of genetic variation of landraces of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) in Ethiopia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 40(2):101-104.
Tefera, H., S. Ketema, and T. Tesemma. 1990. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) cultivars. Tropical Agriculture 67(4):317-320.
Twidwell, E.K., A. Boe, and D.P. Casper. 1991. Teff: a new annual forage grass for South
Dakota. Extension Extra 8071. South Dakota Cooperative Extension Service, Brookings, South Dakota.
Umeta, M. and R.M. Faulks. 1988. The effect of fermentation on the carbohydrates in tef (Eragrostis tef). Food Chemistry 27:181-189.
Westphal, E. and J.M.C. Westphal-Stevelsr 1975. Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia.
Agricultural Research Reports 82b. Puduc, Wageningen. 278 pp.
Wolde-Gebriel, Z. 1988. Nutrition. In Zein Ahmed Zein and Helmut Kloos, eds., The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia. Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa.

OTHER CULTIVATED GRAINS

General

Harlan, J.R. 1986. African Millets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome
Harlan, J.R. 1989. Wild grass seed harvesting in the Sahara and Sub-Sahara of Africa. In
Foraging and Farming: the Evolution of Plant Exploitation, D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman, eds. Unwind Hyman, London.

Emmer

Gasrataliev, G.S. 1982. Forms of T. dicoccum promising for southern Dagestan. Bulletin of the N.l. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry 118:5-6.
Hakim, S., A.B. Damania, and M.Y. Moualla. 1992. Genetic variability in Triticum dicoccum Schubl. for use in breeding wheat for the dry areas. FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 88/89:1 1-15.
Mariam, G.H. and H. Mekbib. 1988. Agromorphological evaluation of T. dicoccum. PGRC/E: ILCA Germplasm Newsletter 6-11.
Robinson, J. and B. Skovmand. 1992. Evaluation of emmer wheat and other Triticeae for resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 3913):159-163.

Barley

Endashaw Bekele. 1984. Relationships between morphological variance, gene diversity and flavonoid patterns in the land race populations of Ethiopian barley. Hereditas 100:271-294.
Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes, and M. Worede, eds. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 383 pp.
Huffragel, H.P. 1961. Agriculture in Ethiopia FAO, Rome. 484 pp.
Munck, L. 1988. The importance of botanical research in breeding for nutritional quality characteristics in cereals. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 28(3):69-78.
Nulugeta Negassa. 1985. Patterns of phenotypic diversity in an Ethiopian barley collection, and the Arsi-Bale Highland as a centre of Origin of barley. Hereditas 102:139-150.
Qualset, C.O. 1975. Sampling germplasm in a centre of diversity: an example of disease resistance in Ethiopian barley. Pages 81-96 in O.H. Frankel and J.G. Hawkes, eds., Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Westphal, E. and J.M.C. Westphal-Stevels. 1975. Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia. Agricultural Research Reports 82b. Puduc, Wageningen.278 pp.

Ethiopian oats

Baum, B.R. 1971. Taxonomic studies in Avena abyssinica and Avena vaviloviana, and some related species. Canadian Journal of Botany 49(12) 2227-2232
Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes, and M. Worede, eds. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 383 pp.
Ladizinsky, G. 1975. Oats in Ethiopia (Arena barbata, Avena abyssinica, cereal weeds). Economic Botany 29(3):238-241.

Guinea Millet

Harlan, J.R. 1986. African Millets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome

Kodo millet

De Wet, J.M.J., K.E. Prasada Rao, M.H. Mengesha, and D.E. Brink. 1983. Diversity in kodo millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum. Economic Botany 37(2):159-163.
Geervani, P. and B.O. Eggum. 1989. Effect of heating and fortification with lysine on protein quality of minor millets. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 39(4):349-357.
Kapoor, P.N., S.P. Netke, and L.D. Bajpai. 1987. Kodo (Paspalum scorbiculatum) as a substitute for maize in chick diets. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 4(2):83-88.
Kaushik, S.K. and R.C. Gautam. 1985. Comparative performance of different millets at varying levels of nitrogen under dryland conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy 30(4):509-511.
Ketema, S. 1988. Status of small millets in Ethiopia and Africa. Pp. 6-15 in Small Millets: Recommendations for a Network. Proceedings of the Small Millets Steering Committee
Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 7-9 October 1987. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
Nayak, P. and S.K. Sen. 1991. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Paspalum scrobiculatum L. Plant Cell Reports 10(6/7):362-365.
Sridhar, R. and G. Lakshminarayana. 1992. Lipid class contents and fatty acid composition of small millets: little (Panicum sumatrense), kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum), and barnyard (Echinocloa corona). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40(1 1):2131-2134.
Sudharshana, L., P.V. Monteiro, and G. Ramachandra. 1988. Studies on the proteins of kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 42(4):315-323.

WILD GRAINS

Breman, H. and L. Diarra. 1989, Easy methods to follow the changes of vegetation in natural pastures in the Sahel. Rapport CABO - Centre for Agrobiological Rescarch (Netherlands) No. 102. 40 pp.
Elberse, W.T. and H. Breman. 1990. Germination and establishment of Sahelian rangeland species. 11. Effects of water availability. Oecologia 85(1):32-40. (Eragrostis tremula, kram- kram)
Harlan, J.R. 1989. Wild grass seed harvesting in the Sahara and Sub-Sahara of Africa. In D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman, eds, Foraging and Farming: the Evolution of Plant Exploitation. Unwin-Hyman, London.
Kumar, A. 1976. Dry matter production and growth rates of three arid zone grasses in culture (Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Cenchrus biflorus and Cenchrus ciliaris). Comparative Physiology and Ecology 1(1):23-26. (Egyptian grass, kram-kram)
McKenzie, B. 1982. Resilience and stability of the grasslands of Transkei Aristida, Themeda, systems grazing, South Africa. Proceedings of the Grasslands Society of South Africa 17:2124. (Drinn, Therneda)
Nicolaisen, J. 1963. Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg. Copenhagen National Museum, Copenhagen.
Salih, O.M., A.M. Nour and D.B. Harper. 1992. Nutritional quality of uncultivated cereal grains utilised as famine foods in western Sudan as measured by chemical analysis. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 58:417-424. (Egyptian grass, kram-kram, Shama millet, wadi rice)
Sharma. B.M. and A.O. Chivinge. 1982. Contribution to the ecology of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) P. Beauv.: A nutritious fodder, Nigeria. Journal of Range Management 35(3):326-331. (Egyptian grass)
Siddiqui, K.A. 1987. Contribution of Dactylactenium aegyptiurn (L.) Beauv. to bioreclamation of salt-affected soil. Annals of Arid Zone 26(4):301-303. (Egyptian grass)
United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office (UNSO). 1990. Lakes of Crass: Regenerating Bourgou in the Inner Delta of the Niger River. Technical Publication No. 2, Spring 1990. UNSO, New York. 16 pp.

POTENTIAL BREAKTHROUGHS FOR GRAIN FARMERS

(Appendix A)

Bruggers, R.L. and C.C.H. Elliott, eds. 1989. Quelea ouelea: Africa's Bird Pest. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Butler, L.C., G. Ejeta, D. Hess, B. Siama, Y. Weerasuriya, and T. Cai. 1991. Some novel approaches to the Striga problem. Pp. 500-502 in J.K. Ransom, et al., eds., Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Parasitic Weeds. Nairobi, Kenya, 24-30 May, 1991.
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico City.
Mundy, P.J. and M.J.F. Jarvis, eds. 1989. Africa's Feathered Locust. Baobab Books, Harare, Zimbabwe. 166 pp.

POTENTIAL BREAKTHROUGHS IN GRAIN HANDLING

(Appendix B)

Shankara, R., N.G. Malleshi, H. Krishnamurthy, M.N. Narayana, and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1985. Development of mini grain mill for dehusking and grinding of cereals. Journal of Food Science Technology 22:91.

POTENTIAL BREAKTHROUGHS IN CONVENIENCE FOODS

(Appendix C)

Central Food Technology Research Institute (CFTRI). 1982. Annual Report. Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Coetzee, W.H.K. and AS. Perold. 1958. Pre-cooked and enriched cereal products. South African Journal of Agricultural Science 1:327-333.
Desikachar, H.S.R. 1977. Processing of sorghum and millets for versatile food uses in India.
In D.A.V. Dendy, ea., Proceedings of a Symposium on Sorghum and Millets for Human Food, Vienna, 11-12 May, 1976, Tropical Products Institute, London. 41 pp.
Hoseney, R.C.. E.V. Marston and D.A.V. Dendy. 1981. Sorghum and millets. In Y. Pomeranz, ea., Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Vol IV, AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota.
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Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1981. Varietal differences in puffing of ragi (Eleusine coracana) Journal of Food Science and Technology 18(1):30-32.
Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1982. Formulation of a weaning food with low hot- paste viscosity based on malted ragi (Eleusitte coracana) and green gram (Phaseolus radiates). Journal of Food Science and Technology 19(5):193-197.
Kumate, J. 1983. Relative Crispness and Oil Absorption Quality of Sandige (Extruded Dough) from Cereal Grains. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Mysore. Mysore, India.
Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1986. Influence of malting conditions on quality of finger millet malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92(1):81-83.
Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1986. Studies on comparative malting characteristics of some tropical cereals and millets. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92(1):174-176.
Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1986. Nutritive value of malted millet flours. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 36(3):191-196.
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(Appendix C is based largely on this paper.)

POTENTIAL BREAKTHROUGHS IN CHILD NUTRITION

(Appendix D)

Bang-Olsen, K., B. Stilling, and L. Munck. 1987. Breeding for high-lysine barley. Barley Genetics 5:865-870.
Bang-Olsen, K., B. Stilling, and L. Munck. 1991. The feasibility of high-lysine barley breeding: a summary. Barley Genetics 6:433-438.
Evans, D.J. and J.R.N. Taylor. 1990. Extraction and assay of proteolytic activities in sorghum malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 96(4):201-207.
Horn, C.H., J.C. Du Preez, and S.G. Kilian. 1992. Fermentation of grain sorghum starch by co-cultivation of Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresource Technology 42(1):27-31.
Kumar, L.S., H.S. Prakash, and H.S. Shetty. 1991. Influence of seed mycoflora and harvesting conditions on milling, popping, and malting qualities of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 55:617-625.
Kumar, L.S., M.A. Daodu, H.S. Shetty, and N.G. Malleshi. 1992. Seed mycoflora and malting characteristics of some sorghum cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science 15:203-209.
Malleshi, N.G. and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1982. Formulation of a weaning food with low hot- paste viscosity based on malted ragi (Eleusine coracana) and green gram (Phaseolus radiatus). Journal of Food Science and Technology 19(5):193-197.
Malleshi, N.G., M.A. Daodu, and A. Chandrasekhar. 1989. Development of weaning food formulations based on malting and roller drying of sorghum and cowpea. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 24:511-519.
Malleshi, N.G., H.S.R. Desikachar, and S. Venkat Rao. 1986. Protein quality evaluation of a weaning food based on malted ragi and green gram. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 36(3):223230.
Munck, L. 1988. The importance of botanical research in breeding for nutritional quality characteristics in cereals. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 28(3):69-78.
Venkatnarayana, S., V. Screenivasmurthy, and B.A. Satyanarayana. 1979. Use of ragi in brewing. Journal of Food Science Technology 16:204.
Venkat Rao, S., S. Kurien, D.N. Swamy, V.A. Daniel, I.A.S. Murthy, N.G. Malleshi, and H.S.R. Desikachar. 1985. Clinical trials on a weaning food of low bulk based on ragi and green gram. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Weaning Foods, Iringa, Tanzania.

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